Part of the Amazon Thought to Be Uninhabited May Have Been Home to 1 Million People

Aerial photo of site Mt05, a circular enclosure (140 meter diameter) located on a hilltop.
Aerial photo of site Mt05, a circular enclosure (140 meter diameter) located on a hilltop.
José Iriarte

Depictions of the pre-Columbian Amazon basin as dense, inhospitable jungle with just a handful of indigenous communities scattered along the river may need to be updated. According to research published in Nature Communications, there were millions more people living in the rainforest prior to Spanish colonization than previously believed.

The Amazon is the largest rainforest on Earth, which poses a challenge to archaeologists exploring the history of the people who lived there. It's long been assumed that native Amazonians chose to avoid the heart of the forest and instead lived as nomads, never straying far from the major rivers. Some old estimates placed the population of the entire basin between 1.5 and 2 million people.

Thanks to satellites, researchers can now identify traces of long-gone settlements in the less-explored regions of Brazil without having to set foot in the jungle. A team of archaeologists from the University of Exeter used satellite imaging to find geoglyphs—large shapes dug into the ground, possibly for ceremonial purposes—in part of the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso that was thought to be uninhabited.

Geoglyphs and mounded ring villages.
Geoglyphs and mounded ring villages.
Nature Communications, Jonas Gregorio de Souza et al.

After pinpointing the locations of these earthworks, archaeologists visited this section of the southern rim of the Amazon to see some of them in person. At each of the 24 sites they set out to confirm, they found a real-life geoglyph on the ground. At one location, they uncovered charcoal and pottery dating back to 1410 CE. In all, they documented 81 new sites with geoglyphs.

The earthworks would have been carved into the dirt during a seasonal drought, allowing the architects to clear a swath of rainforest. Fortified villages were built in or close to the glyphs, with a network of roads connecting them to each other. The researchers created a computer model that estimated that a 154,000-square-mile patch of land could be home to the remains of 1300 geoglyphs and villages, only two-thirds of which have been discovered. In the late pre-Columbian period, the area, comprising just 7 percent of the Amazon basin, may have sustained a population of 500,000 to 1 million people, according to the researchers' models.

Aerial photo of site ZMt04, which contains the two largest enclosures that were identified.
Aerial photo of site ZMt04, which contains the two largest enclosures that were identified.
José Iriarte

Disease and genocide brought on by the European invasion destroyed most of those settlements, and they were later reclaimed by the rainforest. But evidence of their existence suggests that deforestation and development of the Amazon isn't a new phenomenon.

"Our research shows we need to re-evaluate the history of the Amazon. It certainly wasn't an area populated only near the banks of large rivers, and the people who lived there did change the landscape," researcher José Iriarte said in a statement. "Studies such as ours mean we are gradually piecing together more and more information about the history of the largest rainforest on the planet."

Endeavour, Captain Cook's Lost Ship, Might Have Been Found—Solving a Centuries-Old Mystery

Wellcome Images, Wikimedia Commons // CC BY-SA 4.0
Wellcome Images, Wikimedia Commons // CC BY-SA 4.0

The exact location of the final resting place of Captain James Cook’s HMS Endeavour, which was sunk off the coast of Rhode Island 200 years ago, is considered one of maritime history’s greatest mysteries. Now, after a 25-year effort to pinpoint its remains among 13 sunken vessels, The Age reports that the Endeavour might have finally been identified.

British explorer James Cook left England on the Endeavour in 1768 headed for the South Pacific. He and his crew became the first European expedition to map the entire coast of New Zealand, and later, the first to reach Australia’s east coast. Along the way, they collected hundreds of previously unknown plant species, became the first Europeans to record a kangaroo sighting, and gathered evidence that would help disprove the existence of the long-speculated southern continent, Terra Australis, that hypothetically extended all the way up to the equator.

A replica of the 18th-century 'Endeavour' in the ocean
A replica of the Endeavour in 2004
Dennis4trigger, Wikimedia Commons // CC BY-SA 3.0

After that three-year journey, Cook and his crew returned to England. Though Cook became a legend, the Endeavour didn’t receive the star treatment. The British Royal Navy used it to ferry supplies to and from the Falkland Islands for several years before selling it to a private buyer. The ship was renamed the Lord Sandwich, and was eventually put into service transporting German mercenaries to fight on Britain's side in the American Revolution.

That’s how the ship ended up in Rhode Island, where it was stationed as part of the Royal Navy’s fleet in Newport Harbor and used as a prison ship for captured American soldiers. When French reinforcements came to assist American revolutionaries in Rhode Island, the British decided to sink their ships rather than allow them to be captured, creating a blockade out of scuttled vessels to block the French from getting into the harbor. They sank 12 transport vessels and set another on fire. Over the ensuing years, locals and French forces took equipment from the wrecks, but it’s never been entirely clear what happened to the remains.

The Rhode Island Marine Archaeology Project began to try to map and identify those remains starting in the early 1990s, and eventually figured out that the Lord Sandwich was the same ship as the HMS Endeavour. As the ship played a vital role in Australian history, the Australian National Maritime Museum then got involved with the project.

The two organizations have announced that they have lowered the number of potential wrecks that could be the Endeavour from 14 to five—and perhaps down to just one—by inspecting the area and measuring the wrecks against historic information about Cook's vessel. The researchers think the final resting place of the ship is located off the coast of Goat Island in Narragansett Bay, but to be absolutely certain, they’ll have to excavate the remains of the ship and examine its timbers. The researchers hope to have that work done by the 250th anniversary of Cook’s arrival in Australia’s Botany Bay—and his claiming of Australia as British territory—in 2020.

And there may be a battle over the remains. While the ship is considered a vital artifact of Australian history, the state of Rhode Island claimed ownership of all of the sunken ships in 1999, and they are overseen by the Rhode Island Historical Preservation and Heritage Commission.

[h/t The Age]

There Could Be Hundreds of Frozen Corpses Buried Beneath Antarctica's Snow and Ice

Prpix.com.au/Getty Images
Prpix.com.au/Getty Images

Scientists and explorers take a number of risks when they travel to Antarctica. One of the more macabre gambles is that they'll perish during their mission, and their bodies will never be recovered. According to the BBC, hundreds of frozen corpses may be trapped beneath layers and layers of Antarctic snow and ice.

“Some are discovered decades or more than a century later,” Martha Henriques writes for the BBC series Frozen Continent. “But many that were lost will never be found, buried so deep in ice sheets or crevasses that they will never emerge—or they are headed out towards the sea within creeping glaciers and calving ice.”

In the world’s most extreme regions, this is not uncommon. For comparison, some estimates suggest that more than 200 bodies remain on Mt. Everest. Antarctica's icy terrain is rugged and dangerous. Massive crevasses—some concealed by snow—measure hundreds of feet deep and pose a particularly serious threat for anyone crossing them on foot or by dogsled. There’s also the extreme weather: Antarctica is the coldest, driest, and windiest place on Earth, yet scientists recently discovered hundreds of mummified penguins that they believe died centuries ago from unusually heavy snow and rain.

One of the most famous cases of a left-behind body on Antarctica dates back to the British Antarctic Expedition (also known as the Terra Nova Expedition) of 1910 to 1913. British explorer Robert Falcon Scott and his four-man team hoped to be the first ones to reach the South Pole in 1912, but were bitterly disappointed when they arrived and learned that the Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen had beaten them to it.

On the return trip, Scott and his companions died of exposure and starvation while trapped by a blizzard in their tent, just 11 miles from a food depot. Two of those bodies were never found, but the others (including Scott’s) were located a few months after their deaths. Members of the search party covered their bodies in the tent with snow and left them there. The bodies have since travelled miles from their original location, as the ice grows and shifts around them.

Other evidence suggests people landed on Antarctica decades before Scott’s team did. A 175-year-old human skull and femur found on Antarctica’s Livingston Island were identified as the remains of a young indigenous Chilean woman. No one yet knows how she got there.

Accidents still happen: After coming close to completing the first solo, unaided traverse of Antarctica, British adventurer Henry Worsley died of organ failure following an airlift from the continent in 2016. Most modern-day polar visitors, however, have learned from past missteps.

[h/t BBC]

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