Why the Inside of a Camel's Mouth Looks Like a Sarlacc Pit

iStock.com/BlackAperture
iStock.com/BlackAperture

If you can get over the whole spitting thing, camels are pretty cute—at least until they open up their mouths. It's like staring into the Sarlacc pit from Return of the Jedi. What are those little fleshy things? What purpose do they serve? What is going on here?

The things in the camel's mouth are oral papillae, and they're totally normal, says Luis Padilla, Director of Animal Health at the St. Louis Zoo. "Papillae are projections or raised structures found in different parts of the mouth, internal cheeks, and tongues of some species," he says. "There are many kinds of papillae. Most have simply a mechanical function, but some have a sensory function, either positional sensation or they may have taste buds on them. In ruminants, the ones on the cheek and esophagus can be extremely large, as what you see in the picture." 

When the papillae's function is purely mechanical, Padilla says, they're usually cone- or triangular-shaped, and work in conjunction with the tongue and the muscles of the mouth to help manipulate food in one direction, typically toward the stomach (which means that a camel's mouth has more in common with the Sarlacc pit than just looks!). Camels need those big papillae because of what they're eating. "Swallowing chewed leaves and sticks without some sort of mechanical assistance can be hard," Padilla says. "The papillae are sort of firm—they can be partially keratinized—and can feel almost like plastic. In the areas where they are keratinized, the papillae protect the cheek and mouth from getting scratched, abraded, poked, perforated, or injured." Though all camelids have papillae, size and shape can vary, and they can be affected by the animals' health, according to Padilla. "Blunting of the papillae or ulcerated papillae are signs of certain disease conditions," he says.

Many different kinds of animals have papillae, including humans. "There are lots of tiny papillae in the human mouth, especially on the tongue," Padilla says. "Humans and most primates do not have papillae as big as camels’ or other ruminants’. Because of our masticatory adaptations and diet, we don’t really need them to keep food flowing in one direction on the lining of our cheek or esophagus." (Also important to note: "Taste buds sit on top of a specialized kind of papilla," Padilla says, "but not all papillae are taste buds.")

But look inside the mouths of many fish-eating birds, reptiles, and fish, and you'll find varying types of papillae. "There are actually about 10 to 15 types of papillae based on their shape, location, and function," Padilla says. "These papillae are so large and elaborate in some species—like penguins or sea turtles—that once you put something in their throat, it can be sort of difficult to pull it back." And they're not just found in the mouth; Padilla says papillae can be found in some other parts of the gastrointestinal system, including the stomach, esophagus, and rumen of certain species; depending on the animal, and the location of the papillae, proportions and firmness vary. Sea turtles, for example, have pretty soft papillae.

Back to camels, though—there's one more thing Padilla wants to point out about that mouth. "In some of the photos [on the Internet], you see the really impressive canine teeth of some male camels," he says. "These can be pretty dangerous."

Elderly Sloths Live Out Their Golden Years at a 'Retirement Home' in Wales Zoo

iStock.com/TheDman
iStock.com/TheDman

Where do sloths go when they retire from a cushy career of tree-dwelling and leaf-munching? To Wales, apparently. As The Atlanta Journal-Constitution reports, the Folly Farm in Pembrokeshire operates a retirement home for sloths of advanced age.

By removing older sloths from zoos and bringing them to the new facility in the southwest of Wales, space is freed up for younger sloths to mate. In turn, this helps conservation efforts, while also ensuring that older sloths get the love and care they deserve.

Much like human senior citizens, older sloths prefer to eat softer foods, such as boiled root vegetables. Their caretakers also ensure they get a regular dose of cod liver oil supplements to keep them healthy. The animals are still active, but with limited mobility. If they show any signs of struggling, staff might lower a tree's branches to make it easier for them to get down, according to zoo curator Tim Morphew.

Currently, the Folly Farm—which opened the retirement home last year—has two residents. Lightcap, a two-toed sloth, is one of the oldest sloths in Europe at 34 years old. Her roommate, Tuppee, is 10 years younger, but he’s also more cantankerous.

“Like many older men, Tuppee has been known to be a bit grumpy and even misbehaves at times but we know he’s a softie at heart,” Morphew told the BBC. “We’re hoping some older, female company will be a good influence on him and bring out the softer side of his nature. Sloths aren’t known for being social animals, but as they get older, we’ve found they do like company.”

Considering that sloths are pretty defenseless creatures, the animals live surprisingly long lives. Two-toed sloths live about 20 years in the wild, but can live more than 40 years in a zoo. In 2017, the world’s oldest sloth—a Hoffmann’s two-toed sloth named Miss C—died at an Australian zoo at the age of 43.

Morphew says the zoo may expand its sloth retirement home in the future.

[h/t The Atlanta Journal-Constitution]

These Custom-Made Slippers Are Designed to Look Exactly Like Your Pet

Cuddle Clones
Cuddle Clones

What gift do you get for the friend who’s completely obsessed with their cat or dog? Fluffy slippers that look just like their pet, of course. As Delish reports, Louisville, Kentucky-based company Cuddle Clones lets you upload photos of your pet and decide how you want them to appear—whether it’s in the form of a plush “clone” or furry footwear that you can sport around the house.

Many of the slippers are eerily lifelike and bear an uncanny resemblance to the animal they’re modeled after. “We do our very best to ensure that your Cuddle Clone captures the characteristics and likeness of your pet to the absolute best of our abilities,” the company writes on its website. “We are very proud of our products and how much they resemble the actual pets.”

A woman wears personalized dog slippers
Cuddle Clones

If customers aren’t completely satisfied with their order, Cuddle Clones offers a money-back guarantee. The process of ordering a pair of slippers is simple but takes some time. First, customers are prompted to enter their pet’s name and select its species—dog, cat, horse, and “other” are listed—as well as its breed.

From there, they will be asked to upload multiple photos of their pet’s face, chest, tail, fur color, and physique from various angles (including their right side, left side, and even their backside). They can then choose the eye color, list any distinguishing characteristics, and decide if they want the plush version of their pet to appear in any particular position.

The slippers, which are made in China, take eight weeks to make and ship to the U.S. However, customers can pay extra for expedited orders. They’re a bit pricey at $199, but then again, you’re paying for a handcrafted, personalized product.

Personalized cat slippers
Cuddle Clones

In addition to the “clones” and slippers, Cuddle Clones will also make personalized golf club covers, purses, and holiday stockings with your pet’s face on them. That way, you can take your fur baby with you anywhere, whether you’re on the golf course or out on the town.

[h/t Delish]

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