10 "Udderly" Fascinating Facts About Cows

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Cows dot fields and pastures across many countries, and cow products are valued and consumed worldwide because their production of milk and meat isn't seasonal, as crops usually are. Cow products can also be preserved for extended use, such as butter, cheese, and smoked or cured meats. And, scientists are still finding new uses for the roughly 80 pounds of manure that a dairy cow produces daily. Chew the cud over these 10 facts about bovines. 

1. COWS ARE KILLERS.

Cow looking at a camera.
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An ABC News report cited a 2012 study, published in Wilderness and Environmental Medicine, which found that cattle cause an average of 22 deaths per year. Sharks, on the other hand, kill about six people per year. It sounds like SyFy should have made Cownado instead.

2. COW TIPPING IS JUST A MYTH.

Cow sleeping with its head on the rock.
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It might be funny to imagine a sleeping cow falling over with just a gentle shove, but cow tipping isn't that easy. Actually, it's nearly impossible. Cows sleep lying down and are generally wary of approaching humans, so they're never really blissed-out enough to allow a stranger to get close enough to touch them. But the bigger obstacle is their sheer size. Cows are massive—on average 1500 pounds—and balance their weight on all four legs.

3. COWS HAVE COMPLICATED DIGESTIVE SYSTEMS.

Cows eating hay in a row.
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Cows' stomachs are made up of four pouches—the reticulum, the rumen, the omasum, and the abomasum—each serving a specific purpose. Cows barely chew their food before it enters the first and largest part of the stomach called the rumen. Once the rumen is full, the cow lies down and the reticulum—which is made of muscle and is connected to the rumen so food and water can easily pass back and forth—pushes the unchewed food back up the esophagus and into the mouth. After re-chewing, or rumination, the food eventually passes through the omasum. The omasum filters out the water and gives the bacteria in the rumen more time to break down the food and take in more nutrients. Finally, the food enters the abomasum, which functions similar to a human stomach.

4. THERE ARE SURROGATE COWS.

Pregnant cow in a field.
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Transferring embryos from a genetically superior cow to a merely adequate cow is becoming more common. The procedure—known as embryo transfer (ET)—involves injecting a superior cow with hormones so she produces multiple eggs. Her eggs then need to be fertilized, either naturally or through artificial insemination. When the eggs are fertilized, a vet performs an "embryo flush" to remove them. That generally results in six to seven usable embryos, but can produce as many as 80 or 90. Without hormone treatment, a cow can only produce one embryo.

There are a number of reasons to perform ET—genetically superior cows produce genetically superior eggs. When they're transferred to surrogates, herds gain more powerful and efficient cows, instead of the offspring the surrogates might produce on their own. Embryos are also easily sent overseas to improve the bovine gene pool elsewhere, supplying more (and more efficient) milk-producing cows to countries that lack enough resources to meet demand. (For more on the cow surrogacy process, check out this story from NPR's Abby Wendle.)

5. THE ORIGIN OF THE WORD CATTLE STEMS FROM THE WORD FOR PERSONAL PROPERTY.

Cattle in a field.
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According to the Merriam-Webster dictionary, the origin of cattle is chatel, the Anglo-French word for personal property. Chatel comes from the Medieval Latin term capitale.

6. A COW IS TECHNICALLY A FEMALE WHO HAS GIVEN BIRTH TO AT LEAST ONE CALF.

Mother cow licking a baby calf.
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There are specific terms for bovines depending on their age, sex, and purpose. For example, a "bull" is a mature, male bovine used for breeding, while a "steer" is a male that's been castrated and is used for its beef. A "heifer" is a female bovine that has yet to have calves, and a "bred heifer" is a pregnant heifer. There are a number of additional terms that farmers use to describe members of their herd.

7. BULLS CAN'T SEE RED.

A matador in the arena with a bull.
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A bullfighter could just as easily wave a pink or purple flag to get a bull to charge. The bull isn't angered by the color—all bovines are red/green colorblind. Instead, it's the movement of the cloth that gets it all riled up. The real reason matadors wear red: to hide the bull's blood.

8. COWS WITH NAMES PRODUCE MORE MILK.

A cow being milked.
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If farmers have a good relationship with their cows—meaning they give them names and show enough affection—they can produce more milk than their lonely counterparts. A 2009 study from Newcastle University found that cows who are more comfortable around humans are less stressed when milked. When cows are stressed, they produce cortisol, a hormone that inhibits milk production.  Another plus side of a happy cow-human relationship: farmers are less likely to get injured on the job (see fact #1).

9. INTO THE WOODS USED A REAL COW.

James Corden on stage in a white jacket
Kevin Winter, Getty Images for NARAS

For the 2014 film, director Rob Marshall wanted to use a real, live cow instead of depending on CGI. James Corden, who played the Baker and spent plenty of time with his bovine costar, admitted that things didn't always go smoothly: "You just don't know what it's like when you're doing a scene, and Meryl Streep is giving a phenomenal performance in only the way she can and it's scuppered by just 'Moooooooo,'" he recalled, adding, "That cow was the biggest diva on this set."

10. COWS PRODUCE METHANE, BUT DON'T BLAME THEM FOR GLOBAL WARMING.

Cows in a rounded milking station.
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Even though cattle produce plenty of methane during digestion, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) still considers the animals' contribution to global warming our fault, "because humans raise these animals for food and other products." In other words, this is a classic case of "He who smelt it, dealt it."

This story originally ran in 2015.

The 10 Most Popular Cat Names of 2018

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iStock/101cats

We’ve never met your cat, but we know for a fact that he or she is one-of-a-kind. What might not be so unique? Your little ball o’ fluff’s name ... especially if it’s Luna.

Banfield Pet Hospital, the world’s largest general veterinary, mined its database of more than 500,000 feline patients to see which monikers experienced an uptick in popularity in 2018. As was the case in 2017, Luna topped the list of most popular cat names (while the far-less-innovative Kitty came in third).

Pop culture continues to be a big inspiration when it comes to cat names. Though the This is Us-themed names Jack and Milo dropped in popularity between 2017 and 2018, they both still managed to crack the top 20, while Lando saw a 31 percent increase in popularity thanks to Solo: A Star Wars Story.

Here are the 10 most popular cat names of 2018. Did your kitty’s make the cut?

1. Luna

2. Bella

3. Kitty

4. Oliver

5. Lucy

6. Charlie

7. Shadow

8. Max

9. Leo

10. Milo

12 Old-Timey Turkey Terms to Bring Back This Thanksgiving

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iStock.com/westernphotographs

Want to spice up conversation this Thanksgiving? Use these terms while you’re talking turkey.

1. RUM COBBLE-COLTER

According to A new dictionary of the terms ancient and modern of the canting crew, in its several tribes, of Gypsies, beggers, thieves, cheats, &c., with an addition of some proverbs, phrases, figurative speeches, &c., first published in the late 1600s, a cobble-colter is a turkey. A rum cobble-colter, on the other hand, is "a fat large cock-turkey."

2. I GUESS IT’S ALL TURKEY

This American phrase is “a quaint saying indicating that all is equally good.”

3. AND 4. BUBBLY-JOCK AND BOBBLE-COCK

Bubbly-jock is Scottish slang for a male turkey, from the noise the bird makes. The term can also be used to describe “a stupid, boasting person.” Both usages might apply at your Thanksgiving dinner. Slang for a turkey in northern England, meanwhile, is bobble-cock, according to The Slang Dictionary: Or, The Vulgar Words, Street Phrases, and "Fast Expressions” of High and Low Society, published in 1864.

5. TURKEY MERCHANTS

According to 1884’s The Slang Dictionary: Etymological, Historical, and Anecdotal, this was a term for “dealers in plundered or contraband silk.” Previously, it referred to something more obvious: “a driver of turkeys and geese to market.”

6. ALDERMAN

A “well-stuffedturkey. An alderman in chains is a turkey with sausages; according to A Classical Dictionary of the Vulgar Tongue, published in 1788, the sausages “are supposed to represent the gold chain worn by those magistrates.”

7. COLD TURKEY RAP

According to Eric Partridge's A Dictionary of the Underworld: British and American, this 1928 term means "an accusation, a charge, against a person caught in the act." Perhaps you'll get a cold turkey rap for stealing seconds—or thirds—of your favorite dish this holiday.

8. BLOCK ISLAND TURKEY

An American slang term for salted cod, originating in Connecticut and Rhode Island.

9. TURKEY PUDDLE

Eighteenth-century slang for coffee.

10. SNOTERGOB

According to A Dictionary of the Scottish Language, snotergob is “the red part of a turkey’s head.”

11. RED AS A TURKEY COCK

This phrase dates back to 1630, according to Dictionary of Proverbs. It could refer to any kind of flushing of the face (including, perhaps, when your dad and your uncle are getting too worked up debating politics).

12. TO HAVE A TURKEY ON ONE’S BACK

According to the 1905 book A Dictionary of Slang and Colloquial English, this is what you say when someone has imbibed a bit too much: It means “to be drunk.”

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