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Can You Legally Marry A Dead Person?

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If, for whatever reason, you long to wed someone who has already departed for the great beyond, your local government might just be willing to oblige … depending on where you live, and if you meet certain criteria.

France is currently the world’s capital of posthumous matrimony. This practice dates back roughly to the First World War, when the fiancées and girlfriends of slain soldiers would tie the knot with their fallen lovers via proxy. In 1950, the French government legally clarified the ritual. Under this legislation, the living spouse must get the approval of the nation’s President and Justice Minister. A simple ceremony is then held in which the bride or groom stands beside a photo of their significant other. The phrase “till death do us part” is eliminated from the vows and “I do” is replaced with saying “I did.”

To qualify, one must provide compelling evidence that the deceased intended to marry them while alive. For example, Magali Jaskiewicz’ request was granted in 2009 after she pointed out that her fiancé had previously arranged a tentative wedding date at their local town hall just two days before he was killed in a car accident (furthermore, she’d already purchased her gown).

In the U.S., federal law doesn’t recognize posthumous marriage ceremonies, but a few people have tried to conduct one anyway. After Floridian Isaac Woginiak passed away, his surviving fiancée successfully filed for a marriage license in 1988. However, feeling they hadn’t been properly notified, Woginiak’s sons took their case to a higher court, which revoked it.

The South Korean government permitted the pregnant bride-to-be of dead boxer Duk-koo Kim to “console” his spirit by marrying him after a fatal match against Ray Mancini in 1982. And in Germany, Fritz Pfeffer—referred to by the pseudonym “Albert Dussel” in the diary of Anne Frank—was posthumously wed in 1950 to Charlotta Kaletta, whom he’d lived with before going into hiding and his eventual death in a concentration camp.

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Big Questions
Why Is the American Flag Displayed Backwards on Military Uniforms?
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In 1968, famed activist Abbie Hoffman decided to crash a meeting of the House Un-American Activities Committee in Washington by showing up in a shirt depicting the American flag. Hoffman was quickly surrounded by police, who ripped his shirt off and arrested him for desecration of the Red, White, and Blue.

Hoffman’s arrest is notable today because, while it might be unpatriotic to some, wearing the American flag, burning it, or otherwise disrespecting it is not a violation of any federal law. In 1989, the Supreme Court ruled that it would be unconstitutional to prosecute any such action. Still, Americans have very fervent and strict attitudes toward displaying the flag, a longstanding symbol of our country’s freedom. According to the U.S. Flag Code, which was first published in 1923, you shouldn’t let the flag touch the ground or hang it upside-down. While there’s no express prohibition about reversing the image, it’s probably a safe bet you shouldn’t do that, either.

Yet branches of the U.S. military are often spotted with a seeming mirror reflection of the flag on their right shoulder. If you look at a member in profile, the canton—the rectangle with the stars—is on the right. Isn’t that backwards? Shouldn’t it look like the flag on the left shoulder?

The American flag appears on a military uniform
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Not really. The flag is actually facing forward, and it’s not an optical illusion.

When a service member marches or walks forward, they assume the position of a flagpole, with the flag sewn on their uniform meant to resemble a flag flapping in the breeze. With the canton on the right, the flag would be fluttering behind them. If it were depicted with the canton on the left, the flag would be flying backward—as though it had been hung by the stripes instead of the stars nearest to the pole. The position of the flag is noted in Army Regulation 670-1, mandating the star field should face forward. The official term for this depiction is “reverse side flag.”

As for Hoffman: His conviction was overturned on appeal. In 1970, while at a flag-themed art show in New York, he was invited to get up and speak. He wore a flag shirt for the occasion.

Have you got a Big Question you'd like us to answer? If so, let us know by emailing us at bigquestions@mentalfloss.com.

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Big Questions
What Causes Sinkholes?
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Mark Ralston/AFP/Getty Images

This week, a sinkhole opened up on the White House lawn—likely the result of excess rainfall on the "legitimate swamp" surrounding the storied building, a geologist told The New York Times. While the event had some suggesting we call for Buffy's help, sinkholes are pretty common. In the past few days alone, cavernous maws in the earth have appeared in Maryland, North Carolina, Tennessee, and of course Florida, home to more sinkholes than any other state.

Sinkholes have gulped down suburban homes, cars, and entire fields in the past. How does the ground just open up like that?

Sinkholes are a simple matter of cause and effect. Urban sinkholes may be directly traced to underground water main breaks or collapsed sewer pipelines, into which city sidewalks crumple in the absence of any structural support. In more rural areas, such catastrophes might be attributed to abandoned mine shafts or salt caverns that can't take the weight anymore. These types of sinkholes are heavily influenced by human action, but most sinkholes are unpredictable, inevitable natural occurrences.

Florida is so prone to sinkholes because it has the misfortune of being built upon a foundation of limestone—solid rock, but the kind that is easily dissolved by acidic rain or groundwater. The karst process, in which the mildly acidic water wears away at fractures in the limestone, leaves empty space where there used to be stone, and even the residue is washed away. Any loose soil, grass, or—for example—luxury condominiums perched atop the hole in the ground aren't left with much support. Just as a house built on a weak foundation is more likely to collapse, the same is true of the ground itself. Gravity eventually takes its toll, aided by natural erosion, and so the hole begins to sink.

About 10 percent of the world's landscape is composed of karst regions. Despite being common, sinkholes' unforeseeable nature serves as proof that the ground beneath our feet may not be as solid as we think.

A version of this story originally ran in 2014.

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