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19 Short Films Made Into Feature-Length Movies

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Making and distributing a short film is relatively less expensive than making a feature film, and sometimes it’s a director’s ticket to stardom in Hollywood. Here are 19 short films that were expanded into full-length features.

1. Short: Bottle Rocket / Feature: Bottle Rocket

In 1992, after meeting in a playwright class at the University of Texas in Austin, Wes Anderson and Owen Wilson collaborated on a short film called Bottle Rocket, which followed the exploits of three clueless would-be criminals, played by Robert Musgrave, Owen Wilson, and his brother Luke. During the 1994 Sundance Film Festival, Bottle Rocket received little attention from film critics and festival attendees, but it managed to catch the eye of film producer James L. Brooks, who funded the duo’s debut feature based on the short.

The feature film version of Bottle Rocket was released in 1996 and gained cult status among film critics and cinephiles. The difference between the 13-minute short and the 92-minute feature film are mostly cosmetic; the narrative was expanded, and color photography was used. The feature also ditched the short's jazzy soundtrack for a new score from composer and former Devo member Mark Mothersbaugh. Director Martin Scorsese named Bottle Rocket one of his 10 favorite movies of the decade, and it launched Anderson and the Wilson brothers’ careers.

2. Short: Jay & Seth vs. The Apocalypse / Feature: This Is The End

In 2007, actors Jay Baruchel and Seth Rogen starred in a 10-minute short film featuring two friends named Jay and Seth arguing while trapped in their apartment during a cataclysmic doomsday event. While the short film was only intended to play the film festival circuit, its premise was expanded into the feature film This Is The End in 2013.

The feature film now took place at a Hollywood party and centered on a group of celebrities going through the Biblical Rapture. The comedy starred James Franco, Rogen, Baruchel, Jonah Hill, Craig Robinson, and Danny McBride playing exaggerated versions of their on-screen personas.

3. Short: Frankenweenie / Feature: Frankenweenie

In 2007, Disney signed Tim Burton to direct two films using Disney Digital 3D, the Mouse House’s own 3D technology system: Alice In Wonderland and the stop-motion animated remake of Burton’s own 1984 short film Frankenweenie. The original short film is live-action with Shelley Duvall, Daniel Stern, and Barret Oliver as the Frankenstein family.

After the short was completed, Disney fired Burton because the film didn’t meet the movie studio’s expectations as a family film. Frankenweenie was originally going to screen before the 1984 re-release of Pinocchio, but instead Disney decided to shelve it. After Burton found success with Pee-Wee’s Big Adventure and the original Batman film series, Disney released the short film on home video in 1992.

The full-length feature film version of Frankenweenie was released in 2012 and received nominations for an Academy Award for Best Animated Feature Film.

4. Short: Le Jetée / Feature: 12 Monkeys

Terry Gilliam’s sci-fi classic time travel film 12 Monkeys was a box office hit in 1995. Brad Pitt’s performance as the mentally disturbed Jeffery Goines earned the actor his first Academy Award nomination, and the movie won the Saturn Award for Best Science Fiction Film. Little do many people know, 12 Monkeys was based on French New Wave filmmaker Chris Marker’s 1962 short film La Jetée.

The French short film is told with still images and text, and follows a man who is a prisoner living underground of a post-apocalyptic Paris in the aftermath of the Third World War. Scientists develop time travel and send the man to the past because he is one of the few test subjects that can withstand the painful journey back in time.

Gilliam’s version of the source material retained the themes of broken memories and time, but introduced the film’s deadly virus and the terrorist organization the Army of the Twelve Monkeys.

5. Short: Alive in Joburg / Feature: District 9

In 2005, director Neill Blomkamp created a vision of dystopian South Africa with the short film Alive In Joburg. The film followed a group of extraterrestrial refugees living in Johannesburg and looked at how the human population treated the new alien race. Blomkamp’s film was documentary-style and explored themes of South African apartheid; the director had conceived the short as a proof-of-concept to showcase advanced special effects with a low budget.

Alive in Joburg caught the eye of director Peter Jackson, who planned to produce a live-action version of the video game Halo with Blomkamp in the director’s chair. While the Halo creators ultimately backed out of the film adaptation, Jackson gave Blomkamp $30 million to do whatever he wanted to do instead. The result was the feature District 9, a box office hit that went on to be nominated for an Academy Award for Best Picture in 2009. Blomkamp introduced a new character named Wikus van de Merwe, played by Sharlto Copley, a well-mannered government official who slowly turns into an alien. Copley was also Alive in Joburg’s producer.

6. Short: The Dirk Diggler Story / Feature: Boogie Nights

In 1987, at age 17, director Paul Thomas Anderson made a mockumentary short film about the rise and fall of a fictional porn star named Dirk Diggler. Anderson shot The Dirk Diggler Story with a video camera and edited the 32-minute short using a VCR-to-VCR editing system. Anderson’s short was based on the chaotic life of '70s porn star John Holmes and his part in the drug-deal-gone-wrong Wonderland Murders in 1981. The short was also influenced by Rob Reiner’s faux-documentary This Is Spinal Tap.

Almost a decade later, in 1997, Paul Thomas Anderson re-visited The Dirk Diggler Story with his second feature film Boogie Nights. The film would go on to launch Anderson’s career as an emerging auteur filmmaker, as it was nominated for three Academy Awards.

7. Short: Within The Woods / Feature: The Evil Dead

Armed with a Super 8 film camera, a remote cabin in the woods, and longtime friend Bruce Campbell, director Sam Raimi made a 30-minute short film called Within The Woods in 1978. The short sits firmly in the horror genre and was made to gain interest from investors to one day make a full-length feature film. Within The Woods cost Raimi and Campbell only $1600, and the short was remade into the feature film The Evil Dead in 1981. Today, Within The Woods is seen as a prequel to Raimi’s highly successful Evil Dead film franchise.

8. Short: Peluca / Feature: Napoleon Dynamite

Before Jon Heder played the titular character in 2004’s breakout indie hit Napoleon Dynamite, the actor starred as the same character (only going by the name of Seth) in director Jared Hess’ student short film Peluca, which was made in 2002. The short was made for only $500 on black-and-white 16mm film stock in Hess’ hometown of Preston, Idaho over the course of two days. After being shown during the Slamdance Film Festival in 2003, Peluca was adapted into Napoleon Dynamite the following year.

Although Napoleon Dynamite was a sleeper hit in 2004, the film’s production still kept its indie sensibility with a small budget of $400,000 (Heder was only paid $1000 to reprise the leading role). It was selected for the Sundance Film Festival, where Fox Searchlight acquired the film’s distribution rights and the indie film became an instant cult hit.

9. Short: Milton / Feature: Office Space

In the 1990s, writer/director Mike Judge created a series of animated short films that followed the daily belittling of a meek office worker named Milton. The animated shorts were frequently aired during broadcasts of MTV’s Liquid Television and later on Saturday Night Live. For his second feature film, Mike Judge expanded Milton’s office setting into the film Office Space in 1999. Although the character of Milton and his passive aggressive boss Bill Lumbergh were reduced to secondary characters, Office Space’s personality drew from Judge’s characters and actor Stephen Root’s performance as Milton, the office punching bag.

10. Short: Some Folks Call It A Sling Blade / Feature: Sling Blade

Before Billy Bob Thornton’s Sling Blade won the Academy Award For Best Adapted Screenplay, Thornton wrote the short film Some Folks Call It a Sling Blade in 1994. George Hickenlooper directed the 29-minute short film, while Molly Ringwald and J.T. Walsh co-starred with Billy Bob Thornton as the mentally challenged Karl Childers. While both films deal with the return of Childers into society after being convicted of killing his mother and her lover, the feature film trades in the short's black-and-white photography for full color, an expanded story, and more French fried potaters

11. Short: Cashback / Feature: Cashback

In 2004, British writer and director Sean Ellis created a short film called Cashback, about an art student who takes a job at a late-night supermarket after he gets insomnia. The short won several awards at international film festivals and was nominated for an Academy Award For Best Live-Action Short Film in 2006. Although the short was a critical darling, when it was expanded into a feature film, it received mixed to tepid reviews. The feature version retained some of the short’s cast, including Sean Biggerstaff, Emilia Fox, and Michael Dixon.

12. Short: The Customer Is Always Right / Feature: Sin City

After working on the RoboCop sequels, comic book writer Frank Miller was disillusioned with Hollywood—and he swore that he would never sell the movie rights to any of his graphic novels. So when director Robert Rodriguez wanted to create a film version of Miller's Sin City, he made a three-minute proof-of-concept short called The Customer Is Always Right with actors John Hartnett and Marley Shelton. After watching the short, Miller was happy with how faithful Rodriguez kept to the original source material and signed off on the film adaptation. The short film served as the opening sequence in the final version of Sin City.

13. Short: Gowanus, Brooklyn / Feature: Half Nelson

In 2004, director and co-writer Ryan Fleck and screenwriter Anna Boden made a 19-minute short film called Gowanus, Brooklyn, which followed a middle school teacher who was addicted to cocaine. The short won the Short Filmmaking Award at the Sundance Film Festival and grew into the feature film Half Nelson two years later. The feature film still kept the short’s handheld, minimalistic style, but added actor Ryan Gosling in the leading role. Gosling was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Actor later in the year, but lost to Forest Whitaker for his chilling performance as dictator Idi Amin in The Last King of Scotland.

14. Short: 9 / Feature: 9

in 2005, film student Shane Acker created the short film 9 as his thesis film at the UCLA Animation Workshop. The 11-minute short, which follows a group of ragdolls that try to survive in a post-apocalyptic world, caught the eye of director Tim Burton, who wanted Acker to make a feature film based on the short. In 2009, 9 was released on September 9 with a refined look and an all-star voice cast including Elijah Wood, Jennifer Connelly, and John C. Reilly. Although the short film was showered with awards, the feature film version of 9 failed to resonate with critics and general audiences alike.

15. Short: Electronic Labyrinth: THX-1138 4EB / Feature: THX-1138

Before George Lucas raced into superstardom with the release of American Graffiti and Star Wars in the '70s, he made a student film called Electronic Labyrinth: THX-1138 4EB while he was still a film student at the University of Southern California in 1967. The short film followed a group of people living in an underground dystopia, as one of its citizens hopes for something more to his simple and mundane life.

The short was made into a feature when Lucas’ friend and fellow USC film student Francis Ford Coppola founded his production company American Zoetrope in 1971. A feature film version of Electronic Labyrinth: THX-1138 4EB, now simply titled THX-1138, was the first film under the new banner.

Coppola struck a distribution deal with Warner Bros, but studio executives hated THX-1138 and demanded that Coppola and Lucas repay the $300,000 the movie studio loaned the pair to make the film. THX-1138 almost bankrupted American Zoetrope, but the film company was saved when Coppola made The Godfather in 1972.

In 2010, Electronic Labyrinth: THX-1138 4EB was selected for preservation in the Library of Congress’ U.S. National Film Registry for being a film that is culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant.

16. Short: Saw / Feature: Saw

In 2003, screenwriter Leigh Whannell and director James Wan failed to attract producers for their new script, so the Australian filmmakers moved to Los Angeles with the hopes of finding investors to make the horror movie Saw. With the goal of getting a feature made, the pair shot a short film that featured a gruesome torture scene.

Once in Los Angeles, Whannell and Wan met film producer Gregg Hoffman, who watched the seven-minute short and was left in awe of its blood and gore. After he gave the Saw short film and script to his partners Mark Burg and Oren Koules of Evolution Entertainment, Hoffman decided to fund a feature version of Saw for $1.2 million. The production company made a deal with Whannell and Wan that allowed the Australians creative control and 25 percent of the film’s net profits.

Ten years later, the short film has spawned seven films, two video games, a toy line, and three theme park attractions. The Saw film franchise also coined a new subgenre in horror called “Torture Porn.” Lionsgate, the movie studio that distributes the Saw movies, has also expressed interest in rebooting the very popular film series.

17. Short: Mama / Feature: Mama

When Argentinian director Andrés Muschietti and his sister and co-writer Bárbara Muschietti released the short film Mama in 2008, it quickly caught the eye of filmmaker Guillermo del Toro, who agreed to produce and finance a feature version. Both films followed two very young sisters named Victoria and Lilly who were abandoned in a cabin in the woods.

Although they were thought of as missing or dead, the sisters were found five years later, as it was revealed a mysterious ghost—which they affectionately called “Mama”—was raising the pair. The feature version expanded Victoria and Lilly’s backstory and psychosis, while it also added new characters, including the sisters’ uncle, played by Nikolaj Coster-Waldau, who adopts the girls once they’re found, and his girlfriend, played by Jessica Chastain, who becomes close with Victoria and Lilly.

18. Short: The Hard Case / Feature: Lock, Stock and Two Smoking Barrels

Before British director Guy Ritchie invaded American movie theaters in the late '90s, the then-27-year-old filmmaker created the short film The Hard Case in 1995. The 20-minute short grabbed the attention of the rock star Sting when his wife Trudie Styler made him watch it; Sting then met with Ritchie and agreed to invest in the director’s feature, Lock, Stock and Two Smoking Barrels, which was based on The Hard Case. The crime film was released in the United States in 1999 and launched the careers of Ritchie, Jason Statham, and Vinnie Jones.

19. Short: Machete / Feature: Machete

In 2007, Robert Rodriguez and Quentin Tarantino teamed up to deliver the trashy, schlocky exploitation double feature Grindhouse. Rodriguez created the science-fiction-zombie-mad-scientist-horror flick Planet Terror, while Tarantino delivered the talky-muscle-car-slasher Death Proof. Fake trailers played between the features, including one that centered on one of Rodriguez’s reoccurring film characters, Isador “Machete” Cortez. Three years later, the Mexican-American director turned the fake trailer into a real full-length film called Machete.

Primary image courtesy of IMPA Awards.

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13 Great Facts About Bad Lieutenant
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Lionsgate Home Entertainment

Bad Lieutenant can be accused of many things, but one charge you can't level against it is false advertising. Harvey Keitel's title character, whose name is never given, is indeed a bad, bad lieutenant: corrupt, sleazy, drug-addled, irresponsible, and lascivious, all while he's on the job. (Imagine what his weekends must be like!)

Abel Ferrara's nightmarish character study was controversial when it was released 25 years ago today, and rated NC-17 for its graphic nudity (including a famous glimpse at Lil’ Harvey), unsettling sexual violence, and frank depiction of drug use. The film packs a wallop, no doubt. Here's some behind-the-scenes info to help you cope with it.

1. THE PLACID WOMAN WHO HELPS THE LIEUTENANT FREEBASE HEROIN WROTE THE MOVIE.

That's Zoë Tamerlis Lund, who starred in Abel Ferrara's revenge-exploitation thriller Ms. 45 (1981) more than a decade earlier, when she was 17 years old. She and Ferrara are credited together for writing Bad Lieutenant, though she always insisted that wasn't the case. "I wrote this alone," she said. "Abel is a wonderful director, but he's not a screenwriter. She said elsewhere that she "wrote every word of that screenplay," though everyone agrees the finished movie included a lot of improvisation. Lund was a fascinating, tragic character herself—a musical prodigy who became an enthusiastic and unapologetic user of heroin before switching to cocaine in the mid-1990s. She died of heart failure in 1999 at age 37.

2. CHRISTOPHER WALKEN WAS SUPPOSED TO STAR IN IT.

Christopher Walken had starred in Ferrara's previous film, King of New York (1990), and was set to play the lead in Bad Lieutenant before pulling out at almost the last minute. Ferrara was shocked. "[Walken] says, 'You know, I don't think I'm right for it.' Which is, you know, a fine thing to say, unless it's three weeks from when you're supposed to start shooting," Ferrara said. "It definitely caught me by surprise. It put me in terminal shock, actually." Harvey Keitel replaced him (though not without difficulty; see below), and the film's editor, Anthony Redman, thought Keitel was a better choice anyway. "Chris is too elegant for the part," he said. "Harvey is not elegant." 

3. HARVEY KEITEL'S INITIAL REACTION TO THE SCRIPT WAS NOT PROMISING.

"When we gave [Keitel] the script the first time, he read about five pages and threw it in the garbage," Ferrara said. Keitel's recollection was a little more diplomatic. As he told Roger Ebert, "I read a certain amount of pages and I put it down. I said, 'There's no way I'm gonna make this movie.' And then I asked myself, 'How often am I a lead in a movie? Read it, maybe I can salvage something from it …' When I read the part about the nun, I understood why Abel wanted to make it."

4. IT WAS ORIGINALLY SUPPOSED TO BE FUNNY.


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"It was always, in my mind, a comedy," Ferrara said. He cited the scene where the Lieutenant pulls the teenage girls over as a specific example of how Christopher Walken would have played it, and how Harvey Keitel changed it. "The lieutenant was going to end up dancing in the streets with the girls as the sun came up. They'd be wearing his gun belt and hat, and they'd have the radio on, you know what I mean? But oh my God, Harvey, he turned it into this whole other thing." Boy, did he. 

5. THAT SCENE WITH THE TEENAGE GIRLS HAD A REAL-LIFE ELEMENT THAT MADE IT EVEN CREEPIER.

One of the young women was Keitel's nanny. Ferrara: "I said, 'You sure you want to do this with your babysitter?' He says, 'Yeah, I want to try something.'"

6. MUCH OF IT WAS FILMED GUERRILLA-STYLE.

Like many indie-minded directors of low-budget films, Ferrara didn't bother with permits most of the time. "We weren't permitted on any of this stuff," editor Anthony Redman admitted. "We just walked on and started shooting." For the scene where a strung-out Lieutenant walks through a bumpin' nightclub, they sent Keitel through an actual, functioning club during peak operating hours.

7. A GREAT DEAL OF THE DIALOGUE AND ACTION WERE MADE UP ON THE FLY.

The script was only about 65 pages at first, which would have made for about a 65-minute movie. "It left a lot of room for improvisation," producer Randy Sabusawa said, "but the ideas were pretty distilled. They were there."

Script supervisor Karen Kelsall said supervising the script was a challenge. "Abel didn't stick to a script," she said. "Abel used a script as a way to get the money to make a movie, and then the script was kind of—we called it the daily news. It changed every day. It changed in the middle of scenes." Ferrara was unapologetic about the script's brevity. "The idea of wanting 90 pages ... is ridiculous."

8. AND THERE WERE EVEN MORE IDEAS THAT THEY DIDN'T USE.

Ferrara said a scene that epitomized the movie for him—even though he never got around to filming it—was one where the Lieutenant robs an electronics store, leaves, then gets a call about a robbery at the electronics store. He responds in an official capacity (they don't recognize him), takes a statement, walks out, and throws the statement in the garbage. "And that to me is the Bad Lieutenant, you know?" Ferrara said. 

9. THE BASEBALL PLAYOFF SERIES IS FICTIONAL.

The Mets have battled the Dodgers for the National League championship once, in 1988. (The Dodgers beat 'em and went on to win the World Series.) For the narrative Ferrara wanted—the Mets coming back from a 3-0 deficit to win the pennant—he had to make it up. He used footage from real Mets-Dodgers games (including Darryl Strawberry's three-run homer from a game in July 1991) and added fictional play-by-play. But the statistics were accurate: no team had ever been down by three in a best-of-seven series and then come back to win. (It's happened once since then, when the 2004 Red Sox did it.)

10. THEY HAD HELP FROM THE COP WHO SOLVED A SIMILAR CASE.

The disgusting crime at the center of the film (we won't dwell on it) was inspired by a real-life incident from 1981, which mayor Ed Koch called "the most heinous crime in the history of New York City." The street cop who solved it, Bo Dietl, advised Ferrara on the film and had an on-screen role as one of the detectives in our Lieutenant's circle of friends.

11. THEY DESECRATED THE CHURCH AS RESPECTFULLY AS THEY COULD.

Production designer Charles Lagola had his team cover the church’s altar and other surfaces with plastic wrap, then painted the graffiti and other defacements on the plastic.

12. IT WAS RATED NC-17 IN THEATERS, WITH AN R-RATED VERSION FOR HOME VIDEO.

Blockbuster and some of the other retail chains wouldn't carry NC-17 or unrated films, so sometimes studios would produce edited versions. (See also: Requiem for a Dream.) The tamer version of Bad Lieutenant was five minutes and 19 seconds shorter, with parts of the rape scene, the drug-injecting scene, and much of the car interrogation scene excised.

13. THE "SEQUEL" HAD NOTHING TO DO WITH IT, NOR DID FERRARA APPROVE OF IT.


First Look International

Movie buffs were baffled in 2009, when Werner Herzog directed Bad Lieutenant: Port of Call New Orleans, starring Nicolas Cage. It sounds like a sequel (or a remake), but in fact had no connection at all to the earlier film except that both were produced by Edward R. Pressman. Herzog said he'd never seen Ferrara's movie and wanted to change the title (Pressman wouldn't let him); Ferrara, outspoken as always, initially wished fiery death on everyone involved. Ferrara and Herzog finally met at the 2013 Locarno Film Festival in Switzerland, where Herzog initiated a conversation about the whole affair and Ferrara expressed his frustration cordially. 

Additional sources:
DVD interviews with Abel Ferrara, Anthony Redman, Randy Sabusawa, and Karen Kelsall.

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12 Pieces of 100-Year-Old Advice for Dealing With Your In-Laws
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The familial friction between in-laws has been a subject for family counselors, folklorists, comedians, and greeting card writers for generations—and getting along with in-laws isn't getting any easier. Here are some pieces of "old tyme" advice—some solid, some dubious, some just plain ridiculous—about making nice with your new family.

1. ALWAYS VOTE THE SAME WAY AS YOUR FATHER-IN-LAW (EVEN IF YOU DISAGREE).

It's never too soon to start sowing the seeds for harmony with potential in-laws. An 1896 issue of one Alabama newspaper offered some advice to men who were courting, and alongside tips like “Don’t tell her you’re wealthy. She may wonder why you are not more liberal,” it gave some advice for dealing with prospective in-laws: “Always vote the same ticket her father does,” the paper advised, and “Don’t give your prospective father-in-law any advice unless he asks for it.”

2. MAKE AN EFFORT TO BE ATTRACTIVE TO YOUR MOTHER-IN-LAW.

According to an 1886 issue of Switchmen’s Journal, “A greybeard once remarked that it would save half the family squabbles of a generation if young wives would bestow a modicum of the pains they once took to please their lovers in trying to be attractive to their mothers-in-law.”

3. KEEP YOUR OPINIONS TO YOURSELF.

In 1901, a Wisconsin newspaper published an article criticizing the 19th century trend of criticizing mothers-in-law (a "trend" which continues through to today):

“There has been a foolish fashion in vogue in the century just closed which shuts out all sympathy for mothers-in-law. The world is never weary of listening to the praises of mothers ... Can it be that a person who is capable of so much heroic unselfishness will do nothing worthy of gratitude for those who are dearest and nearest to her own children?”

Still, the piece closed with some advice for the women it was defending: “The wise mother-in-law gives advice sparingly and tries to help without seeming to help. She leaves the daughter to settle her own problems. She is the ever-blessed grandmother of the German fairy tales, ready to knit in the corner and tell folk stories to the grandchildren.”

4. IF RECEIVING ADVICE, JUST LISTEN AND SMILE. EVEN IF IT PAINS YOU.

Have an in-law who can't stop advising you on what to do? According to an 1859 issue of The American Freemason, you'll just have to grin and bear it: “If the daughter-in-law has any right feeling, she will always listen patiently, and be grateful and yielding to the utmost of her power.”

Advice columnist Dorothy Dix seemed to believe that it would be wise to heed an in-law's advice at least some of the time. Near the end of World War II, Dix received a letter from a mother-in-law asking what to do with her daughter-in-law, who had constantly shunned her advice and now wanted to move in with her. Dix wrote back, “Many a daughter-in-law who has ignored her husband’s mother is sending out an SOS call for help in these servantless days,” and advised the mother-in-law against agreeing to the arrangement.

5. STAY OUT OF THE KITCHEN. AND CLOSETS. AND CUPBOARDS.

An 1881 article titled "Concerning the Interference of the Father-in-Law and Mother-in-Law in Domestic Affairs," which appeared in the Rural New Yorker, had a great deal of advice for the father-in-law:

“He will please to keep out of the kitchen just as much as he possibly can. He will not poke his nose into closets or cupboards, parley with the domestics, investigate the condition of the swill barrel, the ash barrel, the coal bin, worry himself about the kerosene or gas bills, or make purchases of provisions for the family under the pretence that he can buy more cheaply than the mistress of the house; let him do none of these things unless especially commissioned so to do by the mistress of the house.”

The article further advises that if a father-in-law "thinks that the daughter-in-law or son-in-law is wasteful, improvident or a bad manager, the best thing for him to do, decidedly, is to keep his thought to himself, for in all probability things are better managed and better taken care of by the second generation than they were by the first. And even if they are not, it is far better to pass the matter over in silence than to comment upon the same, and thereby engender bad feelings.”

6. NEVER COHABITATE.

While there is frequent discussion about how to achieve happiness with the in-laws in advice columns and magazines, rarely does this advice come from a judge. In 1914, after a young couple was married, they quickly ran into issues. “The wife said she was driven from the house by her mother-in-law,” a newspaper reported, “and the husband said he was afraid to live with his wife’s people because of the threatening attitude of her father on the day of the wedding.” It got so bad that the husband was brought up on charges of desertion. But Judge Strauss gave the couple some advice:

“[Your parents] must exercise no influence over you now except a peaceful influence. You must establish a home of your own. Even two rooms will be a start and lay up a store of happiness for you.”

According to the paper, they agreed to go off and rent a few rooms.

Dix agreed that living with in-laws was asking for trouble. In 1919, she wrote that, “In all good truth there is no other danger to a home greater than having a mother-in-law in it.”

7. COURT YOUR MOTHER-IN-LAW.

The year 1914 wasn’t the first time a judge handed down advice regarding a mother-in-law from the bench. According to The New York Times, in 1899 Magistrate Olmsted suggested to a husband that “you should have courted your mother-in-law and then you would not have any trouble ... I courted my mother-in-law and my home life is very, very happy.”

8. THINK OF YOUR IN-LAWS AS YOUR "IN LOVES."

Don't think of your in-laws as in-laws; think of them as your family. In 1894, an article in The Ladies’ Home Journal proclaimed, “I will not call her your mother-in-law. I like to think that she is your mother in love. She is your husband’s mother, and therefore yours, for his people have become your people.”

Helen Marshall North, writing in The Home-Maker: An Illustrated Monthly Magazine four years earlier, agreed: “No man, young or old, who smartly and in public, jests about his mother-in-law, can lay the slightest claim to good breeding. In the first place, if he has proper affection for his wife, that affection includes, to some extent at least, the mother who gave her birth ... the man of fine thought and gentle breeding sees his own mother in the new mother, and treats her with the same deference, and, if necessary, with the same forbearance which he gladly yields his own.”

9. BE THANKFUL YOU HAVE A MOTHER-IN-LAW ... OR DON'T.

Historical advice columns had two very different views on this: A 1901 Raleigh newspaper proclaimed, “Adam’s [of Adam and Eve] troubles may have been due to the fact that he had no mother-in-law to give advice,” while an earlier Yuma paper declared, “Our own Washington had no mother-in-law, hence America is a free nation.”

10. DON'T BE PICKY WHEN IT COMES TO CHOOSING A WIFE; CHOOSE A MOTHER-IN-LAW INSTEAD.

By today's standards, the advice from an 1868 article in The Round Table is incredibly sexist and offensive. Claiming that "one wife is, after all, pretty much the same as another," and that "the majority of women are married at an age when their characters are still mobile and plastic, and can be shaped in the mould of their husband's will," the magazine advised, “Don’t waste any time in the selection of the particular victim who is to be shackled to you in your desolate march from the pleasant places of bachelorhood into the hopeless Siberia of matrimony ... In other words ... never mind about choosing a wife; the main thing is to choose a proper mother-in-law,” because "who ever dreamt of moulding a mother-in-law? That terrible, mysterious power behind the throne, the domestic Sphynx, the Gorgon of the household, the awful presence which every husband shudders when he names?"

11. KEEP THINGS IN PERSPECTIVE.

As an 1894 Good Housekeeping article reminded readers:

“Young man! your wife’s mother, your redoubtable mother-in-law, is as good as your wife is and as good as your mother is; and who is your precious wife's mother-in-law? And you, venerable mother-in-law, may perhaps profitably bear in mind that the husband your daughter has chosen with your sanction is not a worse man naturally than your husband who used to dislike your mother as much as your daughter’s husband dislikes you, or as much as you once disliked your husband’s mother.”

12. IF ALL ELSE FAILS, MARRY AN ORPHAN.

If all else fails, The Round Table noted that “there is one rule which will be found in all cases absolutely certain and satisfactory, and that is to marry an orphan; though even then a grandmother-in-law might turn up sufficiently vigorous to make a formidable substitute.”

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