Thinkstock/Erin McCarthy
Thinkstock/Erin McCarthy

The American Dialect Society’s Word of the Year is “Because”

Thinkstock/Erin McCarthy
Thinkstock/Erin McCarthy

We’ve been talking about words of the year for a month now. Oxford Dictionaries chose “selfie” as its word of the year; Merriam-Webster chose “science.” “Twerk” got a lot of attention, but didn’t manage to top any lists, though it did make Lake Superior State University’s annual Banished Words List. The American Dialect Society waits until the year is completely finished before holding its vote for the word of the year, a lively event, now in its 24th year, that was held last night. Here are some of the words that were up for discussion.

Because

Because won for Word of the Year, which might seem strange for a word that’s been around for so long, but this year it “exploded with new grammatical possibilities in informal online use,” says Ben Zimmer, chair of the New Words Committee of the American Dialect Society. “No longer does because have to be followed by of or a full clause. Now one often sees tersely worded rationales like ‘because science’ or ‘because reasons.’ You might not go to a party ‘because tired.’ As one supporter put it, because should be Word of the Year ‘because useful!’”

It won over a roomful of linguists who find the development of a whole new kind of sentence structure especially interesting. Because grammar!

ACC

Standing for “aggressive carbon-copy,” as in when you CC the boss on an email in order to undermine the recipient. This was a contender for the “Most Useful” category, but because won there too.

Catfish

This word for the practice of misrepresenting yourself online won for “Most Creative” over doge, the new meme that pairs funny phrases with pictures of a Shiba Inu dog, but only by six votes in a runoff.

Underbutt

In another runoff vote, underbutt beat revenge porn for “Most Outrageous.”

-shaming

Yet another runoff vote had to be held in the “Most Productive” category. This category, new this year, selects the combining form that has been most productive in yielding new words. The ending found in terms like slut-shaming, fat-shaming, and pet-shaming won out over –splaining (from mansplaining, whitesplaining, journosplaining, etc.).

Sharknado

Winner for “Most Unnecessary” by a landslide. Cronut didn’t even have a chance. Really, who does when faced with a sharknado?

Least Untruthful

This phrase, used by intelligence director James Clapper, won for “Most Euphemistic.”

Binge-watch

Beat Obamacare, glasshole, and drone as word “Most Likely to Succeed.”

Thanksgivukkah

The rare joint occurrence of Thanksgiving and Hanukkah will not be seen again in our lifetimes, so this word was a pretty safe bet for “Least Likely to Succeed.”

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Words
25 Words That Are Their Own Opposites
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Here’s an ambiguous sentence for you: “Because of the agency’s oversight, the corporation’s behavior was sanctioned.” Does that mean, "Because the agency oversaw the company’s behavior, they imposed a penalty for some transgression," or does it mean, "Because the agency was inattentive, they overlooked the misbehavior and gave it their approval by default"? We’ve stumbled into the looking-glass world of contronyms—words that are their own antonyms.

1. Sanction (via French, from Latin sanctio(n-), from sancire ‘ratify,’) can mean "give official permission or approval for (an action)" or conversely, "impose a penalty on."

2. Oversight is the noun form of two verbs with contrary meanings, “oversee” and “overlook.” Oversee, from Old English ofersēon ("look at from above") means "supervise" (medieval Latin for the same thing: super-, "over" plus videre, "to see.") Overlook usually means the opposite: "to fail to see or observe; to pass over without noticing; to disregard, ignore."

3. Left can mean either remaining or departed. If the gentlemen have withdrawn to the drawing room for after-dinner cigars, who’s left? (The gentlemen have left and the ladies are left.)

4. Dust, along with the next two words, is a noun turned into a verb meaning either to add or to remove the thing in question. Only the context will tell you which it is. When you dust are you applying dust or removing it? It depends whether you’re dusting the crops or the furniture.

5. Seed can also go either way. If you seed the lawn you add seeds, but if you seed a tomato you remove them.

6. Stone is another verb to use with caution. You can stone some peaches, but please don’t stone your neighbor (even if he says he likes to get stoned).

7. Trim as a verb predates the noun, but it can also mean either adding or taking away. Arising from an Old English word meaning "to make firm or strong; to settle, arrange," trim came to mean "to prepare, make ready." Depending on who or what was being readied, it could mean either of two contradictory things: "to decorate something with ribbons, laces, or the like to give it a finished appearance" or "to cut off the outgrowths or irregularities of." And the context doesn’t always make it clear. If you’re trimming the tree are you using tinsel or a chain saw?

8. Cleave can be cleaved into two homographs, words with different origins that end up spelled the same. Cleave, meaning "to cling to or adhere," comes from an Old English word that took the forms cleofian, clifian, or clīfan. Cleave, with the contrary meaning "to split or sever (something)"—as you might do with a cleaver—comes from a different Old English word, clēofan. The past participle has taken various forms: cloven, which survives in the phrase “cloven hoof,” “cleft,” as in a “cleft palate” or “cleaved.”

9. Resign works as a contronym in writing. This time we have homographs, but not homophones. Resign, meaning "to quit," is spelled the same as resign, meaning "to sign up again," but it’s pronounced differently.

10. Fast can mean "moving rapidly," as in running fast, or "fixed, unmoving," as in holding fast. If colors are fast they will not run. The meaning "firm, steadfast" came first; the adverb took on the sense "strongly, vigorously," which evolved into "quickly," a meaning that spread to the adjective.

11. Off means "deactivated," as in to turn off, but also "activated," as in the alarm went off.

12. Weather can mean "to withstand or come safely through" (as in the company weathered the recession) or it can mean "to be worn away" (the rock was weathered).

13. Screen can mean to show (a movie) or to hide (an unsightly view).

14. Help means "assist," unless you can’t help doing something, when it means "prevent."

15. Clip can mean "to bind together" or "to separate." You clip sheets of paper to together or separate part of a page by clipping something out. Clip is a pair of homographs, words with different origins spelled the same. Old English clyppan, which means "to clasp with the arms, embrace, hug," led to our current meaning, "to hold together with a clasp." The other clip, "to cut or snip (a part) away," is from Old Norse klippa, which may come from the sound of a shears.

16. Continue usually means to persist in doing something, but as a legal term it means stop a proceeding temporarily.

17. Fight with can be interpreted three ways. “He fought with his mother-in-law” could mean "They argued," "They served together in the war," or "He used the old battle-ax as a weapon." (Thanks to linguistics professor Robert Hertz for this idea.)

18. Flog, meaning "to punish by caning or whipping," shows up in school slang of the 17th century, but now it can have the contrary meaning, "to promote persistently," as in “flogging a new book.” Perhaps that meaning arose from the sense "to urge (a horse, etc.) forward by whipping," which grew out of the earliest meaning.

19. Go means "to proceed," but also "give out or fail," i.e., “This car could really go until it started to go.”

20. Hold up can mean "to support" or "to hinder": “What a friend! When I’m struggling to get on my feet, he’s always there to hold me up.”

21. Out can mean "visible" or "invisible." For example, “It’s a good thing the full moon was out when the lights went out.”

22. Out of means "outside" or "inside": “I hardly get out of the house because I work out of my home.”

23. B**ch can derisively refer to a woman who is considered overly aggressive or domineering, or it can refer to someone passive or submissive.

24. Peer is a person of equal status (as in a jury of one’s peers), but some peers are more equal than others, like the members of the peerage, the British or Irish nobility.

25. Toss out could be either "to suggest" or "to discard": “I decided to toss out the idea.”

The contronym (also spelled “contranym”) goes by many names, including auto-antonym, antagonym, enantiodrome, self-antonym, antilogy and Janus word (from the Roman god of beginnings and endings, often depicted with two faces looking in opposite directions). Can’t get enough of them? The folks at Daily Writing Tips have rounded up even more.

This piece originally ran in 2015.

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Pop Culture
'Binge-watch' and More New Words Now Officially Recognized by the Oxford English Dictionary
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Television series and movies are a pervasive part of our culture, and our collective obsession with Netflix and easily streamable content extends far beyond the screen. For proof, look no further than the Oxford English Dictionary, which just officially recognized “binge-watch” as a word, USA Today reports, along with more than 900 other words.

Defined as "to watch multiple episodes of (a television programme) consecutively or in rapid succession," binge-watch is just one of the new words added to the UK-based reference book. "Spoiler alert," defined as “a forewarning of a plot spoiler," is also one of the new entries.

A lot can be gleaned about our current cultural moment by looking at new additions to any dictionary. For instance, ongoing discussions surrounding gender, sexuality, and prejudice have prompted the Oxford English Dictionary to recognize the words “microaggression” (a statement or act regarded as prejudice), "misgender" (to refer to someone as a different gender than the one they identify with), and "pansexual" (someone who is attracted to people of all gender identities, beyond the binary identities of male and female).

Several words have also been added to recognize different orientations in respect to romantic (as opposed to sexual) attraction, including "biromantic," "heteroromantic," and "homoromantic." "One of the most conspicuous domains in which the vocabulary of English has expanded in recent decades is that of gender and sexuality," Katherine Connor Martin, head of U.S. Dictionaries at Oxford University Press, told USA Today.

Other fun and notable new words include:

Beerfest
Bewhiskered
Broccoli rabe
Energy vampire
Facebook (as a verb)
Hip-hoppy
Impactful
Lab rat
Positive energy
Teenagery
Teensploitation
Untippable
Whataboutery
Yessir
Zenned-out
Zeus-like

To see the full list of new additions, you can visit the dictionary's website here.

[h/t USA Today]

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