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15 Words Etymologically Inspired by Animals

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ThinkStock/Erin McCarthy

Animals have always been important to the lives and livelihoods of humans, so it’s no wonder they've left a mark on language. Here are 15 words that were etymologically inspired by animals.

1. Bawl

Comes from the sound that a dog makes. In Latin, the dog says bau bau, and bawl originated in the verb baulare, to bark like a dog. Bawl was first used in English for the cries of dogs, and was later applied to human sobbing and yelling (as in “bawl out”).

2. Cynic

From the Greek cynikos for dog-like, churlish. Though the name might have first been applied to the ancient members of the Cynical philosophical sect because of the school where its founder taught, Cynosarges (place of the white dog), the Cynics were widely thought of as dog-like and churlish by their contemporaries for living on the street and ignoring the rules of decorum.

3. Harpoon

Harpoon also goes back to dogs. It comes from the French harpon, a cramp iron for holding stones together, which came from harpe, the word for a dog’s claw.

4. Tyke

Dogs also figure in the history of tyke. It comes from Old Norse tík, a word for female dog. It came to be used as an insult in English, and then as a teasing, reproachful way to refer to children. These days it’s lost the sense of reproach and is just another cute word for the wee ones.

5. Pedigree

From the Anglo-Norman pé de grue, for “foot of the crane.” It refers to the lines on genealogical charts, which have the look of crane footprints.

6. Cavalier

Comes from the Old Spanish cavallero for horse-rider, from cavallo, horse. Those horse-riding cavaliers, or knights, could get pretty haughty and disdainful sometimes, giving rise to the adjective we use today. But they could also be gallant and brave, which is why we also have the related word, chivalrous.

7. Hobby

Hobby was an old nickname, related to Robin, that people in England used to give cart-horses. It became a general word for a nice little pony, and then for a toy horse. It later came to mean a pursuit taken more seriously than it should be, like riding a toy horse.

8. Hackneyed

Horses have been very important to the lives of humans; no wonder we have so many words from them. We got hackney from Old French haquenée, a gentle sort of horse considered especially suitable for ladies to ride. It came to be used as a general term for horses that were hired out and then, by metaphorical extension, for anyone having to do drudge work. If something was all worn out from years of drudgery, then it was hackneyed. Like a stale cliché.

9. Butcher

Goes back through Anglo-Norman bocher to Old French bochier, which was formed off the word boc, meaning goat. So a butcher was originally a “dealer in goat's flesh.”

10. Capricious

Goes back to the Italian capro or goat, an animal known for its herky-jerky, whimsical skipping about.

11. Burrito

From the Spanish for “little burro” or donkey. These days burritos can be nearly the same size as their namesakes.

12. Easel

Another donkey word, from the Dutch for donkey, ezel. An easel is similar to a saw-horse, another four-legged structure you can use to support your work.

13. Vaccine

Formed from vacca, the Latin for cow. The first vaccines were made from cowpox lesions, known as variola vaccinae, which were found to produce immunity from smallpox.

14. Aviation

Aviation comes from the Latin avis for bird. It was coined in the 19th century while we were in the middle of trying to figure out how to do that thing that birds do so well.

15. Vixen

Vixen is the feminine form of fox. Members of the Vulpes vulpes family have given English a host of metaphorical expressions to work with. This is why we can make sense of the phrase “the vixen outfoxed the foxy sly fox.”

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Australian Charity Releases Album of Cat-Themed Ballads to Promote Feline Welfare
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An Australian animal charity is helping save the nation’s kitties one torch song at a time, releasing a feline-focused musical album that educates pet owners about how to properly care for their cats.

Around 35,000 cats end up in pounds, shelters, and rescue programs every year in the Australian state of New South Wales, according to the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA). Microchipping and fixing cats, along with keeping closer tabs on them, could help reduce this number. To get this message out, the RSPCA’s New South Wales chapter created Cat Ballads: Music To Improve The Lives Of Cats.

The five-track recording is campy and fur-filled, with titles like "Desex Me Before I Do Something Crazy" and "Meow Meow." But songs like “I Need You” might tug the heartstrings of ailurophiles with lyrics like “I guess that’s goodbye then/but you’ve done this before/the window's wide open/and so’s the back door/you might think I’m independent/but you’d be wrong.” There's also a special version of the song that's specifically designed for cats’ ears, featuring purring, bird tweets, and other feline-friendly noises.

Together, the tunes remind us how vulnerable our kitties really are, and provide a timely reminder for cat owners to be responsible parents to their furry friends.

“The Cat Ballads campaign coincides with kitten season, which is when our shelters receive a significantly higher number of unwanted kittens as the seasons change,” Dr. Jade Norris, a veterinary scientist with the RSPCA, tells Mental Floss. “Desexing cats is a critical strategy to reduce unwanted kittens.”

Listen to a song from Cat Ballads below, and visit the project’s website for the full rundown.

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Animals
Scientists Discover 'Octlantis,' a Bustling Octopus City
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Sylke Rohrlach, Wikimedia Commons // CC BY-SA 4.0

Octopuses are insanely talented: They’ve been observed building forts, playing games, and even walking on dry land. But one area where the cephalopods come up short is in the social department. At least that’s what marine biologists used to believe. Now a newly discovered underwater community, dubbed Octlantis, is prompting scientists to call their characterization of octopuses as loners into question.

As Quartz reports, the so-called octopus city is located in Jervis Bay off Australia’s east coast. The patch of seafloor is populated by as many as 15 gloomy octopuses, a.k.a. common Sydney octopuses (octopus tetricus). Previous observations of the creatures led scientists to think they were strictly solitary, not counting their yearly mating rituals. But in Octlantis, octopuses communicate by changing colors, evict each other from dens, and live side by side. In addition to interacting with their neighbors, the gloomy octopuses have helped build the infrastructure of the city itself. On top of the rock formation they call home, they’ve stored mounds of clam and scallop shells and shaped them into shelters.

There is one other known gloomy octopus community similar to this one, and it may help scientists understand how and why they form. The original site, called Octopolis, was discovered in the same bay in 2009. Unlike Octlantis, Octopolis was centered around a manmade object that had sunk to the seabed and provided dens for up to 16 octopuses at a time. The researchers studying it had assumed it was a freak occurrence. But this new city, built around a natural habitat, shows that gloomy octopuses in the area may be evolving to be more social.

If that's the case, it's unclear why such octo-cities are so uncommon. "Relative to the more typical solitary life, the costs and benefits of living in aggregations and investing in interactions remain to be documented," the researchers who discovered the group wrote in a paper published in Marine and Freshwater Behavior and Physiology [PDF].

It’s also possible that for the first time in history humans have the resources to see octopus villages that perhaps have always been bustling beneath the sea surface.

[h/t Quartz]

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