Why Our Brains Love Plot Twists

Getty Images
Getty Images

From the father-son reveal in The Empire Strikes Back to the shocking realization at the end of The Sixth Sense, everyone loves a good plot twist. It's not the element of surprise that makes them so enjoyable, though. It's largely the set-up, according to cognitive scientist Vera Tobin.

Tobin, a researcher at Case Western Reserve University, writes for The Conversation that one of the most enjoyable moments of a film or novel comes after the big reveal, when we get to go back and look at the clues we may have missed. "The most satisfying surprises get their power from giving us a fresh, better way of making sense of the material that came before," Tobin writes. "This is another opportunity for stories to turn the curse of knowledge to their advantage."

The curse of knowledge, Tobin explains, refers to a psychological effect in which knowledge affects our perception and "trips us up in a lot of ways." For instance, a puzzle always seems easier than it really is after we've learned how to solve it, and once we know which team won a baseball game, we tend to overestimate how likely that particular outcome was.

Good writers know this intuitively and use it to their advantage to craft narratives that will make audiences want to review key points of the story. The end of The Sixth Sense, for example, replays earlier scenes of the movie to clue viewers in to the fact that Bruce Willis's character has been dead the whole time—a fact which seems all too obvious in hindsight, thanks to the curse of knowledge.

This is also why writers often incorporate red herrings—or false clues—into their works. In light of this evidence, movie spoilers don't seem so terrible after all. According to one study, even when the plot twist is known in advance, viewers still experience suspense. Indeed, several studies have shown that spoilers can even enhance enjoyment because they improve "fluency," or a viewer's ability to process and understand the story.

Still, spoilers are pretty universally hated—the Russo brothers even distributed fake drafts of Avengers: Infinity War to prevent key plot points from being leaked—so it's probably best not to go shouting the end of this summer's big blockbuster before your friends have seen it.

[h/t The Conversation]

The 10 Best Movies of 2018, According to Rotten Tomatoes

The Weinstein Company
The Weinstein Company

We're a few weeks into the new year, but it's not too late to catch up on the best movies of 2018. If you're looking for a place to start, why not check out the top 10 films most widely loved by critics last year, according to Rotten Tomatoes.

The list, reported by Cinema Blend, includes a mix of family flicks, action-packed blockbusters, and art house films. Marvel's Black Panther—which was a hit with both critics and moviegoers, and just became the first superhero movie to earn an Oscar nomination for Best Picture—tops the list as Rotten Tomatoes's best-reviewed movie of 2018 with a wide release. It's accompanied by two other superheroes movies: Incredibles 2 and Spider-Man: Into the Spiderverse (both of which earned Oscar nominations for Best Animated Film).

Last year proved that critics aren't prejudiced against sequels if they're well made, with Paddington 2 and Mission: Impossible - Fallout making the list along with the second Incredibles film. This list is limited to movies that had a wide release in 2018 (600 theaters or more), so some awards darlings like Netflix's Roma didn't make the cut. But there were a few indie hits that received wider showings and earned critical acclaim, including Bo Burnham's Eighth Grade and the Mister Rogers documentary Won't You Be My Neighbor?.

After checking out the full list below, you can start getting excited about the highly-anticipated films coming out in 2019.

1. Black Panther
2. Mission: Impossible - Fallout
3. BlacKkKlansman
4. Spider-Man: Into the Spider-Verse
5. A Star is Born
6. A Quiet Place
7. Paddington 2
8. Incredibles 2
9. Eighth Grade
10. Won't You Be My Neighbor

[h/t Cinema Blend]

Game of Thrones Star Sophie Turner Says Latest Teaser Has 'Nothing to Do' With Season 8

HBO
HBO

If you ever want to get lost down a Reddit rabbit hole, check out the Game of Thrones and Game of Thrones Theories subreddits. Since season 7 ended in August 2017, fans have been rabidly theorizing about what they believe will happen in the final season, even going so far as to comb through old episodes and interviews and re-read George RR Martin’s A Song of Ice and Fire book series for any clues. Now that we've finally seen a few teasers for season 8, fans have begun analyzing even the tiniest details to see what sort of future they might hint at. There's just one problem: The promos apparently have nothing to do with the details of the final season.

Fansite Winter Is Coming recently resurfaced an interview with actress Sophie Turner, who plays Sansa Stark, from October 2018's New York Comic Con, in which she stated that the latest teaser—which features Sansa, Arya Stark, and Jon Snow coming face-to-face with statues of themselves—is actually irrelevant to the final season. According to Turner:

“We did this promo for season 8 where—I don’t know if I can say this, actually. Well, actually, no. It’s got nothing to do with the series; it’s just a promo. It was this big kind of statue of me, of Sansa, and I wanted to have it in the garden of my new house. But they obviously wouldn’t ship it from Belfast to New York, so …”

Since it debuted more than a week ago, the newest teaser has spawned a range of fan theories, from speculation that Bran Stark is either the Night King or the Three-Eyed Raven to Jon Snow being one of the series' few (or only) survivors.

Though it seemed clear that the teaser wasn't actual footage from season 8, fans were all banking on it meaning something about the series' final season. But the fact that Turner could talk about it without revealing any spoilers is pretty strong proof that it doesn’t include any hints about how it will all end. Which just goes to show that, like Jon Snow, we know nothing.

Game of Thrones returns for the final time on April 14, 2019.

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