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Do Sharks Really Not Get Cancer?

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Thinkstock

"Take shark cartilage," the doctor on the daytime talk show says. "Sharks don’t get cancer, and the pills will keep you from getting it, too." The thinking behind these pills is that shark cartilage has demonstrated anti-angiogenic properties—that is, it slows or stops the development of blood vessels. Since tumors need networks of blood vessels to survive and grow, cutting off vessel growth should starve, shrink and destroy a tumor. It seems to work for the sharks, argued best-sellers like Sharks Don’t Get Cancer: How Shark Cartilage Could Save Your Life and Sharks Still Don’t Get Cancer.

There’s two big problems here, though. The first is that, while some anti-angiogenesis therapies and medications are effective and have been approved by the FDA for treating cancers, cartilage pills aren’t one of them. The pills don’t make good on the claims made about them. Cartilage pill makers and pushers base their promotions around a very small body of research that shows, says the American Cancer Society, only a “modest ability to slow the growth of new blood vessels in laboratory cell cultures and in animals” and, in a series of trials that have been critiqued for poor controls and methodology, mixed results in humans. Another study suggested that a group of patients with advanced cancer went into remission thanks to cartilage treatment, but the results weren’t published in a peer-reviewed journal and the National Cancer Institute later called the study "incomplete and unimpressive.” 

The overwhelming majority of peer-reviewed and published evidence goes against shark cartilage’s supposed anti-cancer abilities. In numerous trials with both human patients and mouse models, researchers have concluded that shark cartilage provides no benefit against cancers. Both the FDA and FTC have pulled shark cartilage products from the market and/or fined their manufacturers for making unproven claims about anti-cancer properties.

The second problem is that the very foundation of the cartilage pill cure—the idea that sharks don’t get cancer—isn’t at all true.

Sharks get cancer. We knew that even before people started claiming that they didn’t and using that to market cartilage pills. The first tumor recorded on a cartilaginous fish was found on a skate in 1853, and the first found on a shark followed in 1908. Since then, researchers have found some 40 instances of cancerous tumors in at least 24 shark species. These tumors were found in various parts of the body—including in the cartilage and on the face of this poor great white shark.

Image courtesy of Andrew Fox and Sam Cahir 

So, yes, Virginia, there are cancer-stricken sharks, and using bits and pieces of them in pills won’t do anything for you. 

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The Simple Way to Protect Your Dog From Dangerous Rock Salt
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Winter can be a tough time for dogs. The cold weather usually means there are fewer opportunities for walks and more embarrassing accessories for them to wear. But the biggest threat to canines this time of year is one pet owners may not notice: the dangerous rock salt coating the streets and sidewalks. If you live someplace where this is a problem, here are the steps you need to take to keep your pooch safe until the weather warms up, according to Life Hacker.

Rock salt poses two major hazards to pets: damage to their feet and poisoning from ingestion. The first is the one most pet owners are aware of. Not only do large grains of salt hurt when they get stuck in a dog’s paws, but they can also lead to frostbite and chemical burns due to the de-icing process at work. The easiest way to prevent this is by covering your dog’s paws before taking them outside. Dog booties get the job done, as do protective balms and waxes that can be applied directly to their pads.

The second danger is a little harder to anticipate. The only way you can stop your dog from eating rock salt from the ground is to keep a close eye on them. Does your dog seem a little too interested in a puddle or a mound of snow? Encourage them to move on before they have a chance to take a lick.

If, for some reason, you forget to follow the steps above and your pet has a bad encounter with some winter salt, don’t panic. For salty feet, soak your dog's paws in warm water once you get inside to wash away any remaining grit. If your dog exhibits symptoms like vomiting, diarrhea, and disorientation and you suspect they’ve ingested rock salt, contact your vet right away.

Even with the proper protection, winter can still create an unsafe environment for dogs. Check out this handy chart to determine when it’s too cold to take them for a walk.

[h/t Life Hacker]

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© Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
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Animals
Boston's Museum of Fine Arts Hires Puppy to Sniff Out Art-Munching Bugs
© Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
© Museum of Fine Arts, Boston

Some dogs are qualified to work at hospitals, fire departments, and airports, but one place you don’t normally see a pooch is in the halls of a fine art museum. The Museum of Fine Arts, Boston is changing that: As The Boston Globe reports, a young Weimaraner named Riley is the institution’s newest volunteer.

Even without a background in art restoration, Riley will be essential in maintaining the quality of the museum's masterpieces. His job is to sniff out the wood- and canvas-munching pests lurking in the museum’s collection. During the next few months, Riley will be trained to identify the scents of bugs that pose the biggest threat to the museum’s paintings and other artifacts. (Moths, termites, and beetles are some of the worst offenders.)

Some infestations can be spotted with the naked eye, but when that's impossible, the museum staff will rely on Riley to draw attention to the problem after inspecting an object. From there, staff members can examine the piece more closely and pinpoint the source before it spreads.

Riley is just one additional resource for the MFA’s existing pest control program. As far as the museum knows, it's rare for institutions facing similar problems to hire canine help. If the experiment is successful, bug-sniffing dogs may become a common sight in art museums around the world.

[h/t The Boston Globe]

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