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8 Bizarre European Tourist Destinations

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Photo by Flickr user m.prinke

by Theodoros II

The next time you’re backpacking through Europe, forget the Eiffel Tower and the Leaning Tower of Pisa. Instead, venture into the unknown lands of Europe’s quirky landmarks and tourist destinations.

1. Medieval Crime Museum, Germany

Photo courtesy of Flickr user craigemorsels

The charming medieval city of Rothenburg ob der Tauber, located in the Franconia region of Bavaria in Germany, has become a tourist hot spot. But one of its chief attractions is decidedly not charming: the Medieval Crime Museum, which is dedicated to the horror of the Dark Ages. It’s full of creepy exhibits and instruments of torture, including the Schandmaske—a mask of shame made for public humiliation and ridicule. Each mask is designed to fit its victim’s crime (one mask on display even has a muzzle shaped like a pig’s snout). There's also a torture chair for bakers who sold undersized loaves of bread and a spinning Catherine wheel that victims were strapped to during public execution.

2. Petrified Forest of Lesbos, Greece

Wikimedia Commons

Greece's Petrified Forest of Lesbos has been declared a protected monument of nature. The protected zone covers an area of 150,000 acres and includes hundreds of fossilized conifer trunks and fruiting trees. Volcanic materials blanketed the forest more than 20 million years ago, which caused it to become petrified. Now, as the volcanic material erodes away, the beautiful colors and patterns of the stone tree trunks are exposed.

3. Lighthouses for Rent, Croatia

Photo courtesy of Flickr user m.prinke

Croatians have taken the modern-day hostel and transformed it into a unique experience with their rented lighthouses, which stretch along the Adriatic coast from Istria to Dubrovnik. For only $55 to $85 a day, visitors can spend the night in a private lighthouse on an isolated island. But the stay definitely isn't as glamorous as it might seem: Visitors report that the sheets are changed only once a week, and tourists need to bring their own water and supplies if they want to avoid drinking the reservoir water.

4. Avanos Hair Museum, Turkey

hair

Thirty years ago, one of Chez Galip’s friends left town for good. Before leaving, the woman left him a lock of hair for him to remember her by. So the Turkish potter and artist created the Avanos Hair Museum under his pottery shop in Cappadocia. Since then, most women who visit the museum leave locks of their hair—labeled with their addresses—behind. The museum is filled with more than 16,000 hair samples, which adorn every surface but the floor.

5. Dracula’s Castle, Transylvania

Wikimedia Commons

Vampire lovers who find themselves in Transylvania might want to swing by Bran Castle, which is marketed as the home of Prince Vlad of Wallachia, aka Vlad the Impaler, the man who inspired Bram Stoker's Dracula. Located in the village of Bran on the border of Transylvania and Romania, the castle was the second-most expensive property in the world and valued at $140 million, according to a 2007 Forbes article.

6. Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, Ukraine

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At the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in Ukraine, daring tourists who aren't afraid of a little radiation can learn every detail of the Chernobyl nuclear accident and its effect on those who lived and worked around the area. Visitors will see a nuclear reactor, the ghost town of Pripyat, and the “red forest”—where nuclear radiation caused surrounding pine trees to turn a reddish orange. There is also the Chernobyl Museum in Kiev.

7. Museum of Broken Relationships, Croatia

Brokenships.com

Olinka Vištica and Dražen Grubišić first conceived the idea of the Museum of Broken Relationships when they combed through their collection of tokens and gifts they had exchanged during their relationship. They decided to exhibit them and asked their friends to contribute their own collections. Over the years, they created a huge collection of items donated by divorced couples. Lingerie, toothbrushes, clothes, wedding dresses, and dental floss are among the items on display in the museum.

8. The Phallus Museum, Iceland

Photo by Flickr user magic_bee

The Icelandic Phallological Museum is located in Reykjavik and houses the largest collection of penises in the world. Retired teacher Sigurður Hjartarson founded the museum in 1997. The museum is now run by his son, Hjörtur Gísli Sigurðsson, who is—according to Slate —“the world’s only hereditary penis-museum operator.”

The exhibits display penises kept in glass vessels or mounted on plaques and include all 93 species of indigenous Icelandic mammals. There are 280 specimens in all, including penises from whales, walruses, seals, and a 95-year-old human donor who died in July 2011. The museum also contains a large collection of objects with phallic shapes, including a lampshade made from a bull scrotum.

According to the museum, “Phallology is an ancient science which, until recent years, has received very little attention in Iceland, except as a borderline field of study in other academic disciplines such as history, art, psychology, literature and other artistic fields like music and ballet.”

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iStock // Ekaterina Minaeva
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Man Buys Two Metric Tons of LEGO Bricks; Sorts Them Via Machine Learning
May 21, 2017
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iStock // Ekaterina Minaeva

Jacques Mattheij made a small, but awesome, mistake. He went on eBay one evening and bid on a bunch of bulk LEGO brick auctions, then went to sleep. Upon waking, he discovered that he was the high bidder on many, and was now the proud owner of two tons of LEGO bricks. (This is about 4400 pounds.) He wrote, "[L]esson 1: if you win almost all bids you are bidding too high."

Mattheij had noticed that bulk, unsorted bricks sell for something like €10/kilogram, whereas sets are roughly €40/kg and rare parts go for up to €100/kg. Much of the value of the bricks is in their sorting. If he could reduce the entropy of these bins of unsorted bricks, he could make a tidy profit. While many people do this work by hand, the problem is enormous—just the kind of challenge for a computer. Mattheij writes:

There are 38000+ shapes and there are 100+ possible shades of color (you can roughly tell how old someone is by asking them what lego colors they remember from their youth).

In the following months, Mattheij built a proof-of-concept sorting system using, of course, LEGO. He broke the problem down into a series of sub-problems (including "feeding LEGO reliably from a hopper is surprisingly hard," one of those facts of nature that will stymie even the best system design). After tinkering with the prototype at length, he expanded the system to a surprisingly complex system of conveyer belts (powered by a home treadmill), various pieces of cabinetry, and "copious quantities of crazy glue."

Here's a video showing the current system running at low speed:

The key part of the system was running the bricks past a camera paired with a computer running a neural net-based image classifier. That allows the computer (when sufficiently trained on brick images) to recognize bricks and thus categorize them by color, shape, or other parameters. Remember that as bricks pass by, they can be in any orientation, can be dirty, can even be stuck to other pieces. So having a flexible software system is key to recognizing—in a fraction of a second—what a given brick is, in order to sort it out. When a match is found, a jet of compressed air pops the piece off the conveyer belt and into a waiting bin.

After much experimentation, Mattheij rewrote the software (several times in fact) to accomplish a variety of basic tasks. At its core, the system takes images from a webcam and feeds them to a neural network to do the classification. Of course, the neural net needs to be "trained" by showing it lots of images, and telling it what those images represent. Mattheij's breakthrough was allowing the machine to effectively train itself, with guidance: Running pieces through allows the system to take its own photos, make a guess, and build on that guess. As long as Mattheij corrects the incorrect guesses, he ends up with a decent (and self-reinforcing) corpus of training data. As the machine continues running, it can rack up more training, allowing it to recognize a broad variety of pieces on the fly.

Here's another video, focusing on how the pieces move on conveyer belts (running at slow speed so puny humans can follow). You can also see the air jets in action:

In an email interview, Mattheij told Mental Floss that the system currently sorts LEGO bricks into more than 50 categories. It can also be run in a color-sorting mode to bin the parts across 12 color groups. (Thus at present you'd likely do a two-pass sort on the bricks: once for shape, then a separate pass for color.) He continues to refine the system, with a focus on making its recognition abilities faster. At some point down the line, he plans to make the software portion open source. You're on your own as far as building conveyer belts, bins, and so forth.

Check out Mattheij's writeup in two parts for more information. It starts with an overview of the story, followed up with a deep dive on the software. He's also tweeting about the project (among other things). And if you look around a bit, you'll find bulk LEGO brick auctions online—it's definitely a thing!

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8 Common Dog Behaviors, Decoded
May 25, 2017
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Dogs are a lot more complicated than we give them credit for. As a result, sometimes things get lost in translation. We’ve yet to invent a dog-to-English translator, but there are certain behaviors you can learn to read in order to better understand what your dog is trying to tell you. The more tuned-in you are to your dog’s emotions, the better you’ll be able to respond—whether that means giving her some space or welcoming a wet, slobbery kiss. 

1. What you’ll see: Your dog is standing with his legs and body relaxed and tail low. His ears are up, but not pointed forward. His mouth is slightly open, he’s panting lightly, and his tongue is loose. His eyes? Soft or maybe slightly squinty from getting his smile on.

What it means: “Hey there, friend!” Your pup is in a calm, relaxed state. He’s open to mingling, which means you can feel comfortable letting friends say hi.

2. What you’ll see: Your dog is standing with her body leaning forward. Her ears are erect and angled forward—or have at least perked up if they’re floppy—and her mouth is closed. Her tail might be sticking out horizontally or sticking straight up and wagging slightly.

What it means: “Hark! Who goes there?!” Something caught your pup’s attention and now she’s on high alert, trying to discern whether or not the person, animal, or situation is a threat. She’ll likely stay on guard until she feels safe or becomes distracted.

3. What you’ll see: Your dog is standing, leaning slightly forward. His body and legs are tense, and his hackles—those hairs along his back and neck—are raised. His tail is stiff and twitching, not swooping playfully. His mouth is open, teeth are exposed, and he may be snarling, snapping, or barking excessively.

What it means: “Don’t mess with me!” This dog is asserting his social dominance and letting others know that he might attack if they don’t defer accordingly. A dog in this stance could be either offensively aggressive or defensively aggressive. If you encounter a dog in this state, play it safe and back away slowly without making eye contact.

4. What you’ll see: As another dog approaches, your dog lies down on his back with his tail tucked in between his legs. His paws are tucked in too, his ears are flat, and he isn’t making direct eye contact with the other dog standing over him.

What it means: “I come in peace!” Your pooch is displaying signs of submission to a more dominant dog, conveying total surrender to avoid physical confrontation. Other, less obvious, signs of submission include ears that are flattened back against the head, an avoidance of eye contact, a tongue flick, and bared teeth. Yup—a dog might bare his teeth while still being submissive, but they’ll likely be clenched together, the lips opened horizontally rather than curled up to show the front canines. A submissive dog will also slink backward or inward rather than forward, which would indicate more aggressive behavior.

5. What you’ll see: Your dog is crouching with her back hunched, tail tucked, and the corner of her mouth pulled back with lips slightly curled. Her shoulders, or hackles, are raised and her ears are flattened. She’s avoiding eye contact.

What it means: “I’m scared, but will fight you if I have to.” This dog’s fight or flight instincts have been activated. It’s best to keep your distance from a dog in this emotional state because she could attack if she feels cornered.

6. What you’ll see: You’re staring at your dog, holding eye contact. Your dog looks away from you, tentatively looks back, then looks away again. After some time, he licks his chops and yawns.

What it means: “I don’t know what’s going on and it’s weirding me out.” Your dog doesn’t know what to make of the situation, but rather than nipping or barking, he’ll stick to behaviors he knows are OK, like yawning, licking his chops, or shaking as if he’s wet. You’ll want to intervene by removing whatever it is causing him discomfort—such as an overly grabby child—and giving him some space to relax.

7. What you’ll see: Your dog has her front paws bent and lowered onto the ground with her rear in the air. Her body is relaxed, loose, and wiggly, and her tail is up and wagging from side to side. She might also let out a high-pitched or impatient bark.

What it means: “What’s the hold up? Let’s play!” This classic stance, known to dog trainers and behaviorists as “the play bow,” is a sign she’s ready to let the good times roll. Get ready for a round of fetch or tug of war, or for a good long outing at the dog park.

8. What you’ll see: You’ve just gotten home from work and your dog rushes over. He can’t stop wiggling his backside, and he may even lower himself into a giant stretch, like he’s doing yoga.

What it means: “OhmygoshImsohappytoseeyou I love you so much you’re my best friend foreverandeverandever!!!!” This one’s easy: Your pup is overjoyed his BFF is back. That big stretch is something dogs don’t pull out for just anyone; they save that for the people they truly love. Show him you feel the same way with a good belly rub and a handful of his favorite treats.

The best way to say “I love you” in dog? A monthly subscription to BarkBox. Your favorite pup will get a package filled with treats, toys, and other good stuff (and in return, you’ll probably get lots of sloppy kisses). Visit BarkBox to learn more.

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