14 Fascinating Facts About Rabbits

iStock.com/mammuth
iStock.com/mammuth

Rabbits are much more than the cute, carrot-munching creatures pop culture makes them out to be. They can dig sophisticated tunnels, grow to weigh more than 20 pounds, and even eat their own poop. Here are some more facts worth knowing about the beloved mammals.

1. They can't live off carrots.

Rabbit eating carrots.
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Cartoons suggest that rabbits can happily survive on a diet of carrots alone. But in the wild, rabbits don’t eat root vegetables—they’d much rather munch on greens like weeds, grasses, and clovers. That doesn’t mean you can’t give your pet some carrots as a snack from time to time, but don’t overdo it: Carrots are high in sugar and contribute to tooth decay in 11 percent of pet bunnies.

2. Some rabbits are as big as a toddler.

Flemish giant rabbit.
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Not all rabbits are cute and tiny. Some, like the Flemish giant rabbit, grow to be downright monstrous. This rabbit breed is the world's largest, reaching 2.5 feet in length and weighing up to 22 pounds. Fortunately these giants are the gentle kind, which makes them popular pets.

3. Baby rabbits are called kittens.

Baby bunny in field.
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Nope, not bunnies, technically. Another word for the young is kits. Mature females are known as does while adult males are called bucks. Bunny, meanwhile, falls into the same category of cutesy terms as kitty and doggy—they're not scientific, but everyone will know what you mean.

4. There's some truth to the phrase "breed like rabbits."

Two rabbits outside.
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Rabbits really are a busy bunch. A rabbit is ready to start breeding at just 3 to 8 months old. Once they reach that point, they can copulate eight months out of the year every year for the rest of their 9- to 12-year lifespan. A doe's reproductive system doesn't follow cycles; instead, ovulation is triggered by intercourse. After a 30-day gestation period she'll give birth to a litter of about four to 12 kits.

5. Rabbits "binky" when they're happy.

Rabbit hopping outdoors.
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If you spend enough time around rabbits, you may be lucky enough to witness one of the cutest behaviors in nature. A bunny will hop when it's happy and do a twist in mid-air. This adorable action has an equally adorable name: It's called a binky.

6. They eat their own poop.

Cute rabbit indoors.
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One rabbit behavior that is significantly less adorable: After digesting a meal, rabbits will sometimes eat their own poop and process it a second time. It may seem gross, but droppings are actually an essential part of a rabbit's diet. They even produce a special type of poop called cecotropes that are softer than their normal pellets and meant to be eaten. Rabbits have a fast-moving digestive system, and by redigesting waste, they're able to absorb nutrients their bodies missed the first time around.

7. Rabbits groom themselves like cats do.

Rabbit grooming itself.
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Rabbits are remarkably hygienic. Like cats, they keep themselves clean throughout the day by licking their fur and paws. This means rabbits generally don't need to be bathed by their owners like some other pets.

8. They can't vomit.

Rabbit eating grass in a field.
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While a cat can cough up a hairball after a long day of self-grooming, a rabbit cannot. The rabbit digestive system is physically incapable of moving in reverse. Instead of producing hairballs, rabbits deal with swallowed fur by eating plenty of roughage that pushes it through their digestive tract.

9. Their vision covers nearly 360 degrees.

Rabbit in a field.
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It's hard to sneak up on a rabbit: Their vision covers nearly 360 degrees, which allows them to see what's coming from behind them, above them, and from the sides without turning their heads. The trade-off is that rabbits have a small blind spot directly in front of their faces.

10. They are really good jumpers.

Rabbit hopping.
iStock

Those impressive back legs aren't just for show. Rabbits are built for evading predators in a hurry, and according to Guinness World Records, the highest rabbit jump reached 3.26 feet off the ground and the farthest reached nearly 10 feet. There are even rabbit jumping competitions where owners can show off their pets' agility.

11. Their teeth never stop growing.

Rabbit chewing leaves.
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Like human fingernails, a rabbit's teeth will keep growing if given the chance. A rabbit's diet in the wild includes a lot of gritty, tough-to-chew plant food that would eventually wear down a permanent set of teeth. With chompers that grow at a rate of up to 5 inches a year, any damage that's done to their teeth is quickly compensated for. The flip-side is that domestic rabbits who aren't fed abrasive foods can suffer from overgrown teeth that can make it difficult for them to eat.

12. They live in elaborate tunnels called warrens.

Rabbit butt sticking out of burrow.
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Rabbits dig complex tunnel systems, called warrens, that connect special rooms reserved for things like nesting and sleeping. The dens have multiple entrances that allow the animals to escape in a pinch, and some warrens are as large as tennis courts and extend 10 feet below the surface.

13. Their ears help them stay cool.

Rabbit walking toward camera.
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A rabbit's ears serve two main purposes. The first and most obvious is hearing: Rabbits can rotate their ears 270 degrees, allowing them to detect any threats that might be approaching from close to 2 miles away. The oversized ears also have the added benefit of cooling rabbits down on a hot day. More surface area means more places for body heat to escape from.

14. They're hard to catch.

Rabbit running outdoors.
iStock

If their eyes, ears, and powerful legs don't give them enough of a head start when avoiding predators, rabbits have even more tricks to rely on. The cottontail rabbit moves in a zig-zag pattern when running across an open field, making it hard to target. It also reaches a top speed of 18 mph—they really are "wascally wabbits."

10 Facts You Should Know About Mosquitoes

tskstock/iStock via Getty Images
tskstock/iStock via Getty Images

Between the itching and the welts and the fears of mosquito-borne viruses, it's easy to forget that mosquitoes are a wonder of evolution, and that maybe they don't get a fair shake from us. Of more than 3000 known species, only 80 actually bite people, and at least one eats other mosquitoes for us. They grow from egg to adult in just five days, begin mating within minutes of hatching, and possess, by way of their stinging mouthparts, some of the coolest appendages in the animal kingdom.

1. Mosquitoes are excellent flyers in bad weather.

The average raindrop is 50 times heavier than the average mosquito, yet they buzz around in the rain with no problems. If a Boeing 747 got whacked with a similarly scaled-up raindrop, there would be 2375 tons of water coming down on it, and things probably wouldn’t turn out as well as they do for the mosquito. How do the insects do it?

A common urban legend said that the bugs were nimble enough to dodge the drops. A few years ago, a team of engineers from the Georgia Institute of Technology watched real mosquitoes and Styrofoam dummy mosquitoes with a high-speed camera during a rainy flight to see if that’s what was really happening. They found that the bugs don’t fly fast enough to dodge the drops, but their slowness is what keeps them from getting knocked out of the sky. A mosquito’s low mass even at slow speed doesn’t provide enough of a target for a raindrop to splash on collision. Instead, the drop just deforms, and doesn’t transfer enough momentum to the mosquito to disrupt its flight.

2. Texas is the mosquito capital of America.

Of the 3000 species of mosquitoes around the world, at least 150 are found in the United States, and 85 of those call Texas home. When people say everything's bigger in Texas, you can also include the biodiversity of the state's biting, disease-carrying insects.

3. Some mosquitoes are truly dangerous to humans ...

The female mosquito, which is the one that stings and sucks blood, is an incredible transmitter of disease and, because of that, the deadliest animal in the world. Each year, the malaria parasites they transmit kill 2 million to 3 million people and infect another 200 million or more. They also spread pathogens that cause yellow fever, dengue fever, Rift Valley fever, Chikungunya and West Nile disease.

4. ... and some mosquitoes are harmless.

Not every species of mosquito sucks blood from people, and among those that do, not every one transmits disease. The blood suckers don’t even need to bite you for every meal. Males live entirely on nectar and other plant fluids, and the females’ diet is primarily plant-based, too. Most of the time, they only go after people when they’re ready to reproduce, because blood contains lipids, proteins, and other nutrients needed for the production of eggs.

5. MosquitoEs actually help the environment.

When you’re rubbing calamine lotion all over yourself, mosquitoes might not seem to serve any purpose but to annoy you, but many species play important ecological roles. The mosquitoes Aedes impiger and Aedes nigripes, which gather in thick clouds in Arctic Russia and Canada, are an important food source for migrating birds. Farther south, birds, insects, spiders, salamanders, lizards, frogs, and fish also eat different mosquito species regularly. Plants need them, too, and some, like the blunt-leaved orchid and endangered monkeyface orchid, rely on mosquitoes as their primary pollinator.

Some mosquito species are also excellent at mosquito control. Species of the genus Toxorhynchites feed on the larvae and immature stages of other mosquitoes and will sometimes even cannibalize members of their own species.

6. Mosquitoes are amazing hunters (as if we needed to tell you that).

Mosquitoes are adept at picking up on the chemicals given off by their human hosts. They can detect the carbon dioxide in our breath, the 1-octen-3-ol in our breath and sweat, and other organic substances we produce with the 70-plus types of odor and chemical receptors in their antennae. These receptors can pick up traces of chemicals from hundreds of feet away, and once the mosquito closes in, it tracks its meal chemically and also visually—and they’re fond of people wearing dark colors.

7. Mosquitoes can be picky.

If it seems like you’re always covered head to toe by bites while people who were sitting right next to you only have one or two, it’s not just paranoia; the skeeters actually are out to get you. Some people happen to give off more of the odors and compounds that mosquitoes find simply irresistible, while others emit less of those and more of the compounds that make them unattractive to mosquitoes—either by acting as repellents or by masking the compounds that mosquitoes would find attractive.

8. A female mosquito's mouth is primed for sucking blood.

A mosquito doesn’t simply sink its proboscis into your skin and start sucking. What you see sticking out of a mosquito’s face is the labium, which sheaths the mouthparts that really do all the work. The labium bends back when a mosquito bites, allowing these other parts to pass through its tip and do their thing. The sharp, pointed mandibles and maxillae, which both come in pairs, are used to pierce the skin, and the hollow hypopharynx and the labrum are used to deliver saliva and draw blood, respectively.

9. Mosquito saliva prevents blood clotting.

The saliva that gets pumped out from the hypopharynx during a bite is necessary to get around our blood’s tendency to clot. It contains a grab bag of chemicals that suppress vascular constriction, blood clotting and platelet aggregation, keeping our blood from clogging up the mosquitoes' labrum and ruining their meal.

10. Mosquitoes can explode.

Blood pressure makes a mosquito's meal easier by helping to fill its stomach faster, but urban legend says it can also lead to their doom. Story goes, you can flex a muscle close to the bite site or stretch your skin taut so the mosquito can’t pull out its proboscis and your blood pressure will fill the bug until it bursts. The consensus among entomologists seems to be that this is bunk, but there is a more complicated way of blowing the bugs up. To make a blood bomb, you’ve got to sever the mosquito’s ventral nerve cord, which transmits information about satiety. When it's cut, the cord can’t tell the mosquito’s brain that its stomach is full, so it’ll keep feeding until it reaches critical mass. At least one researcher found that mosquitoes clueless about how full they were would keep sucking even after their guts had exploded, sending showers of blood spilling out of their blown-out back end.

A New Jersey Pizzeria Is Using Its Delivery Boxes to Help Find Missing Pets

John Howard/iStock via Getty Images
John Howard/iStock via Getty Images

You might overlook dozens of “Lost Dog” posters nailed to telephone posts on a weekly basis, but would you miss one pasted to the top of your pizza box? One New Jersey pizzeria owner thinks not.

John Sanfratello, owner of Angelo’s Pizza in Matawan, New Jersey, is asking people from all over the state to send him their lost pet flyers so that he can tape them to his delivery boxes, CBS News reports. The idea occurred to him after his neighbor’s cat went missing: Though that cat has since been found, Sanfratello started to wonder how he could help reunite other lost pets with their owners. Since the pizza was getting delivered around the city anyway, he thought, why not add a message?

One patron of the pizzeria told CBS News she thinks the practice has “triggered a community effort by everyone” to pay a little extra attention to their fellow residents. And Sanfratello’s sister has also adopted the idea for her own pizza shops in Florida.

Angelo’s Pizza is currently spreading the word about two other missing animals: a cat and a Seeing Eye dog in training named Ondrea, who recently escaped her yard while chasing another animal. The German shepherd puppy has been lost for almost four weeks, and her owners said they’ve done everything they could think of—searching the woods, putting up flyers around town, and posting on Facebook—to no avail.

It’s a new spin on the old practice of printing photos of missing children on milk cartons, Sanfratello said. Though that may have fallen out of fashion in the late 1980s, Sanfratello has high hopes for this new partnership between pizza and pet owners.

[h/t CBS News]

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