The Fascinating Science Behind Why We See 'Faces' In Objects

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Diane Duyse had already taken a bite of her grilled cheese sandwich when she noticed something in the bread. It was the face of a woman—more specifically, the Virgin Mary—that was, she said later, "looking back at me." She placed the sandwich in a clear plastic box, surrounded it with cotton balls to protect it, and placed it on her nightstand, where the Virgin watched over her for the next decade. When word got out about Duyse's sacred sandwich, the Hollywood, Florida, resident discovered that she wasn't the only one who could see the face: The grilled cheese went viral, and in 2004, she sold it, missing bite and all, to a Las Vegas casino for $28,000.

It might seem strange to see the Virgin Mary in the burnt pattern of a grilled cheese, but in fact, it happens all the time: She's appeared in a pretzel, window glass, and a brain scan. People have found the face of Jesus in foods as diverse as tortillas, chapatis, and Cheetos. The phenomenon isn't reserved for religious iconography; Ringo Starr, the Beatles's drummer, has shown up in high-speed images of water drops bouncing off a lotus leaf, and Elvis has popped up everywhere, from potato chips to water stains. There is an entire Twitter account dedicated to the faces seen in mundane objects from stand mixers to coffee lids, and even a museum in Chichibu, Japan, near Tokyo, that houses more than 1700 rocks that look like human faces, including (you guessed it!) Elvis Presley's. People can discern faces in meaningless clouds, inkblots, the surface of the Moon, and the grille of their car—so much so that automobile designers consider how a new model's "face expression" could affect sales.

There's a name for this uncanny ability to see faces everywhere: pareidolia (roughly, from the Greek for "wrong shape").

beetle with coloring that looks like a face

Ian Jacobs, Flickr // CC BY-NC 2.0

Human brains are exquisitely attuned to perceiving faces—in fact, there's an entire region of the brain called the fusiform gyrus that is dedicated to it. Its functions are evident even from early childhood: Studies have shown that shortly after birth, babies display more interest in cartoon faces with properly placed features than in similar images where the features are scrambled.

The "face neurons" in people with healthy brains are so overactive that they scream FACE! in many situations where there are no actual faces to be found. Those sophisticated face-detection skills, combined with our brain's compulsion to extract meaning from the sensory chaos that surrounds us, is why we see faces where there aren't any. Typically these sightings are nothing more than our mind's interpretation of visual data, but some artists have purposely exploited our natural predisposition to see illusory faces: Salvador Dalí's Paranoiac Face features a woman's face comprised of a hut and seated villagers, and his Madonna of the Birds depicts the Virgin Mary's face composed of a flock of birds.

Don't worry—there's nothing wrong with you if you see faces in things. Pareidolia is an ordinary phenomenon, one that's widespread across people and cultures—but there are a variety of individual differences in human pareidolia. For example, researchers have found that women see faces in things more than men do, and proposed that the difference may be related to women's greater interest in social information, and their superior ability to decode emotions from facial expressions.

Others have found that paranormal and religious believers are more prone to pareidolia than skeptics and nonbelievers. Although believers and nonbelievers had equivalent sensitivity to faces, the paranormal and religious believers had lower thresholds for reporting that a face was present than nonbelievers did, possibly due to being more open to the suggestion that the images might contain faces. This finding could help explain the many apparitions of religious imagery in food items.

Pareidolia can be exacerbated in cases of fatigue and in some neurological diseases, such as Lewy body dementia (when protein deposits called Lewy bodies develop in nerve cells). On the flip side, when the fusiform gyrus is damaged due to a stroke or trauma, our ability to recognize faces is impaired. This rare condition is known as prosopagnosia, or face blindness. In extreme cases, prosopagnostic patients become unable to identify their own faces in the mirror, though they have no trouble recognizing objects other than faces.

It may not be a strictly human phenomenon either. Research has shown that rhesus monkeys see illusory facial features on inanimate objects such as toasters or sliced vegetables. It's not yet known whether any other species, particularly non-primates, are also receptive to pareidolia.

cheese that looks like a face

Mikhail Kryshen, Flickr // CC BY 2.0

Pareidolia extends beyond human likenesses: In 2007, a "monkey tree" in Singapore attracted thousands of visitors, who swore that a bizarrely shaped callus growing on a tree was a manifestation of either the Chinese deity Sun Wukong (also known as the Monkey King) or the Hindu monkey god Hanuman. Last year, the picture of a wooden board featuring three dark spots in the shape of a dog's face went viral on Twitter, with tens of thousands of retweets and numerous joking appeals to those knowledgeable in witchcraft to free the dog's soul from the piece of wood.

People have seen illusory faces in mountains, articles of clothing, domestic appliances, and many other improbable settings. In fact, given our neural circuitry, you could say it's hard not to see faces everywhere you look. Case in point: In 2011, two Canadian urologists said they saw the face of a man, contorted in a silent scream, in the scrotal ultrasound images of a patient affected with acute testicular pain.

A sick man's scrotum may or may not be the unlikeliest place where observant people have found a recognizable face, but the finding does demonstrate that the brain makes much ado about nothing. So maybe don't scrutinize your next grilled cheese sandwich too closely—or you may find it staring back at you.

A Generic EpiPen Coming in Early 2019 Could Save You Money

Brand-name EpiPens at a Congressional hearing on the escalating cost of the drug in 2016
Brand-name EpiPens at a Congressional hearing on the escalating cost of the drug in 2016
Alex Wong/Getty Images

For an incredibly common, life-saving medication, EpiPens (epinephrine auto-injectors) are surprisingly difficult for many consumers to get ahold of. Their cost has skyrocketed in recent years from less than $100 for a pack of two to more than $600. They’ve gotten so expensive that some EMTs have resorted to using syringes to manually administer epinephrine rather than purchasing the standard auto-injectors, which are almost exclusively made by the pharmaceutical company Mylan. Generic options have been slow to come to market, but according to Business Insider, a recently approved EpiPen rival is coming in the first few months of 2019, and it could save consumers a significant chunk of change.

The drug’s developers have had an unusually hard time getting the new EpiPen alternative, called Symjepi, onto store shelves. The drug was approved in 2017, but the company, Adamis Pharmaceuticals, had trouble finding investors. Now, Novartis, the Swiss-based pharmaceutical giant that manufactures drugs like Ritalin, is releasing the drug through its Sandoz division (perhaps most famous for it role in discovering LSD in the 1930s).

Symjepi will cost $250 out-of-pocket for a pack of two doses. That’s 16.6 percent less than the Mylan-authorized generic EpiPen or Teva’s generic EpiPen, which both sell for $300. It differs a bit from its rivals, though, in that it’s a pre-filled, single-dose syringe rather than a spring-loaded auto-injector. Auto-injectors are plastic, pen-like devices that keep the needle shielded until the moment of injection, and are specifically designed to help make it easier for untrained (even squeamish) people to use in an emergency. With this version, patients will need to remove a needle cap and inject the needle. Just like the EpiPen, though, it’s designed to be injected in the upper thigh, through clothing if necessary.

If you have health insurance, the difference in cost may not matter as much for you as a consumer, depending on your plan. (I personally picked up a two-pack of Mylan-authorized generic Epipens at CVS recently for $0, using a manufacturer’s Epipen coupon to knock down what would have been a $10 copay.) But it will matter considerably for those with high-deductible plans and to insurers, which, when faced with high costs, eventually pass those costs on to the consumer either through higher co-pays or higher premiums. It also affects agencies that buy EpiPens for emergency use, like local fire departments. And since EpiPens expire after just a year, the costs add up.

However, there’s currently a shortage of EpiPens on the market, according to the FDA, making it more important than ever to have other epinephrine drugs available to those at risk for serious allergic reactions.

[h/t Business Insider]

Brain-Eating Amoeba Kills Seattle Woman Who Used Tap Water in Her Neti Pot

CDC/Dr. Govinda S. Visvesvara, Wikimedia Commons // Public domain
CDC/Dr. Govinda S. Visvesvara, Wikimedia Commons // Public domain

If you use a neti pot to clear out your sinuses, there's one important rule you should always follow: Don't fill it with tap water. Doing so could land you a sinus infection, or worse, a potentially fatal disease caused by a brain-eating amoeba. Although the latter scenario is exceptionally rare, a 69-year-old woman in Seattle died from doing just that, The Seattle Times reports. Experts are also warning that these infections could become more common as temperatures in the northern hemisphere continue to rise.

Physicians at Seattle's Swedish Medical Center initially thought the woman had a brain tumor. She was brought into the emergency room following a seizure, and a CT scan of her brain seemed to reveal a tumor-like mass. The only other known symptom she had was a red sore on her nose, which was previously misdiagnosed as rosacea. When surgeons operated on her the following day, they noticed that "a section of her brain about the size of a golf ball was bloody mush," neurosurgeon Dr. Charles Cobbs told The Seattle Times. "There were these amoeba[e] all over the place just eating brain cells. We didn't have any clue what was going on, but when we got the actual tissue we could see it was the amoeba."

She died a month later of an infection called granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE), according to a recent case report published in the International Journal of Infectious Diseases. The disease is caused by a single-celled amoeba called Balamuthia mandrillaris, and it's extremely deadly. Of the 109 cases between 1974 and 2016, 90 percent were fatal.

According to the FDA, some bacteria and amoebae in tap water are safe to swallow because acid in the stomach kills them. However, when they enter the nasal cavity, they can stay alive for long periods of time and travel up to the brain, where they start eating their way through tissue and cells. Another brain-eating amoeba called Naegleria fowleri can cause a similar disease, except it acts faster and can cause death in just a few days. Although it's also rare, it's usually found in warm freshwater, and infections start by getting contaminated water up one's nose while swimming or by using a nose irrigation device filled with tap water.

Dr. Cynthia Maree, an infectious disease doctor at the Swedish Medical Center, said the changing environment could facilitate the spread of these infections. "I think we are going to see a lot more infections that we see south (move) north, as we have a warming of our environment," Maree says. Researchers say these amoebae are still little-understood. Future studies would need to be conducted to learn more about the risk factors involved.

[h/t The Seattle Times]

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