A Spectacular Murder Rocks France

Le Petit Journal // Wikimedia Commons
Le Petit Journal // Wikimedia Commons

The First World War was an unprecedented catastrophe that killed millions and set the continent of Europe on the path to further calamity two decades later. But it didn’t come out of nowhere. With the centennial of the outbreak of hostilities coming up in August, Erik Sass will be looking back at the lead-up to the war, when seemingly minor moments of friction accumulated until the situation was ready to explode. He'll be covering those events 100 years after they occurred. This is the 108th installment in the series. 

March 16, 1914: A Spectacular Murder Rocks France

On March 13, 1914, the conservative French newspaper Le Figaro published a private letter written by Joseph Caillaux, a former prime minister now serving as finance minister, to his first wife when she was still his mistress. Among other things, the letter revealed that Caillaux had secretly worked against a tax law he claimed to support, casting him in a bad light politically; this was conservative revenge for his alleged German sympathies and continuing opposition to the controversial Three-Year Service Law. Worse yet, Le Figaro’s editor, Gaston Calmette, threatened to publish more letters showing that Caillaux later cheated on his first wife with his then-mistress (now second wife) Henriette Caillaux.

Three days later, in the early evening of March 16, 1914, Henriette Caillaux visited the offices of Le Figaro and waited an hour to meet Calmette, who was out. When he returned, Caillaux followed him into his office, where she asked him, “Do you know why I have come?” Calmette replied, “Not at all, madame,” at which point Caillaux drew a revolver hidden in her fur hand muff and fired six shots, hitting Calmette four times. He died of his wounds six hours later.

Madame Caillaux later explained that she felt compelled to kill Calmette because the alternative—a duel between the muckraking journalist and her husband—would destroy her husband’s political career, even if he survived (remarkably, her crime didn’t seem to have the same effect, as Caillaux served in the government for most of the First World War).

Unsurprisingly, this sensational crime riveted France and the world, and the ensuing court case had all the makings of a legal circus. Fernand Labori, who previously represented the Jewish army officer Alfred Dreyfus and the writer Émile Zola during the Dreyfus Affair, would defend Caillaux; the roster of witnesses called to testify featured some of the most powerful people in France, including the sitting president, Raymond Poincaré (an unprecedented occurrence); and foreign newspapers dispatched world-famous journalists like Walter Duranty and Wythe Williams to France to cover the trial.

Fascinating as it was at the time, the Caillaux scandal would still probably have been forgotten if not for the coincidental timing of the trial. As it happened, Madame Caillaux’s trial began July 20, just three days before Austria-Hungary’s ultimatum to Serbia, and the legal drama engrossed the French public during the critical final days of July, just as their British counterparts were distracted by the prospect of mutiny and civil war in Ireland. Thanks to these diversions, in August 1914 for millions of ordinary French and British citizens the Great War would seem to come “like a bolt from the clear blue sky.”

See the previous installment or all entries.

Image courtesy of Le Petit Journal, used under Creative Commons license.

Game of Thrones's The Mountain Needed a Stunt Double for the First Time Ever in Season 8

HBO
HBO

There’s no question that Game of Thrones's final season will be action-packed. But Iceland native Hafþór Júlíus Björnsson, who plays Gregor "The Mountain" Clegane in the TV series, recently confirmed just how much more hardcore the upcoming episodes will be.

In a recent interview with Mashable, Björnsson dished on the final season (as much as an actor sworn to secrecy can dish about a show). Though he couldn’t reveal any really juicy details, he did spill a very interesting piece of information about The Mountain. According to the 30-year-old strongman, the final season was "the hardest season I’ve filmed for Game Of Thrones."

Filming got so complicated that, for the first time in his four seasons on the show, Björnsson needed a stunt double to play The Mountain.

“All the seasons prior to this season that we just finished filming, I never had stunt doubles. I always did everything myself," Björnsson said. "But the last season I filmed, the season that hasn’t been shown on television, I had a stunt double there."

Though fans certainly wanted to hear more about the scene (or scenes) that required a stunt double for the actor, Björnsson—much like The Mountain—didn't budge. “I can’t go into detail ... but I had a stunt double there I can tell you that,” he said. "He was big. He was tall, not as muscular."

It couldn’t have been easy for the show's producers to find a match for Björnsson, who is a professional strongman when he's not acting. He stands 6 feet 9 inches tall, and currently holds the title of "World’s Strongest Man."

As Björnsson has never needed a stunt double before, we can’t help but wonder what exactly happens to The Mountain in season 8. We'll be looking forward to finding out when Game of Thrones returns on April 14, 2019.

[h/t: Mashable]

New Book Provides an Intimate Look at the Handwriting of Freud, Marie Antoinette, and Other Historical Figures

TASCHEN
TASCHEN

Handwriting analysts would have a field day with TASCHEN's latest book. Titled The Magic of Handwriting, the 464-page tome offers a rare glimpse into the intimate lives and correspondences of some of the most well-known names in history.

In modern times, handwriting is a dying art, which makes it all the more meaningful to see nearly 900 years' worth of writing preserved in vivid detail in the book. A letter penned a year before the French Revolution shows Marie Antoinette’s neat signature written in small letters. In contrast, French writer Marcel Proust’s handwritten manuscripts were frantically scrawled on whatever scraps of paper he could find. Charlie Chaplin sometimes included a sketch of his signature hat and cane while signing autographs, and Sitting Bull, the Hunkpapa Lakota leader who was known for his courage in battle, dotted his i’s with what look like hearts or v's.

A signed picture of Sitting Bull
TASCHEN

A letter signed by Marie Antoinette
A letter signed by Marie Antoinette
TASCHEN

A manuscript handwritten by Marcel Proust
Marcel Proust's writing
TASCHEN

These artifacts come from the collection of Pedro Corrêa do Lago, a Brazilian art historian and curator who has acquired thousands of handwritten letters, manuscripts, autographed photos, and musical compositions over the years. The book features over 100 items from his collection, which also went on display last year at the Morgan Library & Museum in New York City.

In addition to displaying different styles of handwriting, the book also highlights little-known facts about historical figures and insight into their personality. There’s a handwritten invoice from Sigmund Freud, who charged one client 2000 schillings (nearly $500 in 1934, or roughly $9400 today) for 20 hours of psychoanalysis. When his patient tried to negotiate a lower price, Freud reportedly replied, “I am still forced to make a living. I cannot do more than five hours of analysis daily; and I do not know how much longer I shall work at it.”

An invoice signed by Sigmund Freud
An invoice signed by Sigmund Freud
TASCHEN

Ernest Hemingway’s snark is on full display in a “Who’s Who” questionnaire he filled out for the publishing firm Scribner’s in 1930. Under the career section, he merely replied “yes." Under "hobbies," he listed skiing, fishing, shooting, and drinking.

For more stories like these, order a copy of The Magic of Handwriting from TASCHEN’s website or Amazon.

A cover of the book 'The Magic of Handwriting'
TASCHEN

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