This Is the Most Cited Academic Paper on Wikipedia

iStock
iStock

Many would probably be surprised to learn that a paper on climate classification has been referenced 2.8 million times on Wikipedia. The authors of the paper certainly were, as WIRED reported.

According to a recent analysis by The Wikimedia Foundation, which oversees Wikipedia, a paper titled "Updated world map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification" is by far the most cited source on the site, making its authors something like Wikipedia rock stars. To put that number in perspective, it's slightly less than the number of followers that rapper Cardi B has on Twitter.

While climate classification might not be the sexiest topic, it's incredibly useful across a number of fields, "since climate can affect everything from biology to sociology," as WIRED noted.

Penned by three Australian researchers, the academic paper updates an older version of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification system, which was originally conceived in 1884 by Russian-German climatologist Wladimir Köppen and updated in the 1950s by German climatologist Rudolf Geiger.

The Australian researchers—Brian Finlayson, Thomas McMahon, and Murray Peel—updated the map that accompanies the classification system yet again in 2007. The map's use has been widespread, with Lonely Planet reportedly using it to share general weather information about the various destinations it provides travel guides for.

The Köppen-Geiger climate classification map

Peel, M. C., Finlayson, B. L., and McMahon, T. A., Wikipedia // CC BY-SA 4.0

Finlayson, a retired geography professor from the University of Melbourne, was shocked to learn how frequently their map is referenced. "Those numbers blew me away," Finlayson told WIRED. "None of us had any idea about this. We didn't know Wikipedia collected this information or anything about it."

The Wikimedia Foundation arrived at this figure by analyzing the data of every citation in all of Wikipedia's 297 languages. The only stipulation was that the citations had to be paired with an identifier (for example, "DOI" for a scholarly paper, or "ISBN" for a book edition), but even after narrowing it down, they ended up with nearly 15.7 million records.

All of the top 10 sources by citation are reference books or scientific articles. Trailing far behind the updated Köppen-Geiger map in second place, with 21,350 citations, is some light reading on the "Prediction of Hydrophobic (Lipophilic) Properties of Small Organic Molecules Using Fragment Methods." "Galaxies and How to Observe Them," "A Concise History of Romania," and the California Academy of Sciences' "Catalog of Fishes" also make the top 10.

[h/t WIRED]

Even Marvel Studios's Co-President is Confused by Avengers 4 Teaser Photo

Marvel Studios
Marvel Studios

​by Kwadar Ray

Marvel fans have been left baffled ​by a teaser photo the Russo Brothers released, which possibly has the name of the new Avengers movie hidden in the picture.

The photo shows co-director Joe Russo sitting on an empty stage while working on his laptop, with the caption, "Look hard ..."

Fans have been speculating the past few days on what the hidden message in the photo is and what it reveals.

​​Turns out, fans are not the only ones playing "Where's Waldo," as even Marvel Studios's co-president Louis D’Esposito cannot even figure out what he's supposed to be looking at. 

D'Esposito expressed his confusion in a hilarious tweet, which also reveals he's being left in the dark by the directors.

We do not know for sure what we're looking hard for. A majority of fans are assuming it's the title of the movie—especially since the ​Russo Brothers said the name will be revealed after the Captain Marvel trailer was released—but it may also be a hint to the story or something else. ​​

Perhaps, it's the rocket engine prop in the photo that also featured in Infinity War.

Nevertheless, everything will be revealed soon when Avengers 4 hits theaters on May 3, 2019, and when all the promo for it begins (which will hopefully be soon).

The Most Fun Cities in America, Ranked

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iStock

You can argue all you want about how great your favorite city is, but the data doesn’t lie: If you want to have fun, head to Vegas. WalletHub compared 182 different cities across the U.S.—the country’s overall most populous cities, plus at least two of the biggest cities in every state—to come up with a list of the most fun cities in the entire country, and Sin City took the cake.

The scores are based on 56 different metrics in three different categories: entertainment and recreation; nightlife and parties; and cost. The metrics included appearances on lists like the TripAdvisor’s Travelers’ Choice Awards for top destinations; the number of beaches, movie theaters, casinos, hiking trails, festivals, bars, and clubs; how accessible bars are (both in number and geographical proximity); and the average cost of food, wine, hotels, and movie theater trips. Some of these metrics were adjusted to account for differences in city size, since, for instance, New York City would obviously have more restaurants than a smaller city like Lincoln, Nebraska.

Accounting for all these factors, these are the most fun cities in America, according to this particular dataset.

1. Las Vegas, Nevada
2. Orlando, Florida
3. New York City, New York
4. Atlanta, Georgia
5. Miami, Florida
6. Chicago, Illinois
7. Portland, Oregon
8. San Francisco, California
9. New Orleans, Louisiana
10. San Diego, California

Though the order of the rankings might be a little surprising, many of the cities are well-known as vacation destinations. Vegas, obviously, is a legendary destination for partying. Orlando is home to not just Disney World, but Universal Studios Florida (where the Wizarding World of Harry Potter is located) and SeaWorld Orlando, among others. New York City hosts the most tourists of any city in America each year. New Orleans is renowned for its food, bar scene, and music, in addition to the two weeks of parades and celebrations the city hosts during Mardi Gras—and yet it barely managed to break into the top 10, at No. 9.

Indeed, while the top 10 list isn’t necessarily surprising on its face, the order may be. Atlanta managed to beat out Miami, though the latter is more famous for its party atmosphere and picturesque beaches. Disney World apparently beats out the Statue of Liberty and 30 Rock, because Orlando is ranked as more fun than the Big Apple. And New Orleans was surpassed by less-popular destination cities like Portland and San Francisco. (Not to mention the fact that poor Los Angeles, the country’s second-biggest city and a major tourist destination in its own right, didn’t even crack the top 10, coming in at No. 13.)

As for the least-fun major cities included on the list— which you can dive into below—you may not have ever heard of them. Aside from perhaps Juneau and Pearl City (on the north shore of Pearl Harbor near Honolulu), most aren’t tourist destinations. Perhaps they’re better for residents than they are for tourists, though. Both Oxnard and Bridgeport appeared on National Geographic's list of the happiest cities in the U.S. in 2017.

1. Pearl City, Hawaii
2. Oxnard, California
3. Bridgeport, Connecticut
4. Santa Rosa, California
5. Fontana, California
6. Yonkers, New York
7. Rancho Cucamonga, California
8. South Burlington, Vermont
9. Juneau, Alaska
10. Moreno Valley, California

Disagree with the list? See where your favorite city ended up and the breakdown of scores of on WalletHub, or explore the map below.

Source: WalletHub

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