12 Facts About Kidney Stones

Illustration by Mental Floss. Images: iStock
Illustration by Mental Floss. Images: iStock

Kidney stones are more common than ever. According to Harvard Medical School, every year more than 3 million people see a doctor for relief from these hard mineral and salt deposits, which form in your kidney when urine becomes too concentrated. Here's what we know about the condition formally called nephrolithiasis.

1. KIDNEY STONES TYPICALLY CAUSE REALLY PAINFUL SYMPTOMS.

At first you may notice your urine is cloudy, bloody, and foul smelling. Your back may begin to ache, and nausea may come over you. Then, as the stone moves from your kidney into your urinary tract or bladder, sometimes becoming trapped, there’s often an intense, stabbing pain that many people say they wouldn’t wish on their worst enemy.

2. MOST PEOPLE DEVELOP ONE TYPE OF STONE …

What kind of kidney stone you get depends on your diet, fluid intake, genetics, hereditary disorders, and even whether you take certain medications, but the vast majority of people get calcium oxalate stones. They're formed from a mix of calcium in urine and the compound oxalate, which is found naturally in food like nuts, chocolate, and some vegetables, including beets and spinach; oxalate is also produced by your liver. There's some evidence that people who take the seizure medicine topiramate can develop these stones in the form of calcium phosphate.

3. … BUT THERE ARE THREE OTHER KINDS TOO.

Struvite stones are fast-growing mineral deposits that typically develop in response to a urinary tract infection, and can grow large enough to block the kidney, ureter, or bladder before you notice any symptoms; they affect women more than men. Uric acid stones turn up in people who eat a lot of red meat, shellfish, and organ meats, which contain hefty doses of an organic compound called purine that can lead to more uric acid than the kidneys can excrete. Cystine stones are caused by a rare hereditary disorder called cistinuria in which your kidneys excrete excessive amounts of the amino acid cystine.

4. THEY'RE EXTREMELY COMMON—ESPECIALLY IN MEN.

There's a solid chance you could end up with a kidney stone. The National Kidney Foundation notes that one in 10 people will develop one during the course of their life. And if you’re male, take note: Your gender alone is considered a kidney stone risk factor. Men are twice as likely as women to develop them. Another factor is age: Although stones are most common from ages 20 through 50, they tend to peak around age 30.

5. IF YOU’VE HAD A KIDNEY STONE, YOU’LL PROBABLY DEVELOP ANOTHER ONE …

Sorry to say, but simply having a kidney stone puts you at risk for a recurrence. If you’ve had one, the U.S. National Library of Medicine notes that there’s a 30 to 50 percent chance more stones will form within five years.

6. … BUT YOU CAN TAKE STEPS TO PREVENT THEM.

Cutting back on sodium (i.e. deli meats, packaged soups, and processed foods) can help, because a stone can form from excessive salt consumption. You should also avoid too much animal protein—it produces urine containing more acid, which is known to increase your risk for kidney stones—and increase your intake of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and low-fat dairy. And be sure to drink plenty of fluids, especially water—at least 12 glasses a day. (That's good advice for everyone, not just those prone to kidney stones.)

Don't drink much apple or cranberry juice as both contain oxalates and are linked to an increased risk of developing calcium oxalate stones. High doses of Vitamin C may boost the concentration of oxalate in urine; the Cleveland Clinic recommends a daily maximum of 500 milligrams.

7. IT'S A MYTH THAT CALCIUM CREATES SOME KIDNEY STONES.

Despite the fact that the word calcium is part of the most common kind of kidney stone, you don’t need to treat calcium as the enemy. In fact, having too little calcium can actually increase the odds you’ll get these types of stones. According to the Cleveland Clinic, eating about two or three servings of calcium-rich foods daily reduces oxalate absorption, helping to keep calcium oxalate stones away. So get out the cheese.

8. IF YOU PASS A STONE, CONGRATULATIONS! NOW TAKE IT TO A DOCTOR.

Ninety percent of kidney stones are passed through urination. Getting one out this way may hurt a lot, but once the stone has finished causing you agony, it could provide clues that could help you avoid developing another one. If you’re able to retrieve the stone, bring it to your doctor, who can order an analysis. Identifying its components can reveal the kind of stone it is and potentially point to a treatment or prevention plan.

9. IF YOU CAN’T PASS A STONE, TREATMENTS ARE AVAILABLE …

In an attempt to exit the body, a stone travels from the kidney to the bladder through a narrow tube called the ureter. If the stone is larger than a quarter-inch, it's simply too big to pass through the ureter, and will get trapped there. (If it can make it through to your bladder, it's small enough to pass out out of your body through the urethra.) This causes intense pain, blocked urine flow, and possible bleeding from urinary tract walls. That's when it's time for treatment.

There are several methods for getting rid of a kidney stone, all of which aim to break the stone into smaller pieces so they can leave the body. In an extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (from the Greek for "crushed stone"), high-frequency sound waves are applied externally to break stones up, allowing them to pass when you pee. Laser lithotripsy takes a similar approach: Stones in the ureter are broken up with a laser and also leave the body naturally. More invasive is percutaneous ultrasonic lithotripsy, which involves passing narrow instruments (including a fiberoptic camera) through your back to your kidney; ultrasound breaks the stones up, and then fragments are removed by an instrument. Finally, a ureteroscopy is a treatment option in which a small scope is inserted in the ureter towards the bladder to determine the stone's location. Then it's broken up for natural passage or removed altogether. Luckily, you're unconscious under general anesthesia during the last procedure.

10. … AND THEY'RE FAR SUPERIOR TO THOSE USED IN THE PAST.

Kidney stones are nothing new—mentions of the painful formations go back more than 5000 years, to Mesopotamian medical texts—and medical interventions have occurred for just as long. Stones made it into the Hippocratic Oath, in which physicians swore they would "not use the knife, not even on sufferers from stone," leaving the procedure to "such men as are engaged in this work" [PDF]. Surgeons in ancient Greece and India were attempting stone removal as far back as the 7th century BCE.

The 16th to 18th centuries were a heyday for stone surgeons, who were largely self-taught. The most notorious of them was Frere Jacques Beaulieu. He pioneered the lateral perineal lithotomy—which involved making an incision in the perineum, inserting a terrifying cutting instrument into the bladder, cutting up the stone, and then extracting the pieces with the instrument or his fingers—in the late 17th century. Unfortunately for his patients, he had no technical training, and his method was often deadly; in 1698, after 25 of his 60 patients died, he was banned from doing the procedure—but he didn't stop. He's thought to have performed more than 5000 lithotomies. (And no, the song doesn't seem to be about him.)

11. IF ALL ELSE FAILS, TRY RIDING A ROLLER COASTER.

If you’re a thrill seeker who happens to have kidney stones (and some vacation time), you may be in luck. After a "notable number" of patients reported that riding the Big Thunder Mountain roller coaster at Walt Disney World in Orlando helped them to pass their kidney stones, Michigan State University urologist David Wartinger decided to investigate. He created a kidney replica—complete with kidney stones—put it in a backpack, and let it ride the roller coaster 60 times. It worked—but passing the stones depended on where the backpack was placed in the coaster. Rides in the last car were the most effective, with the stones passing 64 percent of the time, while the front few cars yielded only a 16 percent success rate.

Big Thunder Mountain was the only ride in the theme park that was effective. Neither Space Mountain nor Aerosmith's Rock 'n' Roller Coaster did the trick, likely because they were too fast, with a G-force that pinned the stones in place. Of course, while this is an interesting finding, if you suspect you have kidney stones, speak to your doctor before you high-tail it to Walt Disney World.

12. A KIDNEY STONE THE SIZE OF A MOUSE WAS REMOVED FROM A MAN IN 2004.

The stone measured 5.11 inches at its widest point—a world record. Five years later, a whopping 2.5-pound stone was surgically removed from a man in Hungary in 2009. Perhaps seeing a bunch of kidney stones in one place other than originating from your own body will put you at ease. If that’s the case, check out the International Museum of Surgical Science in Chicago, where a collection of stones is on display in glass jars.

The CDC Is Here to Ruin the Holidays By Reminding You Not to Eat Cookie Dough

iStock.com/YinYang
iStock.com/YinYang

The holidays are upon us and, right on schedule, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has arrived to crush one of the small joys the season has to offer. As The Takeout reports, the CDC issued a statement recently reminding us to abstain from eating raw cookie dough while baking, no matter how great the temptation may be.

Cookie dough, though delicious, is unfortunately unsafe to consume any time of year. The dough contains raw eggs that can potentially harbor salmonella, a type of bacteria that causes fever, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. And the risk of salmonella poisoning isn't the only reason to avoid raw dough: Uncooked flour hasn't been treated to kill germs, which means it may be carrying E. coli. The bacteria—which induces symptoms similar to those seen with salmonella exposure—can stay dormant in flour for months and reactivate when it's mixed with eggs, oil, and water. The only way to make sure your cookies are safe to eat is by giving them plenty of time to bake in the oven.

It's widely known that sampling raw cookie dough comes with health risks, but some of us need an extra reminder ahead of holiday cookie swap season.

"There are many special occasions through the year that are perfect to spend time with loved ones while preparing delicious baked foods in the kitchen," the CDC said in its statement. "When you prepare homemade cookie dough, cake mixes, or even bread, you may be tempted to taste a bite before it is fully cooked. But steer clear of this temptation."

Cookies are so appealing in their uncooked form that there are entire businesses built around cookie dough that's purportedly safe to eat. New York and London are both home to cookie dough cafes, and in 2014, a company that sells edible dough by the tub found success on Shark Tank. If you don't have access to safe-to-eat dough this holiday season, there are plenty of fully-baked cookie options out there to choose from.

[h/t The Takeout]

14 Facts About Celiac Disease

iStock.com/fcafotodigital
iStock.com/fcafotodigital

Going gluten-free may be a modern diet trend, but people have been suffering from celiac disease—a chronic condition characterized by gluten intolerance—for centuries. Patients with celiac are ill-equipped to digest products made from certain grains containing gluten; wheat is the most common. In the short-term this can cause gastrointestinal distress, and in the long-term it can foster symptoms associated with early death.

Celiac diagnoses are more common than ever, which also means awareness of how to live with the condition is at an all-time high. Here are some things you might not know about celiac disease symptoms and treatments.

1. Celiac an autoimmune disease.

The bodies of people with celiac have a hostile reaction to gluten. When the protein moves through the digestive tract, the immune system responds by attacking the small intestine, causing inflammation that damages the lining of the organ. As this continues over time, the small intestine has trouble absorbing nutrients from other foods, which can lead to additional complications like anemia and osteoporosis.

2. You can get celiac disease from your parents.

Nearly all cases of celiac disease arise from certain variants of the genes HLA-DQA1 and HLA-DQB1. These genes help produce proteins in the body that allow the immune system to identify potentially dangerous foreign substances. Normally the immune system wouldn't label gliadin, a segment of the gluten protein, a threat, but due to mutations in these genes, the bodies of people with celiac treat gliadin as a hostile invader.

Because it's a genetic disorder, people with a first-degree relative (a sibling, parent, or child) with celiac have a 4 to 15 percent chance of having it themselves. And while almost all patients with celiac have these specific HLA-DQA1 and HLA-DQB1 variations, not everyone with the mutations will develop celiac. About 30 percent of the population has these gene variants, and only 3 percent of that group goes on to develop celiac disease.

3. Makeup might contribute to celiac disease symptoms.

People with celiac disease can’t properly process gluten, the protein naturally found in the grains like wheat, rye, and barley. Patients have to follow strict dietary guidelines and avoid most bread, pasta, and cereal, in order to manage their symptoms. But gluten isn’t limited to food products: It can also be found in some cosmetics. While makeup containing gluten causes no issues for many people with celiac, it can provoke rashes in others or lead to more problems if ingested. For those folks, gluten-free makeup is an option.

4. The name comes from 1st-century Greece.

A 1st-century Greek physician named Aretaeus of Cappadocia may have been the first person to describe celiac disease symptoms in writing [PDF]. He named it koiliakos after the Greek word koelia for abdomen, and he referred to people with the condition as coeliacs. In his description he wrote, “If the stomach be irretentive of the food and if it pass through undigested and crude, and nothing ascends into the body, we call such persons coeliacs.”

5. There are nearly 300 celiac disease symptoms.

Celiac disease may start in the gut, but it can be felt throughout the whole body. In children, the condition usually manifests as bloating, diarrhea, and abdominal discomfort, but as patients get older they start to experience more “non-classical” symptoms like anemia, arthritis, and fatigue. There are at least 281 symptoms associated with celiac disease, many of which overlap with other conditions and make celiac hard to diagnose. Other common symptoms of the disease include tooth discoloration, anxiety and depression, loss of fertility, and liver disorders. Celiac patients also have a greater chance of developing an additional autoimmune disorder, with the risk increasing the later in life the initial condition is diagnosed.

6. Some patients show no symptoms at all.

It’s not uncommon for celiac disease to be wrecking a patient’s digestive tract while showing no apparent symptoms. This form of the condition, sometimes called asymptomatic or “silent celiac disease,” likely contributes to part of the large number of people with celiac who are undiagnosed. People who are at high risk for the disease (the children of celiac sufferers, for example), or who have related conditions like type 1 diabetes and Down syndrome (both conditions that put patients at a greater risk for developing new autoimmune diseases) are encouraged to get tested for it even if they aren’t showing any signs.

7. It’s not the same as wheat sensitivity.

Celiac is often confused with wheat sensitivity, a separate condition that shares many symptoms with celiac, including gastrointestinal issues, depression, and fatigue. It’s often called gluten sensitivity or gluten intolerance, but because doctors still aren’t sure if gluten is the cause, many refer to it as non-celiac wheat sensitivity. There’s no test for it, but patients are often treated with the same gluten-free diet that’s prescribed to celiac patients.

8. It's not a wheat allergy either.

Celiac disease is often associated with wheat because it's one of the more common products containing gluten. While it's true that people with celiac can't eat wheat, the condition isn't a wheat allergy. Rather than reacting to the wheat, patients react to a specific protein that's found in the grain as well as others.

9. It can develop at any age.

Just because you don’t have celiac now doesn’t mean you’re in the clear for life: The disease can develop at any age, even in people who have tested negative for it previously. There are, however, two stages of life when symptoms are most likely to appear: early childhood (8 to 12 months) and middle adulthood (ages 40 to 60). People already genetically predisposed to celiac become more susceptible to it when the composition of their intestinal bacteria changes as they get older, either as a result of infection, surgery, antibiotics, or stress.

10. Not all grains are off-limits.

A gluten-free diet isn’t necessarily a grain-free diet. While it’s true that the popular grains wheat, barley, and rye contain gluten, there are plenty of grains and seeds that don’t and are safe for people with celiac to eat. These include quinoa, millet, amaranth, buckwheat, sorghum, and rice. Oats are also naturally gluten-free, but they're often contaminated with gluten during processing, so consumers with celiac should be cautious when buying them.

11. Celiac disease can be detected with a blood test.

Screenings for celiac disease used to be an involved process, with doctors monitoring patients’ reactions to their gluten-free diet over time. Today all it takes is a simple test to determine whether someone has celiac. People with the condition will have anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies in their bloodstream. If a blood test confirms the presence of these proteins in a patient, doctors will then take a biopsy of their intestine to confirm the root cause.

12. The gluten-free diet doesn’t work for all patients.

Avoiding gluten is the most effective way to manage celiac disease, but the treatment doesn’t work 100 percent of the time. In up to a fifth of patients, the damaged intestinal lining does not recover even a year after switching to a gluten-free diet. Most cases of non-responsive celiac disease can be explained by people not following the diet closely enough, or by having other conditions like irritable bowel syndrome, lactose intolerance, or small intestine bacterial overgrowth that impede recovery. Just a small fraction of celiac disease sufferers don’t respond to a strict gluten-free diet and have no related conditions. These patients are usually prescribed steroids and immunosuppressants as alternative treatments.

13. If you don’t have celiac, gluten probably won’t hurt you.

The gluten-free diet trend has exploded in popularity in recent years, and most people who follow it have no medical reason to do so. Going gluten-free has been purported to do everything from help you lose weight to treat autism—but according to doctors, there’s no science behind these claims. Avoiding gluten may help some people feel better and more energetic because it forces them to cut heavily processed junk foods out of their diet. In such cases it’s the sugar and carbs that are making people feel sluggish—not the gluten protein. If you don’t have celiac or a gluten sensitivity, most experts recommend saving yourself the trouble by eating healthier in general rather than abstaining from gluten.

14. The numbers are growing.

A 2009 study found that four times as many people have celiac today than in the 1950s, and the spike can’t be explained by increased awareness alone. Researchers tested blood collected at the Warren Air Force Base between 1948 and 1954 and compared them to fresh samples from candidates living in one Minnesota county. The results supported the theory that celiac has become more prevalent in the last half-century. While experts aren’t exactly sure why the condition is more common today, it may have something to do with changes in how wheat is handled or the spread of gluten into medications and processed foods.

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