15 Facts About The Megalodon Shark

Megalodon reconstruction. In its time, the shark would have been eating a dwarf species (now extinct) that measured around 15 feet long.
Megalodon reconstruction. In its time, the shark would have been eating a dwarf species (now extinct) that measured around 15 feet long.
iStock

For over 20 million years, a gigantic shark popularly known as megalodon stalked the world’s oceans—and this month, it will invade movie theaters in The Meg. Here are 15 facts about the toothy predator.

1. MEGALODON ISN'T THE SHARK’S FULL NAME.

It might be the moniker it goes by in pop culture, cable mockumentaries, and B-movies, but megalodon is only one half of this shark's scientific name. Most paleontologists classify the prehistoric predator under the extinct genus Carcharocles (or, more rarely, Otodus), while others think it belongs to the genus Carcharodon (whose only living member is the great white), making its scientific name either Carcharocles megalodon or Carcharodon megalodon. In either case, megalodon is not a genus name, but a species name (it’s like the difference between Homo and sapiens).

But there’s also a group of fossil bivalves—small, hard-shelled mollusks that emerged in the Devonian period and died out during the Jurassic—whose genus name is Megalodon (with a capital M). Don’t count on seeing them in any big-budget horror flicks.

2. SOME MEGALODON TEETH WERE OVER 7 INCHES LONG.

Because shark skeletons are made of cartilage—which doesn’t fossilize easily—our understanding of megalodon comes mainly from its teeth. Like sharks today, megalodon was constantly shedding its pearly whites, and its fossilized teeth have been discovered on every continent except Antarctica. Analysis of those chompers allowed scientists to determine that the species lived from 23 to 2.6 million years ago and was truly massive: The biggest megalodon tooth on record is 7.5 inches long. A great white's teeth reach a maximum length of about 3 inches.

3. MEGALODON HELPED INVENT MODERN GEOLOGY.

For centuries, people dug strange objects out of rocks in Malta that became known as glossopetrae, or tongue stones. Pliny the Elder felt glossopetrae fell from the heavens during an eclipse, and Medieval legend attributed them to Saint Paul casting a curse on the island’s serpents. Nowadays, it’s generally agreed that the largest glossopetrae were megalodon teeth.

In 1666, Nicholas Steno, a physician at the Florence court, was given the head of a shark to dissect, and he noticed the similarities between the shark’s teeth and glossopetrae. Although others were doing similar work before Steno, he became interested in how the teeth got into the rocks, and that led to more general work in geologic theory and how layers of rock form. Today, Steno is referred to as the “Father of Stratigraphy.”

4. WE'VE FOUND THEIR BACKBONES ...

They're much rarer than teeth, but occasionally, megalodon backbones are found—most often the central part of the vertebra known as the vertebral centra. In the 1860s, a fossilized spinal column with roughly 150 vertebrae was unearthed in Belgium. Japan and North America have yielded megalodon backbones as well.

5. ... AND THEIR POOP.

Coprolite attributed to megalodon
James St. John, Wikimedia Commons // CC BY 2.0

Another thing that the giant fish apparently left behind is petrified poop. At a deposit in South Carolina, hundreds of megalodon teeth were found near what’s been identified as the coprolites (a.k.a. fossil feces) of a large-bodied shark. Scientists aren’t sure, but the maker of this poop was probably a megalodon. The biggest recovered turd at the site was 5.5 inches long and spiral-shaped. Great white shark poop has a similar appearance because their lower intestines are twisted into a corkscrew-like configuration.

6. IT’S THOUGHT TO BE THE BIGGEST SHARK THAT EVER LIVED ...

Everyone wants to know how big it was—including the scientific community—but for now, all we can do is estimate. A complete megalodon skeleton has yet to be found, and it’s doubtful that one will ever turn up. Trying to make an educated guess about an extinct critter’s maximum size on the basis of scattered teeth, disembodied spinal columns, and the occasional turd is a daunting challenge.

Ichthyologist John E. Randall once compared the enamel heights of great white shark and megalodon teeth, and calculated that if megalodon had the same general body proportions as living great whites do, the prehistoric fish would be roughly 43 feet long. Using a different formula, biologist Michael Gottfried and some of his colleagues concluded that megalodon reached lengths of 52 feet and could have weighed 48 tons. They published their findings in 1996, six years before scientist Clifford Jeremiah used the width of megalodon tooth roots to calculate that a full-grown megalodon could be up to 54 feet long. Other estimates put the shark’s total size in the range of 67 to 82 feet.

The biggest species alive today is the peaceful whale shark, which can grow to be 40 feet long (while reports of longer specimens exist, they’re generally viewed as unreliable). Even the smallest estimates hold that megalodon was longer, and probably a lot heavier, so it's generally considered the largest shark—and most likely the biggest fish—of all time.

7 ... BUT IT WASN'T THE ONLY GIANT SHARK IN TOWN.

When one thinks “prehistoric giant shark,” the mental list includes megalodon and … no other animal. But while they were the biggest, some estimate that there could have been anywhere from 10 to 60 “Megatooth” sharks around the same time [PDF]. For instance, Carcharocles chubutensis (sometimes called C. subauriculatus) is reported as having teeth over 5 inches long—which means the shark would have been well in excess of 20 feet. Sadly, there’s much disagreement about who belongs where in the world of giant sharks, as many of these fossils are rare [PDF].

8. MEGALODON WAS A WHALE-EATER.

We know this because there are fossilized whale bones covered in scars that perfectly match the size and serrations of megalodon teeth. Just last year, the list of nibbled-on remains got longer. A study published in March 2017 announced that megalodon bite marks had just been documented on several fossilized bones from filter-feeding whales, which were unearthed in southern Peru and are about 7 million years old. “The bitten material,” wrote the paper’s authors, “includes skull remains referred to small-sized baleen whales” along with fragments of other bones from assorted whales and pinnipeds.

One of the victimized species was Piscobalaena nana, which looked like a miniature humpback; it measured just 16 feet long from nose to tail. Diminutive baleen whales such as Piscobalaena were quite common in the tropical waters megalodon once patrolled. It’s been suggested that megalodon might have specialized in eating the dwarf whales—which could help explain the great shark’s disappearance. As Earth grew cooler, small filter-feeding whales like Piscobalaena were replaced by giants like contemporary humpback and blue whales. Although these big mammals are built to survive in very cold water, it’s unclear if megalodon could. Robbed of its favorite prey and unable to pursue newer, bigger cetaceans, megalodon may well have been doomed. Or at least, that might be part of the story …

9. MEGALODON PROBABLY HAD A STRONGER BITE THAN T. REX.

Carcharodon megalodon
Géry Parent, Flickr // CC BY-ND 2.0

In addition to whales and pinnipeds, megalodon's natural diet included fish, turtles, and distant early relatives of the manatee. Megalodon must have had a powerful bite to make short work of its prey. To figure out how strong its jaws were, a research group led by biologist Stephen Wroe CT scanned a 530-pound great white shark [PDF] and used that data to build a computer model of the fish’s head. After running the model through a few simulations, the scientists reported that a live great white can close its jaws with 4000 pounds of force, which led them to estimate megalodon's maximum bite force at 24,000 to 40,000 pounds. “At [40,000 pounds of force], I reckon it could have crushed a small car,” Wroe says. “Of course, it would probably have broken most of its teeth in the exercise.” If his conclusions are correct, megalodon had the strongest bite of any studied animal in history, including the Tyrannosaurus rex: According to one study from 2017, the dino exerted just 8000 pounds of force while clamping down on prehistoric prey.

10. ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH THE GREAT WHITE ISN'T CLEAR-CUT.

C. megalodon and the great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias) had many things in common. They both preyed on big marine mammals and their mouths were packed with broad, triangular teeth (although the great white’s aren't as finely serrated as megalodon’s). Given the similarities, biologists used to think the two sharks were close relatives and that megalodon was the great white’s direct ancestor. This is no longer the consensus. A 2005 comparison of several hundred shark teeth argued that the great white must have evolved from a type of extinct mako. Further support for this idea came in 2012, when paleontologists examined a set of fossilized jaws belonging to Carcharodon hubbelli, a prehistoric shark that lived 6.5 million years ago that exhibited intermediate features between broad-toothed makos and great whites. The fish’s teeth looked distinctly great white-esque—right down to the serrations. Although the exact relationship between megalodon and great whites is still up for debate, the prevailing view today is that the latter evolved from some type of mako.

11. ONE OF ITS POTENTIAL RIVALS WAS A MONSTROUS SPERM WHALE.

Livyatan melvillei was a type of sperm whale named after an Old Testament sea beast and Moby-Dick author Herman Melville. The creature was 45 to 60 feet long, making it comparable in size to its living brethren. But whereas modern sperm whales have relatively small teeth, Livyatan packed a mouthful of humongous teeth—the largest was 5 inches wide and 14 inches long, almost as big as a two-liter soda bottle. What on earth was this monster eating? Probably those dwarf baleen whales we mentioned earlier. Livyatan first appeared between 12 and 13 million years ago and its remains have been found in some of the same deposits as megalodon teeth. Paleontologists are researching the relation between the two, but they likely ate similar prey.

12. IT LOOKS LIKE YOUNG MEGALODONS GREW UP IN TROPICAL NURSERIES.

A man points at teeth of Megalodon found during the excavations for the Panama Canal expansion in Panama City.
Rodrigo Arangua, AFP/Getty Images

Great whites, hammerheads, and a few other 21st century sharks give birth in relatively safe zones biologists call “nurseries.” These are shallow waters where big predators are few and far between. Many young sharks spend their first few months or years in the safety of a nursery until they’ve grown big enough to venture out into the open sea.

Megalodon young may have done the same. Down in Panama, there’s a 10-million-year-old geologic site with an unusually high concentration of small megalodon teeth. Since the vast majority came from adolescent sharks who would have been 7 to 35 feet long, it’s thought that the area was once a megalodon nursery. Florida’s Bone Valley region may have been another mass birthing site for the species.

13. THOMAS JEFFERSON OWNED A MEGALODON TOOTH.

The two-dollar founding father was an avid fossil fan: Jefferson gathered and wrote about mastodon bones, along with the claws of what he thought was a giant lion but turned out to be an ice age ground sloth. One of the most interesting fossils Jefferson owned was a megalodon tooth from South Carolina, a specimen that bears his signature on the enamel. His collection of prehistoric animal remains resides at the Academy of Natural Sciences in Philadelphia.

14. THERE’S NO EVIDENCE THAT MEGALODON IS STILL ALIVE.

The youngest megalodon remains in the fossil record are around 2.6 million years old. Hypotheses on why the super predator disappeared after that point are numerous and varied. Maybe competition from new sharks and whales that were appearing did megalodon in. Its extinction has been blamed on oceanic cooling as well, but this idea has recently been criticized.

No matter what killed the species off, the consensus among scientists is that megalodon is indeed deceased. It’s hard to sink a good sea monster story, though. Novels like the Meg series and other fictional works about megalodons who have somehow managed to survive into the 20th or 21st centuries are popular. But as marine biologist Craig McClain and many others have noted, there’s no compelling scientific reason to think that megalodon is still lurking in our oceans. McClain argued in Deep Sea News that “if Megalodon existed now we would not only see [Megalodon] teeth all over today, as we do for other sharks, but [we] would have fossilized ones from the last 2.6 million years. By the way, Megalodon teeth are pretty recognizable and distinctive, beyond just size, from other extinct sharks and the Great White.” So in other words, researchers would have no trouble distinguishing between megalodon teeth and those of extant sharks.

It also stands to reason that if the species was still around, newly-dead megalodons would wash up on the beach once in a while. We’d also find megalodon teeth embedded in the occasional whale corpse. No such evidence has ever arisen—and claims of a deep-sea megalodon population are highly unlikely. As paleobiologist Meghan Balk told The Daily Beast, “Megalodon fossils appear in shallower marine sediments. Plus, most large sharks occur in the upper 500 meters of the water column, probably due to productivity. The deep is much too nutrient poor to support such a large animal.”

15. IT'S ABOUT TO STAR IN A MOVIE.

After more than 20 years languishing in development hell, Steve Alten’s classic shark novel Meg—which launched a series of books—is finally being made into a movie. The Meg, which will hit theaters on August 10, stars Jason Statham as a rescue diver tasked with saving the crew of a deep sea observation program whose undersea workstation has been disabled after being attacked by the thought-to-be-extinct creature.

Additional Sources: Megalodon: Hunting the Hunter; The Story of Life in 25 Fossils: Tales of Intrepid Fossil Hunters and the Wonders of Evolution

13 Fascinating Facts About Bees

iStock.com/florintt
iStock.com/florintt

Sure, you know that bees pollinate our crops and give us honey. But there's so much more to these buzzing insects than that.

1. Bee stings have some benefits.

A toxin in bee venom called melittin may prevent HIV. Melittin can kill HIV by poking holes into the virus's protective envelope. (Meanwhile, when melittin hitches a ride on certain nanoparticles, it will just bounce off normal cells and leave them unharmed.) Scientists at Washington University in St. Louis hope the toxin can be used in preventative gels.

Bee stings may also ease pain caused by rheumatoid arthritis. Researchers at the University of Sao Paulo found that molecules in bee venom increase your body's level of glucocorticoid, an anti-inflammatory hormone.

2. Bees work harder than you do.

During chillier seasons, worker bees can live for nine months. But in the summer, they rarely last longer than six weeks—they literally work themselves to death.

3. When bees change jobs, they change their brain chemistry.

bees flying to a hive
iStock/bo1982

Bees are hardwired to do certain jobs. Scout bees, which search for new sources of food, are wired for adventure. Soldier bees, discovered in 2012, work as security guards their whole life. One percent of all middle-aged bees become undertakers—a genetic brain pattern compels them to remove dead bees from the hive. But most amazingly, regular honeybees—which perform multiple jobs in their lifetime—will change their brain chemistry before taking up a new gig.

4. Their brains defy time.

When aging bees do jobs usually reserved for younger members, their brain stops aging. In fact, their brain ages in reverse. (Imagine if riding a tricycle didn't just make you feel young—it actually made your brain tick like a younger person's.) Scientists at Arizona State University believe the discovery can help us slow the onset of dementia.

5. Bees are changing medicine.

To reinforce their hives, bees use a resin from poplar and evergreen trees called propolis. It's basically beehive glue. Although bees use it as caulk, humans use it to fight off bacteria, viruses, and fungi. Research shows that propolis taken from a beehive may relieve cold sores, canker sores, herpes, sore throat, cavities, and even eczema.

6. Bees can recognize human faces.

Honeybees make out faces the same way we do. They take parts—like eyebrows, lips, and ears—and cobble them together to make out the whole face. It’s called "configural processing," and it might help computer scientists improve face recognition technology, The New York Times reports.

7. Bees have personalities

Even in beehives, there are workers and shirkers. Researchers at the University of Illinois found that not all bees are interchangeable drones. Some bees are thrill-seekers. Others are a bit more timid. A 2011 study even found that agitated honeybees can be pessimistic, showing that, to some extent, bees might have feelings.

8. They get buzzed from caffeine and cocaine.

bumblebee on a flower
iStock/Whiteway

Nature didn't intend for caffeine to be relegated to your morning pot of coffee. It's actually a plant defense chemical that shoos harmful insects away and lures pollinators in. Scientists at Newcastle University found that nectar laced with caffeine helps bees remember where the flower is, increasing the chances of a return visit.

While caffeine makes bees work better, cocaine turns them into big fat liars. Bees "dance" to communicate—a way of giving fellow bees directions to good food. But high honeybees exaggerate their moves and overemphasize the food's quality. They even exhibit withdrawal symptoms, helping scientists understand the nuances of addiction.

9. Bees have Viking-like navigation techniques.

Bees use the Sun as a compass. But when it's cloudy, there's a backup—they navigate by polarized light, using special photoreceptors to find the Sun's place in the sky. The Vikings may have used a similar system: On sunny days, they navigated with sundials, but on cloudy days, sunstones—chunks of calcite that act like a Polaroid filter—helped them stay on course.

10. Bees can solve hairy mathematical problems.

Pretend it's the weekend, and it's time to do errands. You have to visit six stores and they're all at six separate locations. What's the shortest distance you can travel while visiting all six? Mathematicians call this the "traveling salesman problem," and it can even stump some computers. But for bumblebees, it's a snap. Researchers at Royal Holloway University in London found that bumblebees fly the shortest route possible between flowers. So far, they're the only animals known to solve the problem.

11. Bees are nature's most economical builders.

In 36 BCE, Marcus Terentius Varro argued that honeycombs were the most practical structures around. Centuries later, Greek mathematician Pappus solidified the "honeycomb conjecture" by making the same claim. Almost 2000 years later, American mathematician Thomas Hales wrote a mathematical proof showing that, of all the possible structures, honeycombs use the least amount of wax. And not only are honeycombs the most efficient structures in nature—the walls meet at a precise 120-degree angle, a perfect hexagon.

12. Bees can help us catch serial killers.

Serial killers behave like bees. They commit their crimes close to home, but far enough away that the neighbors don't get suspicious. Similarly, bees collect pollen near their hive, but far enough that predators can't find the hive. To understand how this "buffer zone" works, scientists studied bee behavior and wrote up a few algorithms. Their findings improved computer models police use to find felons.

13. Bees are job creators.

beekeeper working with bees
iStock/Milan_Jovic

The average American consumes roughly 1.51 pounds of honey each year. On top of that, the U.S. Department of Agriculture estimates that honeybees pollinate up to 80 percent of the country's insect crops—meaning bees pollinate over $15 billion worth of crops each year.

This article was updated and republished in 2019.

25 Benefits of Adopting a Rescue Dog

iStock.com/Manuel-F-O
iStock.com/Manuel-F-O

According to the ASPCA, 3.3 million dogs enter shelters each year in the United States. Although that number has gone down since 2011 (from 3.9 million) there are still millions of dogs waiting in shelters for a forever home. As May 20th is National Rescue Dog Day, here are 25 benefits of adopting a shelter dog.

1. Adopting a dog means you won't be supporting puppy mills.

A closeup of a dog's nose sticking out from between green bars.
iStock

If you go to a pet store or to a disreputable breeder to buy that adorable puppy, it's entirely possible that it's from a puppy mill, where dogs are kept in terrible conditions. By adopting a rescue, you can help lower the demand for puppies from puppy mills.

2. You can find almost any breed you want.

A beagle puppy standing on a stone walkway.
iStock

Is your heart set on a specific breed? There's a wide network of breed-specific rescues out there. Just spend a little time online and you can get the dog of your dreams without resorting to buying from puppy mills.

3. Shelter dogs are eager to follow your lead.

A woman holding up her finger to a dog.
iStock

A 2016 study that appeared in Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research analyzed problem solving in dogs in homes (what they called "pet dogs") versus shelter dogs. The researchers found that although pet dogs are better at following human pointing, shelter dogs "seem to be more socially driven to gaze and interact with humans" when compared with pet dogs, which they say is likely due to the shelter dogs' "generally limited and poor-quality contact with humans." But the researchers also pointed out that with increased human exposure, the shelter dogs were trainable.

4. A rescue dog might help you get a date.

Two people from the knees down standing close together with a black and white dog between them.
iStock

According to Slate, one survey found that "82 percent of people [felt] more confident approaching an attractive person if they had their dog with them." Another study cited by Slate found that in the modern world of dating apps, people with dogs look more approachable and happy than those who are dogless.

5. You can share your audiobook collection with them.

A young girl reads a book to her Pomeranian.
iStock

There have been several studies on the best ways to calm dogs in kennels [PDF]. Classical music seems to work well, but a 2016 study found that compared to other "auditory conditions," kenneled dogs were more relaxed while audiobooks were playing. Cesar Milan then did his own tests and found that 76 percent of his volunteer dogs were more relaxed at home while listening to audiobooks—and teamed up with Audible to create a specialized audiobook service. Just be careful: soon your rescue pup will be better read than you.

6. Rescue dogs can transform in dramatic ways in a forever home.

A happy dog with his tongue out sitting in a field of flowers.
iStock

Thanks to those heart-wrenching ASPCA/Sarah McLachlan commercials, everyone is familiar with how sad a dog can appear in a shelter. But once adopted, dogs' attitudes can change dramatically. In 2008, Italian researchers published a paper about a shelter dog named Daisy that they placed into a facility for people suffering from Alzheimer’s disease. Although in the shelter Daisy had groomed so much that she developed a skin lesion, in the six months that she lived at the facility, her over-grooming lessened, she was healthy, and she "displayed no aggressive or sexual behavior, even when in heat." And the calming effect seemed to go both ways: the researchers reported, the people in the facility experienced "many positive effects of Daisy's presence."

7. Shelter pets come with benefits.

A dog running through the grass with an orange ball in its mouth.
iStock

Whether you get your pet at a breed-specific rescue or from a normal shelter, you'll often have access to resources about your fuzzy new family member, and maybe even classes on how best to take care of them.

8. Shelter dogs are typically up-to-date on all their shots.

A vet giving a shot to a golden retriever puppy.
iStock

Depending on the shelter, shelter dogs may already be vaccinated and microchipped (or the shelter will perform these services for a small fee)—which means you can get straight to cuddling your new pet instead of making vet appointments.

9. Shelter dogs may also already be spayed or neutered.

A vet looking into a dog's ear.
iStock

More than half of states have laws requiring "releasing agencies" (a.k.a. shelters) to spay or neuter dogs they adopt out. While the pet sometimes isn't fixed until you adopt it, frequently it's already been spayed or neutered. Check with your local adoption center.

10. By adopting a dog, you're helping to keep the unwanted pet population down.

A lazy bulldog lying on a rug.
iStock

If you happen to adopt a dog that isn't fixed, you can still help prevent pet overpopulation (especially in the wild) by keeping it in the house and away from other unfixed dogs of the opposite sex. (But seriously, get your pets fixed!)

11. Rescue dogs may be easier to housetrain.

A small dog holding a leash in its mouth.
iStock

Many adult shelter dogs are already housebroken when you adopt them. But because the dog may have a history that prevented such training (such as never being allowed inside the house), you shouldn't go in expecting a house-trained pet. If your new pupper isn't house-trained, there are resources out there that can help you reach that goal; many say that adult dogs have an easier time getting the hang of it.

12. Adopt and older dog and you can skip the puppy stage.

A dachshund puppy plays with a shoe outside in grass.
iStock

Yes, puppies are adorable. They're also full of energy and require a lot of time, training, attention, and patience. It can be tough to fit an energetic puppy into a hectic life. Adopting an older dog from a shelter allows you to skip the puppy stage altogether, which can mean an easier transition from not having a pet to being a pet owner. It also (hopefully) means you may avoid having your slippers, running shoes, pillows, furniture, and doors gnawed on by sharp little puppy teeth.

13. If you adopt an older dog, you'll have a better idea of their temperament.

An older dog sitting in the grass with his tongue sticking out.
iStock

An analysis of many studies found that the "personality" of an adult dog is fairly consistent. Puppies, on the other hand, can change personality a fair amount, especially when it comes to "responsiveness to training, fearfulness, and sociability." So by getting an adult dog, you have a better idea of what the animal's personality is truly like.

14. A shelter can help match you with a dog that best reflects your personality.

A red haired woman holding a white dog, both laughing.
iStock

Because adult dogs are generally more fixed in their personalities, many adoption centers have matching programs that help the process of pairing dog and human. The ASPCA claims the programs have dramatically improved successful adoptions at some shelters.

15. You'll feel more involved in the community.

A businessman walking his dog and talking to another dog owner.
iStock

According to a 2013 study, dog owners over 50 who walked their dogs felt a higher sense of community. So adopting a dog can help you connect to your neighbors.

16. A dog can improve your health.

Woman working on her computer getting a kiss on the face from her dog.
iStock

A study of Mexican dog owners versus non-dog owners found that the dog owners felt that they were healthier: "Compared to non–dog owners, the dog owners' scores were significantly lower for psychosomatic symptoms and stress and were higher for general health, vitality, emotional role, absence of bodily pain, social functioning, and mental health."

17. Your kids will play more if you have a dog.

A group of kids petting a dog.
iStock

It's not just adults who experience health benefits from having a dog; another study found that child dog walkers played outside more and were more likely to walk in the neighborhood.

18. Adopting a pet helps small wild animals.

A dog looking for a squirrel up in a tree, but the squirrel is on the other side of the tree.
iStock

As one of the most common predators in human areas, dogs can easily do great harm to local wildlife. By keeping dogs out of the wild (whether that's the city or the countryside), you can help reduce the numbers of truly wild animals that are preyed upon by what are supposed to be pets.

19. Adopting a dog can limit the spread of disease.

A yellow lab staring up at the camera.
iStock

Feral dogs can also have disastrous effects on wild animals in regards to disease. For instance, the black-footed ferret was nearly driven to extinction by canine distemper. By keeping dogs out of the environment and up-to-date on all their necessary shots and vaccinations, adopters help many other animals, too.

20. You could have a movie star on your hands.

A dog wearing a bowtie, standing behind a slate for a movie.
iStock

A surprising number of actual canine movie stars came from shelters. The original Benji was adopted from a shelter; Rudy, one of the 22 dogs that played Marley in the film Marley and Me, was just 24 hours away from being put down before he was rescued; and Spike, the star of Old Yeller, was adopted from Van Nuys Animal Shelter, supposedly for $3.

21. A rescue dog might have experience living in a home, making the move from shelter to your home an easier transition.

A dog on its back on a carpet.
iStock

Some shelters have foster programs, where the dog is sent out to live with a volunteer in an actual house. Not only does this give the dog a chance to be away from the shelter, but it gives the humans looking after the pup a chance to see how the dog reacts in a less controlled environment—hopefully making the future forever home transition easier.

22. Even volunteering to foster has its benefits.

A woman walking a dog in the park.
iStock

If you're not quite ready to adopt, consider fostering, which has a number of benefits for you and for the dogs you're housing. According to one researcher, overweight participants in a "loaner" dog walking program lost an average of 14 pounds because they felt "the dogs need us to walk them." Other participants in a community dog walking program were inspired to increase their exercise even when they weren't walking dogs.

23. You can help shelters modernize.

A chihuahua sitting on a cushion in an animal shelter.
iStock

Shelters across the country are modernizing their facilities—which can sometimes be a very expensive prospect. The adoption fee you pay to the shelter to take your dog home will help the facility get the resources to give future dogs a better shelter experience.

24. By adopting a dog, you're saving at least one life.

A happy dog with its tongue sticking out lying on flowers.
iStock

By giving a dog in a shelter a second chance, you can make sure it has a great life.

25. In reality, you're probably saving more than one life.

A dog running with a stick in its mouth; all four feet are off the ground.
iStock

By adopting a dog, you open up a space in the shelter that can be filled by another future pet. And by supporting your local shelter, you help their mission to save many more.

But remember, a pet of any kind is a massive commitment. Some estimate that "more than 20 percent of people who leave dogs in shelters adopted them from a shelter." And studies have found that much of the problem is people not knowing what they're getting into. So make sure that you have the time and energy to devote to a pet, and do your research before adopting.

This story has been updated for 2019.

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