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How 6 Fraternal Organizations Got Their Names

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Traditional "old man" fraternal organizations are supposed to be cloaked in mystery, holding secrets that only fellow brothers may know. As a result, most of us outsiders only know a tiny bit about these orders. What's the real story behind these often inscrutable names and curious emblems? Here, some insight into how these lodges formed, and why they chose their baffling symbols.

1. The Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks

Image courtesy of Chestertown Lodge Facebook

The Elks (BPOE) are a relatively young fraternity in that they don't trace their beginnings to any ancient or noble guilds. The fraternity was started by actors and entertainers in the 1860s as a way to be able to drink on Sundays without having to pay extra taxes in the state of New York. Although the group originally called themselves "The Jolly Corks," in 1868 they decided to form a proper fraternal order, with an emphasis on benevolence and charity. They chose to be Elks because they believed them to be distinctly American animals. Their emblem is an Elk imposed over a clock tolling the 11th hour, as this is the hour Elks pause to give remembrance to their absent brothers.

2. Freemasons

Image courtesy of MesserWoland, used under Creative Commons license

Once upon a time, the Freemasons were a guild of actual stone cutters. In the Middle Ages, in order to get work, professional craftsmen had to belong to a guild (this proved he was properly trained and trustworthy). Though the Masons claim these beginnings, no one is sure exactly how a guild of laborers morphed into the modern fraternal order. There are some clues, though: The Masonic Square and Compass are builder's tools, and for the Freemasons, they represent forethought and good judgment.

3. Odd Fellows

Image courtesy of Bashereyre, used under Creative Commons License 

The Independent Order of Odd Fellows (IOOF) has a peculiar name with unclear origins, but it is generally accepted that "oddness" was a founding philosophy of the fraternity. Founded in the 1700s, it was intended that Odd Fellows would be so generous and kind to those in need, that society would consider them odd. This benevolent philosophy is represented by the three chain links, which stand for Friendship, Love, and Truth.

4. Loyal Order of Moose

Image courtesy of Loyal Order of Moose Avon Facebook 

The origin story of the Moose Lodge is perhaps the least intricate of all. In 1898, a man named Dr. John Wilson wanted to start a fraternal order that was similar to the Elks, but run kind of like the Masons — so he did. Although he didn't stick with it long, the Moose never died out, and four U.S. presidents (Harding, both Roosevelts, and Truman) became members. As for the Moose? We'll leave it to the order to explain: "He takes only what he needs, nothing more... yet for his great size and strength he lives in peace with other creatures. The moose uses his size and power not to dominate but to protect, not to spoil but to preserve. He is a fierce protector, a loyal companion, and a generous provider who brings comfort and security to those within his defending circle."

5. Knights of Columbus

Image courtesy of Kmcgrail, under fair use license 

Unlike most of the aforementioned fraternities, who only specify that members must believe in a "higher power," the Knights of Columbus is flat-out Catholic. The KofC was founded by Priest Michael J. McGivney in 1881 in Connecticut as a way to help new Catholic immigrants. McGivney also wanted to keep good Catholic men from being tempted to join other non-denominational secret societies.

The symbol of the KofC is complex. There is a shield, as a knight would use, protecting a cross pattee, which represents Christ. On the shield is a knife, an anchor, and an ax called a fasces. The knife is what a knight uses in battle, the anchor represents Christopher Columbus (for whom the order is named), and the fasces represents unified strength and embracing orderly authority.

6. The Shriners

Image courtesy of Shriners of North America, under fair use 

There's a reason the Shriners are famous for wearing silly hats and driving little cars in parades. The Shriners are a branch of Freemasonry that was started by Masons who wanted to focus more on fun and fellowship than ritual and sanctity. The order adopted an Arabian theme because one of the founders attended a cool party in France with that theme.

The many parts of their emblem all represent different things. The scimitar stands for the backbone of the fraternity (its members), the sphinx stands for the governing body of the Shriners, and the five-pointed star represents the many children helped by their philanthropy each year. The emblem also bears the phrase "Robur et Furor," which means "Strength and Fury."

The exact origins of the name are unknown, but the initials for Ancient Arabic Order of the Nobles of the Mystic Shrine (A.A.O.N.M.S.) are an anagram for "A MASON," and many scholars think this isn't a coincidence.

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History
Civilian Researchers Discover Wreckage of the USS Indianapolis
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On July 30, 1945, the cruiser USS Indianapolis sank in the Pacific Ocean after it was torpedoed by the Imperial Japanese Navy submarine I-58. More than 70 years after the historic naval tragedy— which claimed the lives of nearly 900 crew—The New York Times reports that the ship’s mysterious final resting place has been found.

The discovery came courtesy of a team of civilian researchers, led by Microsoft co-founder Paul Allen. His state-of-the-art research vessel, Petrel, located the wreck 18,000 feet below the Pacific’s surface, the team announced on Saturday, August 19.

"To be able to honor the brave men of the USS Indianapolis and their families through the discovery of a ship that played such a significant role in ending World War II is truly humbling,” Allen said in a statement. “As Americans, we all owe a debt of gratitude to the crew for their courage, persistence, and sacrifice in the face of horrendous circumstances."

Before it sank, the USS Indianapolis had just completed a top-secret mission to a naval base on the Northern Mariana island of Tinian. After delivering enriched uranium and components for Little Boy— the atomic bomb that the U.S. would drop on the Japanese city of Hiroshima about a week later—the cruiser forged ahead to Guam, and then to the Philippines. It was supposed to meet the battleship USS Idaho at Leyte Gulf in the Philippines to prepare to attack Japan.

The USS Indianapolis never made it to Leyte Gulf. Shortly after midnight on July 30, the Japanese submarine I-58 spotted the cruiser and fired six torpedoes. The USS Indianapolis—which was hit twice—sank within 12 minutes. Around 300 to 400 sailors and Marines were killed in the attack; the rest were stranded in the Pacific Ocean for several days.

Many of these survivors would ultimately lose their lives to sharks, a grisly scene that would be famously (albeit semi-accurately) recounted in the 1975 movie Jaws. Others died from drowning, heat stroke, thirst, burns and injuries, swallowing salt water or fuel oil, and suicide. More than 300 crew members were rescued after a bomber pilot accidently sighted the imperiled men while on a routine antisubmarine patrol.

The mass tragedy—which wouldn’t be announced to the public until August 15, 1945—sparked controversy: Charles B. McVay III, captain of the USS Indianapolis, was found guilty in a court martial of failing to steer the ship on a “zigzag” course to elude Japanese submarines. A Japanese submarine captain testified that this precautionary measure wouldn’t have thwarted the enemy, but McVay was charged nonetheless. The captain died by suicide in 1968, and wouldn’t be officially exonerated by the Navy until 2001.

For decades, the remains of the USS Indianapolis were lost to the ravages of time and nature. But in 2016, naval historian Richard Hulver found a historic ship log that mentioned a sighting of the USS Indianapolis. Allen’s search team used this information to locate the ship, which was west of where experts assumed it had gone down.

Allen’s crew took pictures of the wreckage, including a piece of its hull, and will search for more of the ship. They plan to keep the exact location of the USS Indianapolis a secret, however, to honor the sunken ship as a war grave.

"While our search for the rest of the wreckage will continue, I hope everyone connected to this historic ship will feel some measure of closure at this discovery so long in coming,” Allen said.

[h/t The New York Times]

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entertainment
The Time That Dean Martin and Jerry Lewis Opened Competing Restaurants on the Sunset Strip
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From 1946 to 1956, Dean Martin and Jerry Lewis were show business supernovas. With an act that combined singing, slapstick, and spontaneous hijinks, the duo sold out nightclubs coast to coast, then went on to conquer radio, television, and film. Long before Elvis and The Beatles came along, Dean and Jerry  were rock stars of comedy.

Offstage, there was a cordial but cool friendship between the laidback Martin and the more neurotic Lewis. But as the pressures of their success increased, so did the tensions between them. Martin grew tired of playing the bland romantic straight man to Lewis’s manic monkey boy. And when Lewis started to grab more headlines and write himself bigger parts in their movies, Martin decided to quit the act. In an angry moment, he told Lewis that he was “nothing to me but a f**king dollar sign.”

After the split, both men went on with their individual careers, though it took Martin a few years before he regained his footing. One of his ventures during that transitional period was a Hollywood eatery called Dino’s Lodge.

DINO'S LODGE

In the summer of 1958, Martin and his business partner, Maury Samuels, bought a controlling interest in a restaurant called The Alpine Lodge, at 8524 Sunset Boulevard. They hired Dean’s brother Bill to manage the place, and renamed it Dino’s Lodge.

Outside they put up a large neon sign, a likeness of Dean’s face. The sign turned into a national symbol of hip and cool, thanks to appearances on TV shows like Dragnet, The Andy Griffith Show, and most prominently, in the opening credits of 77 Sunset Strip.

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Dino’s Lodge was popular from the get-go, serving home-style Italian food and steaks in an intimate, candlelit, wood-paneled room meant to replicate Martin’s own den. In the first year, Dean himself frequented the place, signing autographs and posing for photos with starstruck diners. He also occasionally brought along famous friends like Frank Sinatra and Shirley MacLaine. To promote the idea of the swingin’ lifestyle that Martin often sang about, Dino’s served “an early morning breakfast from 1 to 5 a.m.” The restaurant also had a lounge that featured singers, though only females. Dean apparently didn’t want any male vocalists encroaching on his turf.

But as with many a celebrity venture into the food business, this one soon turned sour. And most of that was due to the jealousy of Jerry Lewis.

JERRY'S

In late 1961, Lewis wooed Martin’s business partner Maury Samuels away, ponied up some $350,000, and opened his own copycat restaurant three blocks down Sunset. It was called Jerry’s. To make it clear he was out for top billing, Lewis had his own likeness rendered in neon, then mounted it on a revolving pole 100 feet above his restaurant. In contrast to Dino’s Italian-based menu, Jerry’s would serve “American and Hebrew viands.” Lewis didn’t stop there. Within a few months, he’d hired away Dino’s top two chefs, his maître d', and half his waitstaff.

Wire Photo, eBay, Public Domain, Wikimedia Commons

When Lewis was in Los Angeles, he made of point of table-hopping and schmoozing with his guests at his restaurant, and he occasionally brought in a few of his celebrity friends, like Peggy Lee and Steve McQueen.

FOOD FOR THOUGHT

By the following year, a disgusted Dean Martin was fed up with the restaurant business and cut ties with Dino’s Lodge. Much to his aggravation, he lost a motion in court to have his likeness and name removed from the sign. So the new owners carried on as Dino’s Lodge, with the big neon head staring down on Sunset for another decade before the place finally went bust.

Jerry’s lost steam long before that, folding in the mid-1960s.

For the rest of the 1960s and the early 1970s, Martin and Lewis avoided each other. “Jerry’s trying hard to be a director,” Dean once told a reporter. “He couldn’t even direct traffic.”

In 1976, Frank Sinatra famously engineered an onstage reunion of the pair during The Jerry Lewis Telethon. While the audience roared their approval, Sinatra said, “I think it’s about time, don’t you?” And to Sinatra, Lewis said under his breath, “You son of a bitch.”

What followed was an awkward few moments of shtick between the former partners. Reportedly, Martin was drunk and Lewis was doped up on painkillers. There was a quick embrace, Martin sang with Sinatra, then blew Lewis a kiss and disappeared from his life for good. Martin died in 1995. Lewis passed away today, at the age of 91.

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