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12 Proposed Sequels That Thankfully Never Happened

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While unoriginal sequels have become commonplace, there are still some films that remain sacred, despite the sometimes decades of persistent rumors that a sequel is in the works. (We’re looking at you, Goonies.) Here are 12 proposed movie sequels that fortunately never happened.

1. E.T. II: NOCTURNAL FEARS

Call it a case of ’80s greed. Just over a month after E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial opened and stirred up an unexpected box office bonanza, Steven Spielberg and screenwriter Melissa Mathison came up with a concept for a follow-up film. Their idea? A ship full of evil, carnivorous aliens (their words) kidnap Elliott and his friends, and it’s up to E.T. to save them. (You can read Spielberg and Mathison’s full treatment here.)

Spielberg realized rather quickly that taking his iconic alien into darker territory was a bad idea. “Sequels can be very dangerous because they compromise your truth as an artist,” he recently said. “I think a sequel to E.T. would do nothing but rob the original of its virginity. People only remember the latest episode, while the pilot tarnishes.”

2. RETURN TO CASABLANCA

Rick’s final line in Casablanca—“Louie, I think this is the beginning of a beautiful friendship”— left the door open for a continuation of Rick and Ilsa’s love story (or at least more of Rick). Shortly after the film’s release, Warner Bros. began work on a sequel, Brazzaville, which only ever made it to the treatment phase. Small-screen versions in 1955 and 1983 were short-lived. And a few of the original film’s screenwriters (there were a handful of them) have tried their hardest to keep the story going, too. In 1980, Howard Koch wrote a treatment for Return to Casablanca, in which Ilsa’s young son searches for his father (spoiler alert: it’s not Victor)! In early 2013, another sequel treatment—this one by Murray Burnett, who wrote the play upon which the film is based—was discovered. This one reunites Rick and Ilsa just three years after the original film ends. Warner Bros. passed on the idea years ago, but the pages were intriguing enough to memorabilia collector Albert Tapper that he purchased them from Burnett’s widow. “It's a great collectible,” Tapper noted, “a typewritten original with a coffee cup stain on the cover.” Collectible? Yes. But a viable idea that will ever make its way to the silver screen? Probably not.

3. FORREST GUMP 2: GUMP & CO.

Six months after Tom Hanks took home a Best Actor Oscar for Forrest Gump, author Winston Groom released Gump & Co., a sequel to the novel upon which the film was based. Meta in a way that the original book had no right to be (the follow-up book starts out with Forrest telling the reader, “Don't never let nobody make a movie of your life's story”), Gump & Co. offers more of the same guy-in-the-right-place-at-the-right-time shenanigans that the first book (and movie) did: Forrest invents New Coke, crashes the Exxon Valdez, and knocks down the Berlin Wall. Which, of course, set the Hollywood Hills alive with the sound of “sequel.” Eric Roth returned to pen the script, which he turned in the night before 9/11. “We sat down—Tom [Hanks] and Bob [Zemeckis] and I—looked at each other and said, we don’t think this is relevant anymore. The world had changed,” Roth told /Film in 2008. “Now time has obviously passed, but maybe some things should just be one thing and left as they are.”

4. THE BREAKFAST CLUB: 10 YEARS LATER

Though no sequel was ever made from a Brat Pack film, it wasn’t for lack of ideas or wanting. John Hughes expressed a strong desire to revisit several of his iconic characters, including the brain, the athlete, the basket case, the princess, and the criminal that made up The Breakfast Club. Hughes’ original idea was to catch up with the gang a decade after the original film, but he ended up losing interest in the project over time, telling the Hartford Courant in 1999, “There's no excuse that could ever put them in the same room ever again. There isn't anything in their lives after high school relevant to that day.”

5. FERRIS BUELLER 2: ANOTHER DAY OFF

As if a failed television series weren’t enough, revisiting Ferris Bueller on his 40th birthday was yet another thing on John Hughes’ to-do list. And there’s even a script, penned by Rick Rapier, which sees Ferris (now a motivational speaker) facing a midlife crisis as he approaches the big 4-0. So he enlists Cameron, now his business manager, to play hooky for a day and party like it’s 1986. Considering that it would be difficult to make a Ferris Bueller sequel without Matthew Broderick—who is now in his early 50s—and that it has been four years since Hughes’ untimely passing, seeing this long-gestating project come to fruition seems unlikely.

6. GLADIATOR 2: Christ Killer

We’re not sure which part is stranger: that when talks of a Gladiator sequel came about, studio executives approached musician Nick Cave to write it. That John Logan wrote a version of the script, too. Or that it never got made it all.

In July, the rocker finally set the record straight on WTF with Marc Maron. Basically, it was all true!

Cave explained that it was his good friend Russell Crowe who approached him about the project. Cave had one question: “‘Hey Russell, didn't you die in Gladiator 1?’ ‘Yeah, you sort that out,’” Cave recalled of their original conversation. So he came up with an idea for Maximum: “He goes down to purgatory and is sent down by the gods, who are dying in heaven because there’s this one god, there’s this Christ character, down on Earth who is gaining popularity and so the many gods are dying so they send Gladiator back to kill Christ and his followers… I wanted to call it Christ Killer and in the end you find out that the main guy was his son so he has to kill his son and he was tricked by the gods. He becomes this eternal warrior and it ends with this 20-minute war scene which follows all the wars in history, right up to Vietnam and all that sort of stuff and it was wild. It was a stone cold masterpiece.”

Cave also recalled Crowe’s reaction: “Don’t like it, mate.”

“I enjoyed writing it very much because I knew on every level that it was never going to get made,” Cave said. “Let’s call it a popcorn dropper.”

7. ELF 2

In 2005, Will Ferrell nabbed the number 18 spot on Forbes’ Top 100 Celebrities list after banking $40 million in one year alone. But Ferrell made it clear that he wasn’t in Hollywood simply for the hefty paychecks when he turned down $29 million to make Elf 2. “Twenty-nine million [dollars] does seem [like] a lot of money for a guy to wear tights, but it's what the marketplace will bear,” Ferrell told The Guardian in 2006. He went on to note the decision to say no to a sequel—or such a massive payday—“wasn't difficult at all. I remember asking myself: Could I withstand the criticism when it’s bad and they say, ‘He did the sequel for the money'? I decided I wouldn't be able to. I didn't want to wander into an area that could erase all the good work I've done.” He also said no to Old School Dos. “But you watch,” Ferrell noted. “I'll do some sequel in the future that’s crap.”

8. EI8HT

David Fincher made his feelings on a sequel to Se7en clear when asked whether he would be involved in Ei8ht by an audience member at an event for The Curious Case of Benjamin Button at New York City’s Lincoln Center. “I would be less interested in that than I would in having cigarettes put out in my eyes,” he stated. “I keep trying to get out from under my own shadow… I don’t want to do the same shit over and over.” Neither Brad Pitt nor Morgan Freeman were interested either. But the studio already had a script, about a psychic working with the FBI to help track a serial killer, and they weren’t ready to drop it into the shredder just yet. So they did a little tinkering and turned the film into Solace, which bears the same premise but nothing to do with Se7en. It will arrive in theaters next year with Anthony Hopkins and Colin Farrell.

9. THE MATRIX 4

Anything is possible in The Matrix—numbers four and five. On January 24, 2011, entertainment writers went wild after learning that Keanu Reeves had confirmed that there would be at least two more entries in The Matrix franchise during a speech he was giving at the London International School of Performing Arts. There was just one problem: Keanu Reeves was never at the London International School of Performing Arts. The whole sequel excitement—which many publications around the globe picked up and ran with—was just a hoax. Reeves’ reps told The Playlist that “none of it is true… he did not speak nor get an award from the London International School of Performing Arts.” Oops.

10. THE GODFATHER 4

You can’t blame Paramount executives from toying with the idea of adding yet another Godfather film to the franchise, if only to make up for the bad taste left in audiences' mouths following the third installment. But it’s also not possible without Francis Ford Coppola. When asked about a long-rumored sequel in 2012, Andy Garcia agreed that “It’s in Francis’ hands.” And Francis made his feelings about the mythical project clear when he told TMZ, the media’s favorite arbiter of truth, that when it comes to The Godfather films, “There should have only been one.” You don’t have to agree with Coppola, but the man has spoken.

11. THE NIGHTMARE BEFORE CHRISTMAS 2

It’s safe to say that Disney executives would be thrilled if Tim Burton ever decided to follow through on his original plans to produce a sequel to his dual-holiday, stop-motion classic. But Burton has stated his reconsideration of this plan on numerous occasions, after the studio proposed the idea for a CGI continuation in 2001. “I was always very protective of [Nightmare], not to do sequels or things of that kind,” Burton told MTV in 2006. “You know, 'Jack visits Thanksgiving world' or other kinds of things, just because I felt the movie had a purity to it and the people that like it. Because it’s not a mass-market kind of thing, it was important to kind of keep that purity of it. I try to respect people and keep the purity of the project as much as possible.”

12.OFFICE SPACE 2: STILL RENTING

Mike Judge has a habit of making movies that flop at the box office but find new—and profitable—life on home video. He did it with Extract in 2009, Idiocracy in 2006 and, of course, Office Space in 1999. But Judge has been very vocal about the challenges which working with a studio created on Office Space, recalling to the A.V. Club in 2009 that “It was very satisfying to make, but I had to fight for every decision: [the studio] didn’t like the music, they didn’t like the cast, or much of anything. So when it didn’t do well at the box office, it was kind of like, ‘Well, you know, they were right.’ So to have it become more and more popular and make more and more money over these years has been really vindicating.” It must have been particularly vindicating when the studio later approached him with the idea of making a sequel, which he promptly turned down.

Bonus: It's a Wonderful Life

Some movies can benefit from a sequel. It’s a Wonderful Life is not one of them. Still, that tiny fact didn’t stop producers Allen J. Schwalb and Bob Farnsworth from telling Variety in 2013 that a sequel—It’s a Wonderful Life: The Rest of the Story, focused on George Bailey’s not-so-wonderful grandson—was in the works for the 2015 holiday season. Paramount’s reaction to the news was swift and clear: “No project relating to It's A Wonderful Life can proceed without a license from Paramount,” the company said in a statement. “To date, these individuals have not obtained any of the necessary rights, and we would take all appropriate steps to protect those rights.”

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15 Fascinating Facts About Candyman
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Helen Lyle (Virginia Madsen) is a Chicago graduate student with a deep fascination with urban legends, which she and her friend Bernadette (Kasi Lemmons) are using as the basis for a thesis project. After they stumble across the local legend of Candyman, a well-to-do black artist who fell in love with a white woman in the late 1800s and was murdered for it, Helen wants to learn more. When she’s told that Candyman still haunts Chicago's Cabrini-Green housing project, and that his spirit can be summoned by repeating his name into a mirror five times, Helen does just that … and all hell breaks loose.

What began as a low-budget indie film has morphed into a contemporary classic of the horror genre, and essential Halloween viewing. In 1992, English filmmaker Bernard Rose—who got his start working as a gopher on The Muppet Show—turned Clive Barker’s short story “The Forbidden” into Candyman, which was released in theaters 25 years ago today. In honor of the film’s anniversary, here are 15 things you might not have known about Candyman.

1. EDDIE MURPHY WAS CONSIDERED FOR THE LEAD.

Though the role of Candyman turned Tony Todd into a horror icon, he wasn’t the only actor in consideration for the film’s title role: Eddie Murphy was also reportedly a contender for the part. Though it’s unclear exactly why he wasn’t cast, sources have reported that it had to do with everything from his height (at 5 feet 9 inches, he wouldn’t seem nearly as intimidating as the 6-foot-5 Todd) to his salary demands.

2. AN UNEXPECTED PREGNANCY LANDED VIRGINIA MADSEN THE LEAD.

Virginia Madsen stars in 'Candyman'
PolyGram Filmed Entertainment

When asked by HorrorNewsNetwork about how she got the role of Helen in Candyman, Virginia Madsen shared that it was almost by accident: She was supposed to play Bernie, Helen’s friend and classmate, the role that eventually went to Kasi Lemmons.

“I was actually very good friends with Bernard [Rose] and his wife Alexandra,” Madsen said. “She is a wonderful actress, who actually brought Clive Barker’s short story ‘The Forbidden’ to her husband. She thought this would be a great film, and he could direct her. She was supposed to be Helen. I was going to play [Kasi Lemmons'] part, until they made the character African American. Then I was out.

“Right before shooting, Alexandra found out she was pregnant. It was great for me, but it was so sad for her because this was her role; she found this story and really wanted it. So when I was asked to step in I felt like ‘I can’t take my friend’s role.’ She actually came over one day and said ‘It would just kill me to see someone else play this role, you have to be the one who plays it.’ So with her blessing I took on the role. I really tried to work my butt off just to honor her.”

3. IT COULD HAVE STARRED SANDRA BULLOCK.

On the film’s DVD commentary, producer Alan Poul said that had Madsen been unable to step into the role of Helen, the part would have likely been offered to Sandra Bullock, who was still a relative unknown actress at that point. Though she had played the role of Tess McGill in the television adaptation of Working Girl, she was still a couple of years away from Speed (1994), the role that launched her into stardom.

4. ITS OPENING SHOT WAS GROUNDBREAKING.

The film’s opening credits feature a great aerial view of Chicago, which was pretty revolutionary for its time. “We did that with an incredible new machine called the Skycam, which can shoot up to a 500mm lens with no vibration,” Rose told The Independent. “You've never seen that shot before, at least not done that smoothly.”

5. NOT ALL OF THE FILM’S CREEPY DETAILS SPRUNG FROM CLIVE BARKER’S IMAGINATION.

While investigating one of Candyman’s crime scenes, Helen and Bernie discover that the design of the apartment’s medicine cabinet made it a possible point of entry for an intruder. This was not a made-up piece of horror movie fiction. While researching the film, Rose learned that a series of murders had been committed in Chicago in this very way.

6. BERNARD ROSE SEES CANDYMAN AS A ROMANTIC FIGURE.

Tony Todd stars in 'Candyman'
PolyGram Filmed Entertainment

Viewers may think of Candyman as one of the horror genre’s most terrifying villains, but Rose said that “the idea always was that he was kind of a romantic figure. And again, romantic in sort of the Edgar Allan Poe sense—it's the romance of death. He's a ghost, and he's also the resurrection of something that is kind of unspoken or unspeakable in American history, which is slavery, as well. So he's kind of come back and he's haunting what is the new version of the racial segregation in Chicago.

“And I think there's also something very seductive and very sweet and very romantic about him, and that's what makes him interesting. In the same way there is about Dracula. In the end, the Bogeyman is someone you want to surrender to. You're not just afraid of. There's a certain kind of joy in his seduction. And Tony was always so romantic. Tony ties him in so elegantly and is such a gentleman. He was wonderful.”

7. THE BEES IN THE FILM WERE BRED SPECIFICALLY TO APPEAR ONSCREEN.

No, that is not CGI! The bees that play a key role in Candyman are indeed real. So that they looked appropriately terrifying, but were less dangerous to the cast and crew, the filmmakers used newborn bees—they were just 12 hours old—so that they looked fully grown, but had less powerful stingers.

8. TONY TODD WAS STUNG 23 TIMES, AND GOT A BONUS EACH TIME IT HAPPENED.

Photo of Tony Todd in 'Candyman'
PolyGram Filmed Entertainment

In addition to allowing the filmmakers to cover his face with bees, Todd actually agreed to film a scene in which he had a mouthful of bees—and that, too, was all real. He told TMZ that he wore a dental dam to prevent any bees from sliding into his throat—which doesn’t mean that he didn’t suffer a sting or two … or 23, to be exact, over the course of three Candyman movies. Though it might have been worth it. “I had a great lawyer,” he told TMZ. “A thousand dollars a pop.”

9. THE BEES WEREN’T GREAT NEWS FOR MADSEN, EITHER.

Madsen, too, had to get up close and personal with those bees—a fact that almost forced her to pass on the role. “When Bernie was first asking me to do the role I said, ‘Well, I can’t. I’m allergic to bees,’” she told HorrorNewsNetwork. “He said ‘No you’re not allergic to bees, you’re just afraid.’ So I had to go to UCLA and get tested because he didn’t believe [me]. I was tested for every kind of venom. I was far more allergic to wasps. So he said, ‘We’ll just [have] paramedics there, it will be fine!’ You know actors, we’ll do anything for a paycheck! So fine, I’ll be covered with bees.

“So we a had a bee wrangler and he pretty much told us you can’t freak out around the bees, or be nervous, or swat at them, it would just aggravate them. They used baby bees on me. They can still sting you, but are less likely. When they put the bees on me it was crazy because they have fur. They felt like little Q-tips roaming around on me. Then you have pheromones on you, so they’re all in love with you and think you’re a giant queen. I really just had to go into this Zen sort of place and the takes were very short. What took the longest was getting the bees off of us. They had this tiny ‘bee vacuum,’ which wouldn’t harm the bees. After the scene where the bees were all over my face and my head, it took both Tony and I 45 minutes just to get the bees off. That’s when it became difficult to sit still. It was cool though, I felt like a total badass doing it.”

10. PHILIP GLASS COMPOSED THE SCORE, BUT WAS DISAPPOINTED IN THE MOVIE.

When Philip Glass signed on to compose the score for Candyman, he apparently envisioned the final film being something totally different. According to Rolling Stone, “What he'd presumed would be an artful version of Clive Barker's short story ‘The Forbidden’ had ended up, in his view, a low-budget slasher.” Glass was reportedly disappointed in the film, and felt that he had been manipulated. Still, the haunting music is considered a classic score—and Glass’s own view of it seems to have softened over time. “It has become a classic, so I still make money from that score, get checks every year,” he told Variety in 2014.

11. MANY OF THE FILM'S SCENES WERE SHOT AT CABRINI-GREEN.

In 2011, the last remaining high-rise in the Cabrini-Green housing project was demolished. Over the years, the property—which opened in 1942—gained a notorious reputation around the world for being a haven for violence, drugs, gangs, and other criminal activities. While the project’s real-life history weaves its way into the narrative of Candyman, it only makes sense that Rose would want to shoot there. Which he did. But in order to gain permission to shoot there, he had to agree to cast some of the residents as extras.

“I went to Chicago on a research trip to see where it could be done and I was shown around by some people from the Illinois Film Commission and they took me to Cabrini-Green,” Rose said. “And I spent some time there and I realized that this was an incredible arena for a horror movie because it was a place of such palpable fear. And rule number one when you're making a horror movie is set it somewhere frightening. And the fear of the urban housing project, it seemed to me, was actually totally irrational because you couldn't really be in that much danger. Yes, there was crime there, but people were actually afraid of driving past it. And there was such an aura of fear around the place and I thought that was really something interesting to look into because it's sort of a kind of fear that's at the heart of modern cities. And obviously, it's racially motivated, but more than that—it's poverty motivated.”

12. THE FILM’S PRODUCERS WERE WORRIED THAT THE FILM WOULD BE CONSIDERED RACIST.

During pre-production, Candyman’s producers began to worry that the film might draw criticism for being racist, given that its villain was black and it was largely set in an infamous housing project. “I had to go and have a whole set of meetings with the NAACP, because the producers were so worried,” Rose told The Independent. “And what they said to me when they'd read the script was 'Why are we even having this meeting? You know, this is just good fun.' Their argument was 'Why shouldn't a black actor be a ghost? Why shouldn't a black actor play Freddy Krueger or Hannibal Lecter? If you're saying that they can't be, it's really perverse. This is a horror movie.'”

13. STILL, SOME FILMMAKERS COMPLAINED THAT IT WAS RACIST.

In a 1992 story in the Chicago Tribune, some high-profile black filmmakers expressed their disappointment that the film seemed to perpetuate several racist stereotypes. “There’s no question that this film plays on white middle-class fears of black people,” director Carl Franklin (Out of Time, Devil in a Blue Dress) said. “It unabashedly uses racial stereotypes and destructive myths to create shock. I found it hokey and unsettling. It didn't work for me because I don’t share those fears, buy into those myths.”

Reginald Hudlin, who directed House Party, Boomerang, and Marshall, described the film as “worrisome,” though he didn’t want to speak on the record about his specific issues with the film. “I've gotten calls about [the movie], but I think I'm going to reserve comment,” he said. “Some of my friends are in it and I may someday want to work for TriStar.”

For Rose, those assessments may have been hard to hear, as his goal in adapting Barker’s story and directing it was to upend the myths about inner cities. “[T]he tradition of oral storytelling is very much alive, especially when it's a scary story,” he told The Independent. “And the biggest urban legend of all for me was the idea that there are places in cities where you do not go, because if you go in them something dreadful will happen—not to say that there isn't danger in ghettos and inner city areas, but the exaggerated fear of them is an urban myth.”

14. IT’S STILL THE ROLE THAT MADSEN IS MOST RECOGNIZED FOR (ESPECIALLY AT AIRPORTS).

Kasi Lemmons and Virginia Madsen in 'Candyman'
PolyGram Filmed Entertainment

Though she earned a Best Supporting Actress nomination in 2005 for Alexander Payne’s Sideways, in 2012 Madsen said that Candyman is still the role she is most recognized for—especially at airports.

“More people recognize me from that movie than anything I’ve done,” she told HorrorNewsNetwork. “It means a lot to me. It was after years of struggling. As an actor, you always want a film that’s annual, like It’s a Wonderful Life or A Christmas Story. I just love that I have a Halloween movie. Now it’s kind of legend this story. People have watched it since they were kids, and every Halloween it’s on, and they watch it now with their kids. That means a lot to me. The place I get recognized the most is the airport security for some reason. Every person in airport security has seen Candyman. Maybe it makes them a little afraid of me.”

15. THERE WAS AN ACTUAL CANDYMAN KILLER.

Though the Chicago-based legend of Candyman is a work of fiction, there was an actual serial killer known as “Candyman” or “The Candy Man.” Between 1970 and 1973, Dean Corll kidnapped, tortured, and murdered at least 28 young boys in the Houston area. Corll earned his sweet nickname from the fact that his family owned a candy factory.

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10 Facts About Samuel Johnson’s Dictionary
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October 16 is World Dictionary Day, which each year celebrates the birthday of the American lexicographer Noah Webster, who was born in Connecticut in 1758. Last year, Mental Floss marked the occasion with a list of facts about Webster’s American Dictionary of the English Language—the enormous two-volume dictionary, published in 1828 when Webster was 70 years old, that established many of the differences that still divide American and British English to this day. But while Webster was America’s foremost lexicographer, on the other side of the Atlantic, Great Britain had Dr. Samuel Johnson.

Johnson—whose 308th birthday was marked with a Google Doodle in September—published the equally groundbreaking Dictionary of the English Language in 1755, three years before Webster was even born. Its influence was arguably just as great as that of Webster’s, and it remained the foremost dictionary of British English until the early 1900s when the very first installments of the Oxford English Dictionary began to appear.

So to mark this year’s Dictionary Day, here are 10 facts about Johnson’s monumental dictionary.

1. IT WASN’T THE FIRST DICTIONARY.

With more than 40,000 entries, Johnson’s Dictionary of the English Language was certainly the largest dictionary in the history of the English language at the time but, despite popular opinion, it wasn’t the first. Early vocabularies and glossaries were being compiled as far back as the Old English period, when lists of words and their equivalents in languages like Latin and French first began to be used by scribes and translators. These were followed by educational word lists and then early bilingual dictionaries that began to emerge in the 16th century, which all paved the way for what is now considered the very first English dictionary: Robert Cawdrey’s Table Alphabeticall—in 1604.

2. SAMUEL JOHNSON BORROWED FROM THE DICTIONARIES THAT CAME BEFORE HIS.

In compiling his dictionary, Johnson drew on Nathan Bailey’s Dictionarium Britanicum, which had been published in 1730. (Ironically, a sequel to Bailey’s dictionary, A New Universal Etymological English Dictionary, was published in the same year as Johnson’s, and borrowed heavily from his work; its author, Joseph Nicoll Scott, even gave Johnson some credit for its publication.)

But just as Johnson had borrowed from Bailey and Scott had borrowed from Johnson, Bailey, too had borrowed from an earlier work—namely John Kersey’s Dictionarium Anglo-Britannicum (1708)—which was based in part on a technical vocabulary, John Harris’s Universal English Dictionary of Arts and Sciences. Lexicographic plagiarism was nothing new.

3. THE DICTIONARY WASN’T THE ONLY THING JOHNSON WROTE.

Although he’s best remembered as a lexicographer today, Johnson was actually something of a literary multitasker. As a journalist, he wrote for an early periodical called The Gentlemen’s Magazine. As a biographer, he wrote the Life of Mr Richard Savage (1744), a memoir of a friend and fellow writer who had died the previous year. Johnson also wrote numerous poems (London, published anonymously in 1738, was his first major published work), a novel (Rasselas, 1759), a stage play (Irene, 1749), and countless essays and critiques. He also co-edited an edition of Shakespeare’s plays. And in between all of that, he even found time to investigate a supposed haunted house in central London.

4. IT WAS THE FIRST DICTIONARY TO USE QUOTATIONS.

Johnson’s dictionary defined some 42,773 words, each of which was given a uniquely scholarly definition, complete with a suggested etymology and an armory of literary quotations—no fewer than 114,000 of them, in fact.

Johnson lifted quotations from books dating back to the 16th century for the citations in his dictionary, and relied heavily on the works of authors he admired and who were popular at the time—Shakespeare, John Milton, Alexander Pope, and Edmund Spenser included. In doing so, he established a lexicographic trend that still survives in dictionaries to this day.

5. IT TOOK MORE THAN EIGHT YEARS TO WRITE.

Defining 42,000 words and finding 114,000 quotes to help you do so takes time: Working from his home off Fleet Street in central London, Johnson and six assistants worked solidly for over eight years to bring his dictionary to print. (Webster, on the other hand, worked all but single-handedly, and used the 22 years it took him to compile his American Dictionary to learn 26 different languages.)

6. JOHNSON WAS WELL PAID FOR HIS TROUBLES.

Johnson was commissioned to write his dictionary by a group of London publishers, who paid him a princely 1,500 guineas—equivalent to roughly $300,000 (£225,000) today.

7. HE LEFT OUT A LOT OF WORDS.

The dictionary’s 42,000-word vocabulary might sound impressive, but it’s believed that the English language probably had as many as five times that many words around the time the dictionary was published in 1755. A lot of that shortfall was simply due to oversight: Johnson included the word irritable in four of his definitions, for instance, but didn’t list it as a headword in his own dictionary. He also failed to include a great many words found in the works of the authors he so admired, and in several of the source dictionaries he utilized, and in some cases he even failed to include the root forms of words whose derivatives were listed elsewhere in the dictionary. Athlete, for instance, didn’t make the final cut, whereas athletic did.

Johnson’s imposition of his own tastes and interests on his dictionary didn't help matters either. His dislike of French, for example, led to familiar words like unique, champagne, and bourgeois being omitted, while those he did include were given a thorough dressing down: ruse is defined as “a French word neither elegant nor necessary,” while finesse is dismissed as “an unnecessary word that is creeping into the language."

8. HE LEFT OUT THE LETTER X.

    At the foot of page 2308 of Johnson’s Dictionary is a note merely reading, “X is a letter which, though found in Saxon words, begins no word in the English language."

    9. HIS DEFINITIONS WEREN’T ALWAYS SO SCHOLARLY.

      As well as imposing his own taste on his dictionary, Johnson also famously employed his own sense of humor on his work. Among the most memorable of all his definitions is his explanation of oats as “a grain, which in England is generally given to horses, but in Scotland supports the people.” But he also defined monsieur as “a term of reproach for a Frenchman,” excise as “a hateful tax levied upon commodities and adjudged not by the common judges of property but wretches hired by those to whom excise is paid,” and luggage as “anything of more weight than value.” As an example of how to use the word dull, he explained that “to make dictionaries is dull work.”

      10. HE POKED LOTS OF FUN AT HIS OWN OCCUPATION.

      Listed on page 1195 of his dictionary, Johnson’s definition of lexicographer was “a writer of dictionaries; a harmless drudge.”

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