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Andrea Moroni, Flickr // CC BY-NC-ND 2.0
Andrea Moroni, Flickr // CC BY-NC-ND 2.0

Why Jaipur’s King Painted His City Pink to Impress the Prince of Wales

Andrea Moroni, Flickr // CC BY-NC-ND 2.0
Andrea Moroni, Flickr // CC BY-NC-ND 2.0

If a member of the royal family were coming to your home, you’d probably spruce it up a bit—maybe rearrange the furniture and plop some peonies into a vase. The king of Jaipur, however, went above and beyond what's expected of a host.

In an effort to impress the Prince of Wales ahead of his state visit in 1876, it is widely believed that the king had the entire city painted pink.

A row of pink buildings in Jaipur
iStock

The gate leading into the Pink City
iStock

Nestled in the state of Rajasthan in northern India, Jaipur is about a one-hour flight from New Delhi. Today, this popular tourist site is affectionately known as the “Pink City,” but its streets weren’t always so rosy. Prior to a state visit from Prince Albert Edward—the eldest son of Queen Victoria and her consort, Prince Albert—Jaipur’s buildings were either white or a “sallow yellow,” according to The Rough Guide to India.

In hopes of dazzling his royal counterpart, the reigning maharaja (“great king”) of Jaipur, Sawai Ram Singh II, decided to undertake something of a remodeling project. He ordered all buildings in the city to be painted the same shade of pink—a color that symbolizes hospitality. At the urging of his favorite wife, the maharaja took it one step further and passed a law in 1877 making it illegal for buildings in the old city to be painted any color other than "Jaipur pink." This law still remains in effect today.

Ram Singh II, the Maharaja of Jaipur
Ram Singh II, the Maharaja of Jaipur
Wikimedia Commons // Public Domain

A black and white photo of Jaipur from 1875
Taken in 1875, this photo shows a street leading to the City Palace in Jaipur.
Hulton Archive, Getty Images

According to one account, the first person to call Jaipur the “Pink City” was writer Stanley Reed, a correspondent for The Times of India who wrote about the Prince of Wales’s royal visit.

The color more closely resembled a light maroon, but no one seemed to object to the city's new moniker. The pigment was brought in from Kanota, located about 10 miles away, and mines were also dug closer to Jaipur to extract the stone needed to make more pink paint.

As for the king's grand plan to impress his guests, it seems to have worked. Sir William Howard Russell, a reporter who accompanied the prince and chronicled the trip, remarked, “We passed through a gateway, and Jaipur lay before us, a surprise and wonder forever.”

A bit of flattery didn’t hurt, either. Sawai Ram Singh II, who understood the political advantage of getting in the prince’s good graces, erected the grand Albert Hall Museum in his name. The prince laid the first foundation stone during his visit.

The Albert Hall Museum
The Albert Hall Museum
iStock

While the Prince Albert Edward story is the most widely told tale of how Jaipur got its rosy complexion, there are other notable theories. Author and historian Giles Tillotson posits that Jaipur was painted pink prior to the 19th century in an attempt to emulate the buildings of Delhi and Agra, many of which were constructed from pinkish sandstone. However, he says that Jaipur’s paint was touched up for the prince’s visit—hence the confusion.

In his 2006 book Jaipur Nama: Tales from the Pink City, Tillotson also noted a time in the late 19th century when Jaipur almost abandoned the whole pink project entirely:

“On one occasion, in 1868, the then Maharaja, Ram Singh II, recklessly suggested that the wash might be varied a bit, with different quarters of the city being painted in different colors; but by 1870 this experiment was recognized as a hideous mistake and the pink was restored ... But underneath the range of acrylic powder pinks there are traces of the geru, or terracotta pink, which was indeed original.”

Jaipur received another “facelift” in 2000 ahead of then-president Bill Clinton’s visit. In addition to requiring stores to post their signs in black Hindi lettering on white backgrounds, the city restricted some roads to traffic—which at the time was “unheard of in India,” according to The Rough Guide to India.

While Jaipur is India’s only “Pink City,” it’s not the only monochromatic metropolis in the country. In Rajasthan, there’s the “Blue City” of Jodhpur, the “White City” of Udaipur, and the “Yellow City” of Jaisalmer. Further north, the “Green City” of Chandigarh, so called for its abundant vegetation, made a list of “52 places to go in 2018” curated by The New York Times.

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You Can Now Rent the Montgomery, Alabama Home of Zelda and F. Scott Fitzgerald Through Airbnb
Chris Pruitt, Wikimedia Commons // CC BY-SA 3.0

The former apartment of Zelda and F. Scott Fitzgerald, perhaps the most famous couple of the Jazz Age, is now available to rent on a nightly basis through Airbnb, The Chicago Tribune reports. While visitors are discouraged from throwing parties in the spirit of Jay Gatsby, they are invited to write, drink, and live there as the authors did.

The early 20th-century house in Montgomery, Alabama was home to the pair from 1931 to 1932. It's where Zelda worked on her only novel Save Me the Waltz and F. Scott Fitzgerald wrote part of Tender Is the Night. The building was also the last home they shared with their daughter Scottie before she moved to boarding school.

In the 1980s, the house was rescued from a planned demolition and turned into a nonprofit. Today, the site is a museum and a spot on the Southern Literary Trail. While the first floor of the Fitzgerald museum, which features first-edition books, letters, original paintings, and other artifacts related to the couple, isn't available to rent, the two-bedroom apartment above it goes for $150 a night. Guests staying there will find a record player and a collection of jazz albums, pillows embroidered with Zelda Fitzgerald quotes, and a balcony with views of the property's magnolia tree. Of the four surviving homes Zelda and F. Scott lived in while traveling the world, this is the only one that's accessible to the public.

Though the Fitzgerald home is the only site on the Southern Literary Trail available to rent through Airbnb, it's just one of the trail's many historic homes. The former residences of Flannery O'Connor, Caroline Miller, and Lillian Smith are all open to the public as museums.

[h/t The Chicago Tribune]

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Maynard L. Parker/Courtesy of The Huntington Library in San Marino, California
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History
The Concept of the American 'Backyard' is Newer Than You Think
A home in Long Beach, California, in the 1950s.
A home in Long Beach, California, in the 1950s.
Maynard L. Parker/Courtesy of The Huntington Library in San Marino, California

Backyards are as American as apple pie and baseball. If you live in a suburban or rural area, chances are good that you have a lawn, and maybe a pool, some patio furniture, and a grill to boot.

This wasn’t always the case, though. As Smithsonian Insider reports, it wasn’t until the 1950s that Americans began to consider the backyard an extension of the home, as well as a space for recreation and relaxation. After World War II, Americans started leaving the big cities and moving to suburban homes that came equipped with private backyards. Then, after the 40-hour work week was implemented and wages started to increase, families started spending more money on patios, pools, and well-kept lawns, which became a “symbol of prosperity” in the 1950s, according to a new Smithsonian Institution exhibit.

A man mows his lawn in the 1950s
In this photo from the Smithsonian Institution's exhibit, a man mows his lawn in Long Beach, California, in the 1950s.
Maynard L. Parker/Courtesy of The Huntington
Library in San Marino, California

Entitled "Patios, Pools, & the Invention of the American Back Yard," the exhibition includes photographs, advertisements, and articles about backyards from the 1950s and 1960s. The traveling display is currently on view at the Temple Railroad & Heritage Museum in Temple, Texas, and from there it will head to Hartford, Connecticut, in December.

Prior to the 1950s, outdoor yards were primarily workspaces, MLive.com reports. Some families may have had a vegetable garden, but most yards were used to store tools, livestock, and other basic necessities.

The rise of the backyard was largely fueled by materials that were already on hand, but hadn’t been accessible to the average American during World War II. As Smithsonian Insider notes, companies that had manufactured aluminum and concrete for wartime efforts later switched to swimming pools, patio furniture, and even grilling utensils.

A family eats at a picnic table in the 1960s
A family in Mendham, New Jersey, in the 1960s
Molly Adams/Courtesy of the Smithsonian Institution, Archives of American Gardens, Maida Babson Adams American Garden Collection

At the same time, DIY projects started to come into fashion. According to an exhibit caption of a Popular Mechanics article from the 1950s, “‘Doing-it-yourself’ was advertised as an enjoyable and affordable way for families to individualize their suburban homes.” The magazine wrote at the time that “patios, eating areas, places for play and relaxation are transforming back yards throughout the nation.”

The American backyard continues to grow to this day. As Bloomberg notes, data shows that the average backyard grew three years in a row, from 2015 to 2017. The average home last year had 7048 square feet of outdoor space—plenty of room for a sizable Memorial Day cookout.

[h/t Smithsonian Insider]

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