12 Facts About Goblin Sharks

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People who accidentally catch a Mitsukurina owstoni, a.k.a. the goblin shark, don’t tend to forget the experience. With their intricate jaws and ghostly complexions, the fish look like prehistoric monsters—or visitors from another planet. This species certainly isn't the world's fastest shark, nor the biggest, nor the most powerful, but the goblin shark does come with an irresistible aura of mystery. Here are 12 things you probably didn't know about it.

1. IT GETS ITS COMMON NAME FROM A JAPANESE DEMON.

The goblin shark has a huge range that includes much of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans, but it’s most commonly encountered off the coasts of Japan. Japanese fishermen who accidentally caught the sharks couldn’t help but notice their protruding snouts, which reminded them of folk stories about a long-nosed, red-faced demon known as the tengu. So they began calling the species tengu-zame. (Zame means “shark” in Japanese.) This was translated into English as “goblin shark,” with “elfin shark” being an alternative name the creature occasionally goes by.

2. IT PREFERS DEEP WATER.

Adults are normally captured while swimming at depths of 900 to 4300 feet. Juveniles sometimes venture to within 90 feet of the surface, but like their parents, they appear to prefer going deep. The goblin shark has small eyes, and given the depths they frequent, they probably rely on some of their other senses more heavily.

3. IT CAN GET BIG.

Much of the goblin shark's life cycle—including how it mates and gives birth—is a mystery. The largest recorded individual was 12.6 feet long and weighed 463 pounds, but it’s possible that goblin sharks can grow even bigger.

4. NOBODY KNOWS EXACTLY WHAT THE CREATURE’S UNUSUAL SNOUT IS FOR.

The goblin shark’s most distinctive feature is arguably its long, flattened snout, which looks like the blade of a broadsword when viewed from above. Some have proposed that the extra-long snout is used to poke around for food in narrow crevices. Another explanation involves the ampullae of Lorenzini, the sensory system that allows sharks to pick up the electrical signals of prey underwater. Scientists believe that one reason why hammerhead sharks have such odd-looking heads is because the broad, flat noggin design provides extra room for ampullae of Lorenzini pores; maybe the goblin shark’s elongated nose evolved for the same purpose.

5. WHEN HUNTING, IT THRUSTS ITS JAW FORWARD IN WHAT SCIENTISTS CALL "SLINGSHOT FEEDING."

A goblin shark's jaws are attached to elastic ligaments, and when prey comes within striking distance, the jaw protrudes, allowing the shark to catapult its whole mouth forward at a distance equal to 8.6 to 9.4 percent of its total body length. (If a human mouth was capable of moving like that, you could bite into a piece of food dangling 7 inches in front of your nose.) The unique bite style has been dubbed “slingshot feeding” by researchers at Hokkaido University.

6. IT CAN DEPLOY ITS JAWS TWICE AS FAST AS NEW YORK CITY'S PEDESTRIANS WALK...

New York City pedestrians are legendary for their foot speed, but video recordings of goblin sharks show that even fast walkers have nothing on this shark's jaws, which it can deploy at a speed of 10.1 feet per second—roughly twice as fast as a 2006 study determined pedestrians walk in New York City.

7. ... AND OPEN ITS MOUTH REALLY, REALLY WIDE.

Its mouth opens to an incredible 111-degree angle. Between the reach of its jaw and the capacity of its maw, the shark can fully engulf seemingly-out-of-reach prey in the blink of an eye.

8. IT'S NOT A FAST SWIMMER.

Why do goblin sharks have such freaky jaws? The answer probably has something to do with the way they swim. Goblin sharks are flabby, soft-bodied predators with small fins and a flexible tail that isn’t designed for rapid bursts of propulsion—making them slow-moving fish. So maybe the slingshot feeding technique evolved as a way to help the sluggish carnivore catch its prey in low-light conditions.

9. ITS NATURAL DIET INCLUDES CRABS AND SQUID.

In 2003, a Japanese team examined the stomachs of 121 goblin sharks that had been captured in an underwater canyon near Tokyo and found crustaceans, squid, and bony fish. Other specimens have had octopuses, shrimp, and fin rays in their digestive tracts.

10. THE GOBLIN SHARK IS THE ONLY LIVING MEMBER OF ITS FAMILY.

The Mitsukurinidae family likely evolved during the Cretaceous period. Sharks within this group—including the extant goblin shark—had thin, needle-like teeth towards the front of the mouth. Prehistoric varieties included Anomotodon novus, which lived around Europe and North America between 47.8 and 38 million years ago. Other fossil species had a global distribution.

The family Mitsukurinidae is part of an order of sharks known as the Lamniformes, which also contains the basking shark and great white. Lamniformes have five gill slits on either side of their bodies and most species have two dorsal fins.

11. YOU MIGHT BE SURPRISED BY THE GOBLIN SHARK’S COLOR SCHEME.

Fish specialists used to assume that, like many other sharks, goblins were gray. But in 1976, scientists photographed a specimen on the verge of death—and the fish was pink! Goblin sharks have translucent skin that lacks pigment, and thanks to bloodstreams lying just beneath the hide, live goblins generally look whitish-pink or grayish-purple. After death, however, their color appears to change, with the skin looking fully brown or gray post-mortem.

12. A COUPLE OF DIFFERENT MOVIE MONSTERS HAVE BEEN BASED ON THE GOBLIN SHARK.

Knifehead, a kaiju from Pacific Rim (2013), has a long, pointed snout that is a deliberate homage to the goblin shark. And according to Charlie Henley, VFX supervisor on 2017's Alien: Covenant, he and his team looked to the goblin shark for inspiration when designing the movie's white-skinned “neomorph,” which had a set of protruding jaws it used to take out a traveler halfway through the movie.

A Team of Cigarette Butt-Collecting Birds Are Keeping a French Theme Park Litter-Free

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The six rooks pecking at litter within the Puy du Fou theme park in Les Epesses, France, aren't unwelcome pests: They're part of the staff. As AFP reports, the trained birds have been dispatched to clean up garbage and cigarettes butts from the park grounds.

Rooks are a member of the corvid family, a group of intelligent birds that also includes ravens and crows. At Puy du Fou, an educational amusement park with attractions inspired by various periods from French history, the rooks will flit around park, pick up any bits of litter that haven't been properly disposed of, and deliver them to a receptacle in exchange for a treat. At least that's how the system is set up to work: The full team of six rooks has only been on the job since August 13.

Employing birds as trash collectors may seem far-fetched, but the experiment has precedent. The Dutch startup Crowded Cities recently started training crows to gather cigarette butts using a vending machine-like device. Once the crows were taught to associate the rig with free peanuts, the machine was tweaked so that it only dispensed food when the crow nudged a cigarette butt resting on a ledge into the receptacle. The cigarette butts were eventually removed, and the birds figured out that they had to find the litter in the wild if they wanted to continue receiving their snacks.

Crowded Cities had planned to conduct more research on the method's effectiveness, as well as the potentially harmful effects of tobacco on crows, before bringing their vending machines to public spaces. Puy du Fou, meanwhile, has become one of the first—if not the first—businesses to fully implement the strategy on a major scale.

Even if it doesn't prove to be practical, Puy du Fou president Nicolas de Villiers told AFP that cleaning up the park is only part of the goal. He also hopes the birds will demonstrate that "nature itself can teach us to take care of the environment."

[h/t AFP]

Wasps Are Getting Drunk and Terrorizing People in England

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Go home, wasps. You’re drunk.

Thousands of “boozy wasps” are terrorizing the UK after imbibing the nectar of fermented fruit and cider left behind at pub gardens, Travel + Leisure reports. Experts warn that there’s a greater risk of getting stung at this time of year, especially while boozing outdoors or eating sweet foods.

The sudden change in diet highlights an issue with the insects' food supply: Wasps typically drink a kind of sugar-spit produced by larvae, but the hive queens have already stopped laying larvae by this time of year, and wasps have been unable to get their fill. They also carry a genetic trait that makes them go crazy for sugary foods and alcohol, and other factors have escalated the problem. For one, last year's cold winter translated to an early wasp season, which allowed them to build larger-than-normal nests.

"Wasps have built absolutely massive nests and, now that all the larvae have grown up and the queen has stopped laying eggs, the colonies have a workforce with nothing to do—and nothing to eat," pest control expert Shane Jones told the Daily Mail. "So they go down to the pub, obviously."

What they really want is sugar, which can be found in fermented fruit, cider, and fruity beers. Because wasps are lightweights, just one sip will get them drunk—and you don’t want to see them when they’re tipsy. "Wasps can't handle their booze, so they get tanked-up and fighty—like lager louts,” Jones says. Alcohol can make the insects more irritable and more likely to sting people.

The best way to avoid the problem, according to Dee Ward-Thompson, technical manager at the British Pest Control Association, is to keep the sugary goodies they're craving out of sight. “Maybe the most influential factor on wasp numbers is when people do not dispose of their waste properly, especially food with a high sugar content, such as fruit," Ward-Thompson told the Nottingham Post. “We always advise waste to be securely bagged and held within a clean container, away from where young children might play.”

[h/t Travel + Leisure]

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