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12 Animals Whose Names Etymologically Describe Them

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Now the names for these creatures big and small make total sense.

1. Porpoise, "pig fish"

The word porpoise can be traced to Latin porcopiscis, from the combination of porcus (pig) with piscis (fish). Round body, flat nose—sure, that makes sense.

2. Aardvark, "earth pig"

When you're not sure what it is, go with pig. Afrikaans, the offshoot of Dutch which is spoken in South Africa, gave us aardvark, from Dutch aarde (earth) + varken (pig). Must have been the nose and the pink skin.

3. Porcupine, "thorny pig"

Pig is such a versatile animal. When in doubt, go with pig! Porcupine comes from the Middle French porc (pig) + espin (from Latin spina, thorn). A thorny, spiky, pig. Well, it is round…

4. Hippopotamus, "river horse"

This one can be traced back to the Greek hippos (horse) + potamos (river). It likes to hang out in rivers, and while the Greeks might have been stretching things a bit by calling it a horse, at least they didn't go with porcopotamus.

5. Rhinoceros, "nose horn"

From the Greek rhino- (of or pertaining to the nose) and keras (horn, related to "keratin"). The nose horn certainly is the most noticeable feature of this animal. Let's hear it for sober, blunt description.

6. Octopus, "eight feet"

You already know the Greek octo- means eight from words like octagon. Pus (or pous) means foot, though we're used to seeing it in its combining form pod in words like podiatrist and tripod.

7. Orangutan, "man of the forest"

This comes from the Malay orang (person) + hutan (forest), meaning "person of the forest." Apparently the locals didn't originally call the animals orangutans, but Europeans somehow decided that this phrase referred to the furry orange apes. In any case, now there is a Malay word orang utan, meaning orangutan, alongside the native word mawas.

8. Squirrel, "shade tail"

Squirrel goes back to Medieval Latin scurellus, a diminutive of scurius, which goes back to the Greek skia (shade) + oura (tail). Squirrels use their tails to shade their bodies, and you can often see them holding them up like tiny, fluffy parasols. 

9. Chameleon, "dwarf lion"

Goes back to the Greek chamai (ground) + leon (lion). Chamai could also mean dwarf, or "low to the ground," so a chameleon is a dwarf lion. Not sure if the lion connection was inspired by the chameleon's mane-like head outline or cool, regal disposition. 

10. Armadillo, "little armored one"

The most notable thing about the armadillo is his protective, spiky armor. We took the name from Spanish, where armado means armed. Armadillo is the diminutive of armado—so it means little, bitty armed one.

11. Flamingo, "flaming, flame-colored"

Latin flamma (flame) handed down its flam- to many words in Romance languages having to do with fire. Flamingo was formed in the Provence dialect, which would sometimes combine Latin roots (flam) with Germanic endings (–ing). The flamingo is flaming, or flame-colored. The ending used in Provençal was actually –enc, yielding flamenco, the current Spanish word for flamingo.

12. Ferret, "little thief"

Ferret can be traced back to the Latin fur, for thief. It picked up the diminutive -et in French (or -etto in Italian), giving us this name that means little thief. The name seems pretty appropriate, judging by this video titled "Ferrets Stealing Stuff Compilation 2013." 

All images courtesy of Thinkstock.

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This High-Tech Material Can Change Shape Like an Octopus
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Octopuses can do some pretty amazing things with their skin, like “see” light, resist the pull of their own sticky suction cups, and blend in seamlessly with their surroundings. That last part now has the U.S. Army interested, as Co.Design reports. The military branch’s research office has funded the development a new type of morphing material that works like an octopus’s dynamic skin.

The skin of an octopus is covered in small, muscular bumps called papillae that allow them to change textures in a fraction of a second. Using this mechanism, octopuses can mimic coral, rocks, and even other animals. The new government-funded research—conducted by scientists at Cornell University—produced a device that works using a similar principle.

“Technologies that use stretchable materials are increasingly important, yet we are unable to control how they stretch with much more sophistication than inflating balloons,” the scientists write in their study, recently published in the journal Science. “Nature, however, demonstrates remarkable control of stretchable surfaces.”

The membrane of the stretchy, silicone material lays flat most of the time, but when it’s inflated with air, it can morph to form almost any 3D shape. So far, the technology has been used to imitate rocks and plants.

You can see the synthetic skin transform from a two-dimensional pad to 3D models of objects in the video below:

It’s easy to see how this feature could be used in military gear. A soldier’s suit made from material like this could theoretically provide custom camouflage for any environment in an instant. Like a lot of military technology, it could also be useful in civilian life down the road. Co.Design writer Jesus Diaz brings up examples like buttons that appear on a car's dashboard only when you need them, or a mixing bowl that rises from the surface of the kitchen counter while you're cooking.

Even if we can mimic the camouflage capabilities of cephalopods, though, other impressive superpowers, like controlling thousands of powerful suction cups or squeezing through spaces the size of a cherry tomato, are still the sole domain of the octopus. For now.

[h/t Co.Design]

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Animals
25 Benefits of Adopting a Rescue Dog
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According to the ASPCA, 3.3 million dogs enter shelters each year in the United States. Although that number has gone down since 2011 (from 3.9 million) there are still millions of dogs waiting in shelters for a forever home. October is Adopt a Shelter Dog Month; here are 25 benefits of adopting a shelter dog.

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