Watch a "Trained" Spider Named Kim Leap Six Times Its Body Length

iStock
iStock

Jumping spiders are cold-blooded assassins, masters of disguise, and just maybe a little quicker on the uptake than we're really OK with. For a study published in the journal Scientific Reports, a team of researchers from the University of Manchester "trained" one special jumping spider named Kim to leap in their experiment, all with the goal of demystifying the mechanics behind jumping spiders' abilities.

Kim was one of four regal jumping spiders (Phiddipus regius) the researchers brought into the lab for a close examination of how their bodies move as they leap and land. A jumping spider can clear up to six times its body length, which ranges from 0.04 to 0.98 inches—about the equivalent of a three-story building, relative to the spider's body size. For comparison, the farthest a human can jump is roughly 1.5 body lengths.

The researchers created an experiment chamber with platforms at varying distances from one another, then tried to coax the spiders into it. Only Kim would even enter. The researchers moved Kim between the take-off and landing platforms until she "became familiar with the challenge," they write. No tasty bait or stimulation (like blowing air) was used to motivate her. Still, her eventual familiarity with the task potentially implies some sort of learning. So even though she wasn't following orders, she figured out how to navigate the experiment's challenges—an impressive achievement for a spider about the size of an aspirin.

Using ultra-high-speed and high-resolution cameras, the researchers then filmed Kim's jumps to study how the arachnid moved her body when navigating a short jump equal to two body lengths; a longer jump equal to six lengths; and jumps between platforms placed at different heights. They found that Kim cleared shorter distances quickly and at low angles, thus sharpening her accuracy and boosting her chances of catching any prey that might be waiting at her destination. For longer jumps, she was more conservative with her energy, but her accuracy suffered.

Jumping spiders are excellent hunters, thanks in part to their precision ambushing skills. They also boast super-powered senses that help them locate their next meal before making their attack. Fine hairs on their legs allow them to "hear" subtle vibrations, and their eight eyes are sharp enough to track laser pointer lights.

This family of spiders also uses a hydraulic pressure system to move their legs. It helps jumping spiders extend their limbs, and some researchers have theorized that it also allows them to jump such great distances. According to the new study, that's not the case: "Our results suggest that whilst Kim can move her legs hydraulically, she does not need the additional power from hydraulics to achieve her extraordinary jumping performance," study co-author Bill Crowther said in a press statement. That means the jumps in the video below are made possible by Kim's muscle power alone.

A Generic EpiPen Coming in Early 2019 Could Save You Money

Brand-name EpiPens at a Congressional hearing on the escalating cost of the drug in 2016
Brand-name EpiPens at a Congressional hearing on the escalating cost of the drug in 2016
Alex Wong/Getty Images

For an incredibly common, life-saving medication, EpiPens (epinephrine auto-injectors) are surprisingly difficult for many consumers to get ahold of. Their cost has skyrocketed in recent years from less than $100 for a pack of two to more than $600. They’ve gotten so expensive that some EMTs have resorted to using syringes to manually administer epinephrine rather than purchasing the standard auto-injectors, which are almost exclusively made by the pharmaceutical company Mylan. Generic options have been slow to come to market, but according to Business Insider, a recently approved EpiPen rival is coming in the first few months of 2019, and it could save consumers a significant chunk of change.

The drug’s developers have had an unusually hard time getting the new EpiPen alternative, called Symjepi, onto store shelves. The drug was approved in 2017, but the company, Adamis Pharmaceuticals, had trouble finding investors. Now, Novartis, the Swiss-based pharmaceutical giant that manufactures drugs like Ritalin, is releasing the drug through its Sandoz division (perhaps most famous for it role in discovering LSD in the 1930s).

Symjepi will cost $250 out-of-pocket for a pack of two doses. That’s 16.6 percent less than the Mylan-authorized generic EpiPen or Teva’s generic EpiPen, which both sell for $300. It differs a bit from its rivals, though, in that it’s a pre-filled, single-dose syringe rather than a spring-loaded auto-injector. Auto-injectors are plastic, pen-like devices that keep the needle shielded until the moment of injection, and are specifically designed to help make it easier for untrained (even squeamish) people to use in an emergency. With this version, patients will need to remove a needle cap and inject the needle. Just like the EpiPen, though, it’s designed to be injected in the upper thigh, through clothing if necessary.

If you have health insurance, the difference in cost may not matter as much for you as a consumer, depending on your plan. (I personally picked up a two-pack of Mylan-authorized generic Epipens at CVS recently for $0, using a manufacturer’s Epipen coupon to knock down what would have been a $10 copay.) But it will matter considerably for those with high-deductible plans and to insurers, which, when faced with high costs, eventually pass those costs on to the consumer either through higher co-pays or higher premiums. It also affects agencies that buy EpiPens for emergency use, like local fire departments. And since EpiPens expire after just a year, the costs add up.

However, there’s currently a shortage of EpiPens on the market, according to the FDA, making it more important than ever to have other epinephrine drugs available to those at risk for serious allergic reactions.

[h/t Business Insider]

Brain-Eating Amoeba Kills Seattle Woman Who Used Tap Water in Her Neti Pot

CDC/Dr. Govinda S. Visvesvara, Wikimedia Commons // Public domain
CDC/Dr. Govinda S. Visvesvara, Wikimedia Commons // Public domain

If you use a neti pot to clear out your sinuses, there's one important rule you should always follow: Don't fill it with tap water. Doing so could land you a sinus infection, or worse, a potentially fatal disease caused by a brain-eating amoeba. Although the latter scenario is exceptionally rare, a 69-year-old woman in Seattle died from doing just that, The Seattle Times reports. Experts are also warning that these infections could become more common as temperatures in the northern hemisphere continue to rise.

Physicians at Seattle's Swedish Medical Center initially thought the woman had a brain tumor. She was brought into the emergency room following a seizure, and a CT scan of her brain seemed to reveal a tumor-like mass. The only other known symptom she had was a red sore on her nose, which was previously misdiagnosed as rosacea. When surgeons operated on her the following day, they noticed that "a section of her brain about the size of a golf ball was bloody mush," neurosurgeon Dr. Charles Cobbs told The Seattle Times. "There were these amoeba[e] all over the place just eating brain cells. We didn't have any clue what was going on, but when we got the actual tissue we could see it was the amoeba."

She died a month later of an infection called granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE), according to a recent case report published in the International Journal of Infectious Diseases. The disease is caused by a single-celled amoeba called Balamuthia mandrillaris, and it's extremely deadly. Of the 109 cases between 1974 and 2016, 90 percent were fatal.

According to the FDA, some bacteria and amoebae in tap water are safe to swallow because acid in the stomach kills them. However, when they enter the nasal cavity, they can stay alive for long periods of time and travel up to the brain, where they start eating their way through tissue and cells. Another brain-eating amoeba called Naegleria fowleri can cause a similar disease, except it acts faster and can cause death in just a few days. Although it's also rare, it's usually found in warm freshwater, and infections start by getting contaminated water up one's nose while swimming or by using a nose irrigation device filled with tap water.

Dr. Cynthia Maree, an infectious disease doctor at the Swedish Medical Center, said the changing environment could facilitate the spread of these infections. "I think we are going to see a lot more infections that we see south (move) north, as we have a warming of our environment," Maree says. Researchers say these amoebae are still little-understood. Future studies would need to be conducted to learn more about the risk factors involved.

[h/t The Seattle Times]

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