10 Science-Backed Tips for Getting a Cat to Like You

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iStock

Like so many other humans, you might find cats to be mysterious creatures. But believe it or not, it’s not that hard to make friends with a feline, if you know what to do. Here are some tips on how to effectively buddy up with a kitty, drawn from scientific studies and my own experience as a researcher and cat behavioral consultant.

1. LET THE CAT CALL THE SHOTS.

When we see cats, we really want to pet them—but according to two Swiss studies, the best approach is to let kitty make the first move.

Research done in 51 Swiss homes with cats has shown that when humans sit back and wait—and focus on something else, like a good book—a cat is more likely to approach, and less likely to withdraw when people respond. (This preference explains why so many kitties are attracted to people with allergies—because allergic people are usually trying to not pet them.) Another study found that interactions last longer and are more positive when the kitty both initiates the activity and decides when it ends. Play a little hard to get, and you might find that they can’t get enough of you.

2. APPROACH A CAT THE WAY THEY GREET EACH OTHER (SORT OF).

person extending finger to cat's nose
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Felines who are friendly with each other greet each other nose to nose. You can mimic that behavior by offering a non-threatening finger tip at their nose level, a few inches away. Don’t hover, just bend down and gently extend your hand. Many cats will walk up and sniff your finger, and may even rub into it. Now that's a successful greeting.

3. PET CATS WHERE THEY LIKE IT MOST …

They're very sensitive to touch, and generally, they tend to like being petted in some places more than others. A small 2002 study demonstrated that cats showed more positive responses—like purring, blinking, and kneading their paws—to petting on the forehead area and the cheeks. They were more likely to react negatively—by hissing, swatting, or swishing their tails—when petted in the tail area. A more recent study validated these findings with a larger sample size—and many owners can testify to these preferences.

Of course, every animal is an individual, but these studies give us a good starting point, especially if you're meeting a cat for the first time.

4. … AND IF YOU GET NEGATIVE FEEDBACK, GIVE THE CAT SOME SPACE.

There are plenty of signs that a cat doesn't like your actions. These can range from the overt—such as hissing and biting—to the more subtle: flattening their ears, looking at your hand, or twitching their tails. When you get one of those signals, it’s time to back off.

Many of the owners I work with to correct behavioral issues don't retreat when they should, partially because they enjoy the experience of petting their cat so much that they fail to recognize that kitty isn’t enjoying it too. You can’t force a feline to like being handled (this is especially true of feral cats), but when they learn that you’ll respect their terms, the more likely they will be to trust you—and come back for more attention when they're ready.

5. DON’T OVERFEED YOUR CAT.

Many think that food equals love, and that withholding food might make your kitty hate you, but a recent study of obese felines from Cornell University showed the opposite is true—at least for a period of time. About a month after 58 overweight kitties were placed on a diet, three-quarters of their owners reported that their dieting felines were more affectionate, purred more often, and were more likely to sit in their owner's lap. This adorable behavior came with some not-so-cute side effects—the cats also begged and meowed more—but by week eight, both the good and bad behavior had abated for about half the animals.

Regardless of whether a diet makes your pet cuddlier, keeping your pet on the slender side is a great way to help them stay healthy and ward off problems like diabetes, joint pain, and uncleanliness. (Overweight animals have difficulty grooming themselves—and do you really want them sitting on your lap if they can’t keep their butt clean?)

6. PLAY WITH THEM—A LOT.

woman, cat, and feather toy
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Most of the behavior problems that I've witnessed stem from boredom and a lack of routine playtime. No one thinks twice about walking their dog every day, but many people fail to recognize that felines are stealth predators who need a regular outlet for that energy. A recent study suggested that cats prefer human interaction over food, but a closer look at the data demonstrated that what really attracted them to humans was the presence of an interactive toy. One of their top choices is a wand-style toy with feathers, strings, or other prey-like attachments that evoke predatory behavior. Daily interactive play is a great way to bond with them when they’re not in the mood to cuddle—and to keep them fit. Try the Go-Cat Da Bird or any of Neko Flies interchangeable cat toys.  

7. KEEP YOUR CAT INDOORS.

A study conducted in Italy showed that felines who stayed mostly indoors (they had one hour of supervised access to a small garden each day) were more “in sync” with their owners than felines who were allowed free access to the outdoors. The indoor kitties were more active during the day, when their owners were likely to be active, and less active at night, when humans like to sleep. (Many people believe cats are nocturnal, but they are naturally crepuscular—active at dawn and dusk.)

8. SOCIALIZE CATS WHEN THEY'RE YOUNG.

Multiple studies have shown that just a few minutes a day of positive handling by humans helps kittens grow up to be friendlier and more trusting of humans. The ideal age to socialize kittens is when they're between 2 and 9 weeks old. One 2008 study found that shelter kittens that had been given a lot of "enhanced socialization"—additional attention, affection, and play—were, a year later, more affectionate with their owners and less fearful than other kittens adopted from the same shelters.

You can help socialize kittens by volunteering as a foster caretaker. Fostering ensures they get plenty of interaction with people, which will help them will be comfortable around potential adopters. You'll also be doing your local shelter a huge favor by alleviating overcrowding.

9. TAKE THE CAT'S PERSONALITY—AND YOUR OWN—INTO CONSIDERATION WHEN ADOPTING.

If you want to adopt an older animal, take some time at the shelter to get to know them first, since adopters of adult cats report that personality played a big role in their decision to take an animal home permanently and had an impact on their satisfaction with their new companion. Better yet, foster one first. Shelters can be stressful, so you'll get a better sense of what an animal is really like when they're in your home. Not all cats are socialized well when they're young, so a cat may have their own unique rules about what kinds of interactions they're okay with.

It's also key to remember that a cat's appearance isn't indicative of their personality—and it's not just black cats who get a bad rap. In 2012, I published a study with 189 participants that showed that people were likely to assign personality traits to felines based solely on their fur color. Among other things, they tended to think orange cats would be the nicest and white cats the most aloof. (Needless to say, these are inaccurate assumptions.) And it's not just the kitty's personality that matters—yours is important too. Another study I conducted in 2014 of nearly 1100 pet owners suggested that self-identified “cat people” tend to be more introverted and anxious when compared to dog people. (We’re also more prone to being open-minded and creative, so it’s not all bad.) If you’re outgoing and active, a more playful feline could be for you. If you prefer nights spent snuggling on the couch, a mellow, shy-but-sweet lovebug could be your perfect pet.

10. BE A KEEN OBSERVER OF THEIR BEHAVIOR.

Overall, use your common sense. Be a diligent and objective observer of how they respond to your actions. Feline body language can be subtle—something as small as an eye-blink can indicate contentment, while ear twitches might signal irritation—but as you learn their cues, you'll find yourself much more in tune with how they're feeling. And if you adjust your behaviors accordingly, you'll find soon enough that you've earned a cat's trust.

Mikel Delgado received her Ph.D. at UC-Berkeley in psychology studying animal behavior and human-pet relationships. She's a researcher at the UC Davis School of Veterinary Medicine and co-founder of the cat behavior consulting company Feline Minds.

New Study Reveals 'Hyper-Alarming' Decline of Rainforest Insect Populations

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iStock/jmmf

Climate change is decimating yet another vital part of the world's ecosystem, according to a startling new paper. Rainforest insects are dying off at alarming rates, according to a new study spotted by the The Washington Post. In turn, the animals that feed off those insects are decreasing, too.

In the study, published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, a pair of scientists from the Rensselaer Polytechnic University in New York and the National Autonomous University of Mexico studied populations of rainforest arthropods (an invertebrate classification that includes insects and spiders) in the El Yunque National Forest in Puerto Rico. They compared the number of insects lead author Bradford Lister found on trips in 1976 and 1977 with the number he and co-author Andres Garcia found on trips they took between 2011 and 2013.

Lister and Garcia used nets and sticky traps to collect insects on the ground and several feet above the ground in the forest canopy. They dried these captured bugs and measured the mass of their haul against the mass of insects found in the 1970s, finding that the modern net sweeps captured only an eighth to a fourth of the insects captured in the '70s. The mass of insects captured by sticky traps on the ground declined by 30 to 60 times what they were a few decades ago. They also tracked populations of lizards, frogs, and birds that live off those rainforest insects, finding that those populations had declined significantly, too, at levels not seen in other rainforest animals that don't rely on insects for food.

Tropical insects are particularly vulnerable to climatic changes, since they can't regulate their body temperature. During the time of the study, average maximum temperatures in El Yunque rose by almost 4°F (2°C). The warming climate is "the major driver" of this decline in arthropod populations, the study authors write, triggering a collapse of the forest food chain.

The paper has other scientists worried. "This is one of the most disturbing articles I have ever read," University of Connecticut entomologist David Wagner, who wasn't involved in the research, told The Washington Post, calling the results "hyper-alarming." Other studies of insect populations have found similarly dire results, including significant declines in butterflies, moths, bees, and other species. One recent study found that Germany's flying insect populations had decreased by as much as 75 percent in the last three decades. Scientists don't always attribute those population losses directly to warmer temperatures (habitat loss, pesticide use, droughts, and other factors might play a role), but it’s clear that insect populations are facing grave threats from the modern world.

Not all insect species will be equally affected by climate change, though. While we may see a sharp drop in the populations of tropical insects, scientists project that the number of insects in other regions will rise—leading to a sharp increase in crop-eating pests in some parts of the world and broadening mosquitos' geographical range.

[h/t The Washington Post]

13 Chill Facts About Sloths

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iStock.com/janossygergely

Sloths seem to be everyone's "spirit animal." They get to eat, sleep, and hang out in trees all day, going about their business without a care in the world. Or at least that's how it looks. As it turns out, there are plenty of good reasons why sloths are so sluggish—and laziness isn't one of them. Here are 13 things you should know about the world's slowest animal.

1. TWO-TOED AND THREE-TOED SLOTHS AREN'T ALL THAT SIMILAR.

A baby two-toed sloth
iStock.com/wekeli

The cute little babe pictured above is a two-toed sloth, of which there are two species belonging to the Megalonychidae family. The four species of three-toed sloths, on the other hand, are part of the Bradypodidae family. The two groups are only distant relatives and have a few notable differences between them. While three-toed sloths are active in the daytime, two-toed sloths are nocturnal creatures. Three-toed sloths are also smaller and slower than their two-toed counterparts.

2. BOTH HAVE THREE TOES, THOUGH.

A two-toed sloth
Tim Evanson, Flickr // CC BY-SA 2.0

The names used to distinguish the sloths are somewhat of a misnomer. Both have three toes on each hind limb. The real difference applies to the fingers on their forelimbs; one family has two claws, while the other has three. To avoid confusion, some groups—like The Sloth Conservation Foundation—have starting calling them two-fingered and three-fingered sloths.

3. THEY'RE RELATED TO THE EXTINCT GIANT GROUND SLOTH.

Illustration of a giant sloth
iStock.com/estt

Two-toed and three-toed sloths both evolved from giant ground sloths, the largest of which weighed several tons and stood about 12 feet tall. The animals went extinct about 10,000 years ago, likely due to hunting by early humans.

4. THEY WOULD FAIL AN EYE EXAM.

Close-up of a sloth
iStock.com/BrianLasenby

Sloths aren't exactly known for their sharp senses, and this is especially true for their eyesight. A mama three-toed sloth can't spot her own baby from 5 feet away, and combative male sloths have been observed trying to hit each other from a similar distance. Scientists say a genetic mutation is to blame. Three-toed sloths are born without cone cells in their eyes, which are needed to detect colors. As a result, they see things in black and white, and in poorer resolution, too. They also have a hard time handling bright lights—not the best trait for a diurnal (daytime) creature to have.

5. THEY'RE SURPRISINGLY GOOD SWIMMERS.

Sloths are painfully sluggish on land. Their hind legs are weak, so they have to use their arms and upper body strength to pull themselves forward. Plop them in some water, though, and they can move three times as fast. Their long front arms make them skillful swimmers, and they can hold their breath underwater for up to 40 minutes. If a body of water is nearby, they may jump in and use it as a shortcut to navigate the forest more quickly. In the above clip narrated by David Attenborough, a male sloth swims as fast as he can—which is pretty fast, all things considered—to track down a female sloth's mating call.

6. THEIR "LAZINESS" IS A SURVIVAL TACTIC.

A sloth in a chair
iStock.com/GeorgePeters

It's no secret that sloths are slow. Their reaction time is about a quarter as fast as a human's, and they move at a pace of 6 to 8 feet per minute. Indeed, three-toed sloths are the slowest animals on Earth, beating out other famously slow animals like giant tortoises and snails. When the animals were first documented in 18th-century scientific texts, they were harshly described as "the lowest form of existence." But their slowness is why they haven't died out. Sloths largely subsist on leaves, and it can take up to a month for their four-part stomachs to digest a single meal. The leafy greens aren't very nutritious, so they have to conserve as much energy as possible to survive—and that means moving less. As a bonus, their slow movements help them go unnoticed by predators that rely on sight to hunt down prey, like jaguars, ocelots, and harpy eagles.

7. THEY DO JUST ABOUT EVERYTHING IN TREES …

A baby sloth hangs from a branch
iStock.com/Mark Kostich

Sloths are arboreal creatures, so they spend almost all of their time in trees. They eat, sleep, mate, and give birth while hanging upside-down—a feat made possible by their anatomy. Their internal organs are anchored to their abdomen, which shifts weight away from their diaphragm and lets them breathe more easily, and therefore expend less energy.

Three-inch claws also help them latch onto branches and stay suspended far above the forest floor. In fact, their innate ability to cling to branches is so strong that dead sloths have been found dangling from trees, lending new meaning to the phrase "death grip."

8. … EXCEPT POOP.

A sloth on the ground
iStock.com/Damocean

As a consequence of their slow metabolisms, sloths poop once a week—and sometimes just once a month. Two-toed sloths often let 'er rip from the trees, but three-toed sloths follow a bizarre routine that has baffled scientists. They typically make their way down to the forest floor to relieve their backed-up bowels, and once they get there, they do a little "poo dance" while digging a small hole to defecate inside. Without the camouflage afforded to them by the foliage of the forest canopy, sloths are much more likely to be picked off by predators. About half of all sloth fatalities occur when they're on the ground, most likely doing their business or finishing up. So why do they do it? It might have something to do with sex, and marking a tree for a potential mate to find. "Whatever is going on, it's got to be kind of life or death for survival," sloth biologist Rebecca Cliffe tells The Washington Post. "In my brain, that tells me that it's probably something to do with reproduction because that is the driving fact behind most animals' crazy behaviors."

9. AND THEIR POOPS ARE ENORMOUS.

A man holds a sloth
iStock.com/Ssviluppo

When they do poop, their turds tend to be massive. If you put the contents of a sloth's bowel movement on a scale, they might weigh up to one-third of the animal's body weight. This is 282 percent larger than what scientists would expect to see in an animal of the sloth's size. "You can watch their stomachs physically shrink as they poo," Cliffe tells The Washington Post. Oddly enough, though, sloths don't fart. So there's that.

10. ALGAE OFTEN GROWS ON THEIR FUR.

A sloth covered in algae
iStock.com/dene398

Sloths have a symbiotic relationship with algae. Studies have shown that algae is sometimes passed down from a mother sloth to her baby, and the transfer is mutually beneficial for both animal and plant. The sloth's long fur creates a cozy home for the algae—which readily absorbs the water they need to thrive—and the sloths get a coat of green-tinted fur that doubles as camouflage. Sloths also eat the algae, which provides a much-needed source of nutrients.

11. FEMALE SLOTHS SCREAM WHEN THEY WANT TO MATE.

Females get the courting process started by letting out a loud, high-pitched scream to let male sloths know she's ready to mate. "This call is a loud 'eeeeeh' lasting more or less one second," sloth researcher Adriano Chiarello tells Live Science. Researchers are unsure on the particulars of sloth courting or copulation, or even if males will fight for the right mate with the screeching female (or if any fights are territorial instead). Whatever the details, the ensuing gestation period is between five and six months, and then the female sloth will birth one baby sloth, which is—uninterestingly—just called a baby sloth.

12. THREE-TOED SLOTHS CAN ROTATE THEIR HEADS 270 DEGREES.

A sloth turns its head to look back
iStock.com/MikeLane45

This special talent puts three-toed sloths in the same category as many owls. In both species, this Exorcist-esque ability can be attributed to their bone structure. Sloths have extra vertebrae at the base of their necks that let them look in all directions with ease. Although sloths aren't great at defending themselves, they can at least see when danger is approaching.

13. FOR SUCH DEFENSELESS CREATURES, THEY LIVE FAIRLY LONG LIVES.

A sloth peeks out from behind a tree
iStock.com/Damocean

"Live slow, die whenever"—the unofficial slogan bestowed upon sloths by the internet—pretty much gets it right. On average, sloths live to be about 20 years old, but some species can live longer in captivity. The world's oldest sloth—a female of the Hoffman's two-toed variety named Miss C—died last year at the ripe old age of 43. She was a lifetime resident of Australia's Adelaide Zoo.

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