An 88,000-Year-Old Middle Finger May Change What We Know About Human Migration

Ian Cartwright
Ian Cartwright

A middle finger might change what we thought we knew about human migration from Africa. As Gizmodo reports, a new study in Nature Ecology and Evolution analyzes what may be the oldest modern human fossil outside of Africa and the Levant (modern-day Israel, Lebanon, Syria, and Jordan). Found in an ancient lake bed in the Arabian desert, the bone has been dated to 88,000 years ago, indicating that human migration from Africa may have started much earlier than previously thought.

Previous research has suggested that Homo sapiens populations migrated out of Africa and into Eurasia (perhaps thanks to climate change) in one big wave around 60,000 years ago. The fossilized finger bone, about an inch long, indicates the story might be more complicated.

A paleontologist with the Saudi Geological Survey, Iyad Zalmout, found the bone in 2016. He and his fellow researchers created 3D scans of the bone and compared them with other finger bones from Homo sapiens, Neanderthals, and modern primates like gorillas to determine that it is, in fact, a human bone. They then dated the fossil using uranium series dating, a measure of the bone's ratio of radioactive elements, to arrive at an estimated age of roughly 88,000 years old. They also found animal fossils and sediment at the site to be around 90,000 years old.

A surveyor stands in the desert.
The area in Saudi Arabia where the finger was found.
Klint Janulis

At that time, the area in the Nefud Desert where the bone was found would have been semi-arid grasslands surrounding a freshwater lake, a more hospitable climate than it is today. At some parts during this era, the Red Sea between Africa and the Arabian Peninsula would have been low enough to make it essentially just a big river, so humans could have crossed there, as a related article in the journal by anthropologist Donald Henry notes.

Several scientists told Gizmodo that it's possible that the bone isn't human at all—it could belong to a relative of Homo sapiens—and that the authors of the new study are overstating the significance of their finding, so the analysis is somewhat controversial.

However, other evidence has pointed to an earlier African exit date for humans. In 2015, scientists in China discovered human teeth they dated to 80,000 years ago, though they weren't able to date the bone directly—instead, they analyzed the teeth's surroundings. In January 2018, scientists announced that they had found a partial jawbone in an Israeli cave dating back at least 177,000 years.

"The ability of these early people to widely colonize this region [of Arabia] casts doubt on long held views that early dispersals out of Africa were localized and unsuccessful," said lead author Huw Groucutt, of the University of Oxford and the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, in a statement.

[h/t Gizmodo]

Mastodon Bones Have Been Discovered by Sewer Workers in Indiana

Thomas Quine, Flickr // CC BY 2.0
Thomas Quine, Flickr // CC BY 2.0

When something unexpected happens during a sewer system project, the news is not usually pleasant. But when workers installing pipes in Seymour, Indiana stopped due to an unforeseen occurrence, it was because they had inadvertently dug up a few pieces of history: mastodon bones.

According to the Louisville Courier Journal, workers fiddling with pipes running through a vacant, privately owned farm in Jackson County happened across the animal bones during their excavation of the property. The fossils—part of a jaw, a partial tusk, two leg bones, a vertebrae, a joint, some teeth, and a partial skull—were verified as belonging to a mastodon by Ron Richards, the senior research curator of paleobiology for the Indiana State Museum and Historic Sites. The mastodon, which resembled a wooly mammoth and thrived during the Ice Age, probably stood over 9 feet tall and weighed more than 12,000 pounds.

The owners of the farm, the Nehrt and Schepman families, plan to donate the bones to the Indiana State Museum in Indianapolis if the museum committee decides to accept them. Previously, mastodon bones were found in Jackson County in 1928 and 1949. The remains of “Fred the Mastodon” were discovered near Fort Wayne in 1998.

[h/t Louisville Courier Journal]

Middle School Student Discovers Megalodon Tooth Fossil on Spring Break

iStock.com/Mark Kostich
iStock.com/Mark Kostich

A few million years ago, the megalodon was the most formidable shark in the sea, with jaws spanning up to 11 feet wide and a stronger bite than a T. Rex. Today the only things left of the supersized sharks are fossils, and a middle school student recently discovered one on a trip to the beach, WECT reports.

Avery Fauth was spending spring break with her family at North Topsail Beach in North Carolina when she noticed something buried in the sand. She dug it up and uncovered a shark tooth the length of her palm. She immediately knew she had found something special, and screamed to get her family's attention.

Her father recognized the megalodon tooth: He had been searching for one for 25 years and had even taught his three daughters to scour the sand for shark teeth whenever they went to the beach. Avery and her sisters found a few more shark teeth that day from great whites, but her megalodon fossil was by far the most impressive treasure from the outing.

Megalodons dominated seas for 20 million years before suddenly dying out 3 million years ago. They grew between 43 and 82 feet long and had teeth that were up to 7.5 inches long—over twice the size of a great white's teeth. They're thought to be the largest sharks that ever lived.

Megalodon teeth have been discovered on every continent except Antarctica, but they're still a rare find. Avery Fauth plans to keep her fossil in a special box at home.

[h/t WECT]

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