12 Facts About Gertrude Stein

Hulton Archive/Getty Images
Hulton Archive/Getty Images

Born near Pittsburgh in 1874, American writer Gertrude Stein left a profound mark on 20th-century modernism through her literary work and her enthusiastic patronage of avant-garde art. From her salon at 27 rue de Fleurus on Paris’s Left Bank, Stein discovered and supported some of the greatest figures in modern art and literature, including Pablo Picasso, Henri Matisse, Ezra Pound, Max Jacob, and Guillaume Apollinaire. She also wrote the modernist literary landmark The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas. Read on for more facts about her idiosyncratic life.

1. SHE STUDIED PSYCHOLOGY WITH WILLIAM JAMES.

From 1893 to 1898, Stein attended Radcliffe College, which was then an annex of Harvard University. She developed an interest in psychology and took courses taught by William James (brother of the novelist Henry James), now known as the father of American psychology. Under James’s supervision, Stein researched normal motor automatism [PDF], a behavior believed to occur when people divide their conscious attention between two simultaneous activities. Critics have suggested that her interest in consciousness and attention influenced her later experiments in repetition, a hallmark of her modernist writing.

According to the Harvard Crimson, Stein and James were often of the same mind. "Dear Professor James,” she wrote on an exam that she didn’t want to take, “I am sorry but really I don't feel a bit like an examination paper in philosophy today.” The next day she received a reply from James: “Dear Miss Stein, I understand perfectly how you feel. I often feel exactly that way myself.” He gave her the highest grade in the class.

2. SHE PLANNED TO BE A DOCTOR.

After Radcliffe, Stein enrolled in Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine in Baltimore after taking a summer course in embryology at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. In the beginning, she excelled in her studies. According to science journalist Deborah Rudacille, Stein earned top marks in “anatomy, pathology, bacteriology, pharmacology, and toxicology” [PDF]. She also formed close friendships with the few other female medical students and got along well with her professors. But in her third and fourth years at Johns Hopkins, institutional sexism and professional barriers led to disillusionment. Stein didn’t graduate, and instead followed her brother Leo to Paris, where he was already collecting art.

3. SHE MAY HAVE PRESIDED OVER THE FIRST MODERN ART MUSEUM.

Stein moved in with her brother at 27 rue de Fleurus in Paris’s sixth arrondissement in 1903. From then until 1914, the apartment was a mecca for artists of the modernist avant-garde. The two siblings collected paintings by the well-known artists Delacroix, Cézanne, Renoir, Manet, Gauguin, and Toulouse-Lautrec. But they also bought works by unknown painters that would later be viewed as masterpieces, including early Cubist paintings by Picasso, Georges Braque, and Juan Gris, and Expressionist pictures by Henri Matisse.

A 1968 article in The New York Times credited the Steins with forming the “first modern art museum” with their collection: Paintings hung on every wall in the apartment and Picasso sketches lined their dining room’s double doors. Braque, the tallest of the salon’s habitués, was usually given the task of hanging pictures.

4. PICASSO’S PORTRAIT OF STEIN LOOKS NOTHING LIKE HER.

Pablo Picasso started to work on a portrait of Stein shortly after their first meeting in 1905. The oil-on-canvas painting, completed in 1906, is considered one of the most important works of his Rose Period. Stein later complained that it took between 80 and 90 sittings for the Spanish master to achieve his vision of her, which is now part of the permanent collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art.

Picasso was more interested in capturing Stein’s personality than her actual looks. Her figure is represented by minimal shapes and her mask-like face foreshadows his experiments in Cubism. Many who saw the final product said it didn’t look at all like Stein, but Picasso was confident in his work and unafraid of insulting his patron. He allegedly replied, “Never mind, in the end she will manage to look just like it.”

5. SHE DIDN’T LET HER TERRIBLE DRIVING STOP HER FROM CONTRIBUTING TO THE WAR EFFORT.

Neither Stein nor her partner, Alice B. Toklas, knew how to drive a car. But when they volunteered for the American Fund for the French Wounded, an organization that helped soldiers in France during World War I, they had to provide and drive their own supply vehicles. The couple ordered a Ford truck from the U.S. and Stein took driving lessons from her friend William Edwards Cook. She and Toklas would drive for miles to bring supplies to French hospitals (although Virginia Scharff, in her book Taking the Wheel: Women and the Coming of the Motor Age, wrote that Stein never really mastered the art of driving in reverse).

The open-topped two-seat vehicle was nicknamed “Auntie” after Stein’s aunt Pauline, “who always behaved admirably in emergencies and behaved fairly well most of the time if she was properly flattered,” Stein later wrote in her 1933 bestseller, The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas. Thanks to their volunteer work, Stein and Toklas were awarded the Médaille de la Reconnaissance Française, a honor given to civilians as a token of the French government’s gratitude.

6. SHE PROBABLY HELPED HEMINGWAY WRITE A FAREWELL TO ARMS.

Stein met Hemingway in 1922 through the American novelist Sherwood Anderson. The pair initially hit it off. Stein took Hemingway under her wing and allegedly helped him rewrite his memoir of the First World War, which would later become A Farewell to Arms. The following year, Hemingway asked her to be the godmother of his son, Jack “Bumby” Hemingway.

But the relationship between the two writers grew bitter after Hemingway insulted Anderson in print. In A Moveable Feast, Hemingway looks back at his time in Paris and provides unflattering descriptions of Stein. At one point he overhears an argument between Stein and Toklas that enrages him. Afterward, he kept ties with her but was never again friends “in his heart.” In The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas, Stein refers to Hemingway as “yellow ... just like the flat-boat men on the Mississippi River as described by Mark Twain.”

7. SHE PRACTICED IMMERSIVE WRITING.

Many critics compared Stein’s repetitive writing style to Cubism, and she often said she wanted to do with words what visual artists were doing with paint and canvas. Some of her writing techniques resembled those of painters en plein air. In her immersive writing sessions, Stein would venture outdoors and write exclusively about the surrounding landscape. In fact, her 1930 novel Lucy Church Amiably was completed to the sound of streams and waterfalls.

American poet and novelist Bravig Imbs once ran into a session in which Stein and Toklas were out in a field with Toklas leading a cow around with a stick. She would stop when instructed by Stein, who would then rush to write down her thoughts in her notebook.

8. WHITE STANDARD POODLES WERE HER FAVORITE DOGS.

Stein’s first commercial literary success came with the 1933 publication of The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas [PDF], Stein’s fictionalized biography of her own life through the eyes of her partner. While the book details their friendships with Picasso, Matisse, Ernest Hemingway, T.S. Eliot, and other modernist luminaries in Paris, the couple’s white standard poodle Basket also makes a prominent cameo.

Stein was extremely devoted to Basket: She used to bathe the dog in sulphur water every morning to keep his coat white and shiny. Toklas also brushed Basket’s teeth with his very own toothbrush. He was so well known among the cognoscenti that he was photographed by Man Ray and Cecil Beaton.

“Basket although now he is a large unwieldy poodle, still will get up on Gertrude Stein's lap and stay there,” Stein wrote (as Toklas) in The Autobiography. “She says that listening to the rhythm of his water drinking made her recognize the difference between sentences and paragraphs, that paragraphs are emotional and that sentences are not.” When Basket died in 1937, the couple bought another standard white poodle and named him Basket II.

9. SHE FOLLOWED A STRICT DAILY SCHEDULE.

Basket’s daily bath was not the only morning routine at 27 rue du Fleurus. According to an account by American composer and critic Virgil Thomson, Stein would spend the early part of her day reading, writing letters, playing with the dog, and eventually getting dressed. After lunch she would drive her car around town and do errands. She would never make appointments or have visitors before 4 p.m.

Stein’s writing time was the only thing that was not scheduled. She would wait for the “readiness to write” to reach its peak before she started working.

10. SHE REALLY LOVED NICKNAMES.

A collection of love letters published long after Stein’s and Toklas’s deaths revealed a range of affectionate nicknames that the two women called each other. Stein dubbed Toklas “baby precious” or “wifey” while Toklas referred to Stein as her “husband” or “Mr. Cuddle-Wuddle.”

But Stein’s passion for nicknames was not limited to her immediate family. In 1913 she met American critic and photographer Carl Van Vechten, who would later become her American agent and promoter. The two invented a fictional family unit, the Woojums. Van Vechten was Papa Woojums, Toklas was Mama Woojums, and Stein, the genius at the center of the relationship, was Baby Woojums.

11. SHE DISCUSSED CINEMA WITH CHARLIE CHAPLIN.

In October 1934, after an absence of 30 years, Stein and Toklas returned to the United States to embark on a six-month lecture tour. Stein was, by then, known as a brilliant but inscrutable writer, and curious reporters greeted their ship expecting her to speak the way she wrote. An electric sign in Times Square screamed "Gertrude Stein Has Arrived."

Stein was invited to meet with high profile figures like Eleanor Roosevelt and Charlie Chaplin as the tour wound through 23 states. She met Chaplin at a dinner party in Los Angeles, and both would describe their chat in their respective autobiographies. “She would like to see me in a movie,” Chaplin wrote, “just walking up the street and turning a corner, then another corner, and another.”

The actor interpreted Stein’s suggestion as a cinematic representation of her famous phrase, “a rose is a rose is a rose.” He gave her a nod in his 1952 film Limelight, in a scene where the protagonist says, “the meaning of anything is merely other words for the same thing. After all, a rose is a rose is a rose. That’s not bad. It should be quoted.”

12. SHE WAS THE FIRST AMERICAN WOMAN TO HAVE A PUBLIC STATUE IN NEW YORK CITY.

When Stein died in France in 1946, she was buried in Paris’s Cimitière du Père Lachaise, which also hosts the remains of Oscar Wilde, Frédéric Chopin, Édith Piaf, Amedeo Modigliani, Jim Morrison, and other deceased notables. After Toklas’s death in 1967, the last of their collection—38 paintings by Picasso and nine by Gris—were sold by Stein’s heirs in 1968 for about $6.8 million.

In 1992, a life-size granite statue of her was erected in New York’s Bryant Park—the first of an actual American woman in the city.

10 Things You Might Not Know About Dorothy Parker

Photo by Evening Standard/Getty Images
Photo by Evening Standard/Getty Images

As a founding member of the Algonquin Round Table—a circle of writers that also included Harpo Marx and Robert Benchley—Dorothy Parker was renowned for her scathing wit. Here are 10 fascinating facts about the legendary wordsmith.

1. Dorothy Parker was born in New Jersey.

Dorothy Parker was born at her parents' beach cottage in Long Branch, New Jersey on August 22, 1893. She liked to say they rushed back to Manhattan after Labor Day so she could be a "true" New Yorker.

2. Dorothy Parker's mother died when she was just a child.

Parker's mother died when Dorothy was just four years old. Her father remarried two years later, but Dorothy was not a fan of her stepmother and refused to call her anything but "the housekeeper." Ouch.

3. Dorothy Parker married the same man twice.

Parker and Alan Campbell were great writing partners, but were perhaps no more than that; she often (affectionately) described him as "queer as a billy goat."

4. Dorothy Parker could be sentimental when a job called for it.

You know Parker came up with plenty of sarcastic quips and biting observations, but she also wrote some rather treacly stuff: She was an uncredited screenwriter for It's a Wonderful Life and wrote lyrics for the Bing Crosby song "I Wished on the Moon."

5. Dorothy Parker's uncle was on the Titanic.

Parker's uncle, Martin Rothschild, died in the great Titanic disaster of 1912.

6. Dorothy Parker reviewed books for The New Yorker.

Parker wrote book reviews for The New Yorker under the pseudonym "Constant Reader." She hated Winnie the Pooh and wrote of The House on Pooh Corner, "Tonstant Weader Fwowed up."

7. Dorothy Parker was tiny.

Parker might have been an enormous presence, but she was only 4'11".

8. Dorothy Parker was a staunch civil rights activist.

When Parker died in 1967, she left her entire estate to the Martin Luther King, Jr. Foundation, and then to the NAACP when King was assassinated.

9. Dorothy Parker's ashes went unclaimed for years.

While she left her money to the causes she cared about, Parker left her ashes to playwright Lillian Hellman, who never bothered to collect them. They went unclaimed for years and were passed around rather unceremoniously, spending about 17 years in her lawyer's filing cabinet. The NAACP finally claimed what was left of Ms. Parker and erected a memorial garden in her honor. You can visit her there and read what she suggested for her own epitaph: "Excuse my dust."

10. There is no shortage of great Dorothy Parker quotes.

But as a writer, I think this one might be my favorite: "I'd like to have money. And I'd like to be a good writer. These two can come together, and I hope they will, but if that's too adorable, I'd rather have money."

9 Facts About The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn

Public Domain, Wikimedia Commons
Public Domain, Wikimedia Commons

On its surface, Mark Twain's The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn is a straightforward story about a boy and a runaway slave floating down the Mississippi River. But underneath, the book—which was published in the U.S. on February 18, 1885—is a subversive confrontation of slavery and racism. It remains one of the most loved, and most banned, books in American history.

1. Huckleberry Finn first appears in Tom Sawyer.

The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn is a sequel to Tom Sawyer, Twain’s novel about his childhood in Hannibal, Missouri. Huck is the “juvenile pariah of the village” and “son of the town drunkard,” Pap Finn. He wears cast-off adult clothes and sleeps in doorways and empty barrels. Despite this, the other children “wished they dared to be like him.” Huck also appears in Tom Sawyer, Detective, and Tom Sawyer Abroad.

2. Huckleberry Finn may be based on Mark Twain's childhood friend.

Twain once said that Huck is based on Tom Blankenship, a childhood friend whose father, Woodson Blankenship, was a poor drunkard and the likely model for Pap Finn. “In Huckleberry Finn I have drawn Tom Blankenship exactly as he was,” Twain wrote in Autobiography of Mark Twain, Volume 1: The Complete and Authoritative Edition. “He was ignorant, unwashed, insufficiently fed; but he had as good a heart as ever any boy had." However, Twain may be exaggerating here. In 1885, when the Minneapolis Tribune asked who Huck was based on, Twain said it was no single person: “I could not point you out the youngster all in a lump; but still his story is what I call a true story.”

3. It took Mark Twain seven years to write the book.

Huckleberry Finn was written in two short bursts. The first was in 1876, when Twain wrote 400 pages that he told his friend he liked “only tolerably well, as far as I have got, and may possibly pigeonhole or burn” the manuscript. He stopped working on it for several years to write The Prince and the Pauper and Life on the Mississippi. In 1882, Twain took a steamboat ride on the Mississippi from New Orleans to Minnesota, with a stop in Hannibal, Missouri. It must have inspired him, because he dove into finishing Huckleberry Finn.

“I have written eight or nine hundred manuscript pages in such a brief space of time that I mustn’t name the number of days,” Twain wrote in August 1883. “I shouldn’t believe it myself, and of course couldn’t expect you to.” The book was published in 1884.

4. Like Huckleberry Finn, Mark Twain’s view on slavery changed.

Huck, who grows up in the South before the Civil War, not only accepts slavery, but believes that helping Jim run away is a sin. The moral climax of the novel is when Huck debates whether to send Jim’s owner a letter detailing Jim’s whereabouts. Finally, Huck says, "All right, then, I'll go to hell,” and tears the letter up.

As a child, Twain didn’t question the institution of slavery. Not only was Missouri a slave state, but his uncle owned 20 slaves. In Autobiography of Mark Twain, Volume 1, Twain wrote, “I vividly remember seeing a dozen black men and women chained to one another, once, and lying in a group on the pavement, awaiting shipment to the Southern slave market. Those were the saddest faces I have ever seen.” At some point, Twain’s attitudes changed and he married into an abolitionist family. His father-in-law, Jervis Langdon, was a “conductor” on the Underground Railroad and helped Frederick Douglass escape from slavery.

5. Emmeline Grangerford is a parody of a Victorian poetaster.

Huckleberry Finn parodies adventure novels, politics, religion, the Hatfields and the McCoys, and even Hamlet’s soliloquy. But most memorable may be the character of Emmeline Grangerford, the 15-year-old poet. Emmeline is a parody of Julia A. Moore, the “Sweet Singer of Michigan,” who wrote bad poetry about death. So does Emmeline, according to Huck: “Every time a man died, or a woman died, or a child died, she would be on hand with her ‘tribute’ before he was cold. She called them tributes.” Along with bad poetry, Emmeline paints “crayons” of dramatic subjects, such as a girl “crying into a handkerchief” over a dead bird with the caption, "I Shall Never Hear Thy Sweet Chirrup More Alas."

6. Many consider Huckleberry Finn the first American novel.

“All modern American literature comes from one book by Mark Twain called Huckleberry Finn ,” Ernest Hemingway wrote in Green Hills Of Africa. “There was nothing before. There has been nothing as good since." While this statement ignores great works like Moby-Dick and The Scarlet Letter, Huckleberry Finn was notable because it was the first novel to be written in the American vernacular. Huck speaks in dialect, using phrases like “it ain’t no matter” or "it warn’t no time to be sentimentering.” Since most writers of the time were still imitating European literature, writing the way Americans actually talked seemed revolutionary. It was language that was clear, crisp, and vivid, and it changed how Americans wrote.

7. Many people consider the end of the book to be a bit of a cop-out.

A major criticism of Huckleberry Finn is that the book begins to fail when Tom Sawyer enters the novel. Up until that point, Huck and Jim have developed a friendship bound by their mutual plight as runaways. We believe Huck cares about Jim and has learned to see his humanity. But when Tom Sawyer comes into the novel, Huck changes. He becomes passive and doesn’t even seem to care when Jim is captured. To make matters worse, it turns out that Jim’s owner has already set him free, and that Huck’s abusive dad is dead. Essentially, Huck and Jim have been running away from nothing. Many critics, including American novelist Jane Smiley, believe that by slapping on a happy ending, Twain was ignoring the complex questions his book raises.

8. The book is frequently banned.

Huckleberry Finn was first banned in Concord, Massachusetts in 1885 (“trash and suitable only for the slums”) and continues to be one of the most-challenged books. The objections are usually over the n-word, which occurs over 200 times in the book. Others say that the portrayal of African Americans is stereotypical, racially insensitive, or racist. In 2011, Stephen Railton, a professor at the University of Virginia, published a version of the book that replaced that offending word with slave. Soon after appeared The Hipster Huckleberry Finn, where the word was replaced with hipster. The book's description says, “the adventures of Huckleberry Finn are now neither offensive nor uncool.”

9. Twain had some thoughts about the book's censorship.

In 1905, the Brooklyn Public Library removed Huckleberry Finn and Tom Sawyer from the shelves because, as a librarian wrote to Twain, Huck is “a deceitful boy who said 'sweat' when he should have said 'perspiration.'" Here’s Twain’s reply :

DEAR SIR: I am greatly troubled by what you say. I wrote Tom Sawyer and Huck Finn for adults exclusively, and it always distresses me when I find that boys and girls have been allowed access to them. The mind that becomes soiled in youth can never again be washed clean; I know this by my own experience, and to this day I cherish an unappeasable bitterness against the unfaithful guardians of my young life, who not only permitted but compelled me to read an unexpurgated Bible through before I was 15 years old. None can do that and ever draw a clean sweet breath again this side of the grave. Ask that young lady—she will tell you so. Most honestly do I wish I could say a softening word or two in defense of Huck's character, since you wish it, but really in my opinion it is no better than those of Solomon, David, Satan, and the rest of the sacred brotherhood. If there is an unexpurgated Bible in the Children's Department, won't you please help that young woman remove Huck and Tom from that questionable companionship?

Sincerely yours, S. L. Clemens

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