What’s the Difference Between Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes?

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iStock

The odds are pretty good that you know someone with diabetes. Affecting more than 30 million Americans, it's an incredibly common—and commonly misunderstood—condition.

The word diabetes comes from the Greek for "siphon"—a reference to the frequent and copious urination the condition can cause. The term was coined in the first century by ancient physician Aretaeus the Cappadocian, who vividly (and inaccurately) described the theory that "great masses of flesh are liquefied into urine."

Today we know a bit more about this illness, what causes it, and the forms it can take.

Diabetes is ultimately a hormone problem. The hormone in question is insulin, which helps the body convert glucose (sugar) into energy. Your pancreas releases a little dose of insulin into your bloodstream when you eat. The insulin tells certain cells to gobble up the glucose you've just added. The cells take in the sugar and put it to work.

Or at least that's how it's supposed to go. If you've got diabetes, the situation looks a little different.

Like rheumatoid arthritis or celiac disease, type 1 diabetes is the result of a person being attacked by their own immune system. In rheumatoid arthritis, the issue manifests in the joints; in celiac disease, it occurs in the gut; and in type 1 diabetes, it's the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas that are targeted by the immune system.

Little fluctuations in blood sugar that would breeze right through a healthy system can wreak havoc in the body of someone with type 1. People with type 1 must keep a very close eye on their glucose levels and take supplemental insulin, in shots or through a pen, port, pump, or inhaler, as blood sugar that goes too low or too high can cause serious complications and even death.

Type 2 diabetes is caused by an obstacle at the other end of the road. Someone with type 2 diabetes typically may have enough insulin to function, at least to start; the problem is that their body can't process it. Unused glucose builds up in the bloodstream and the body begins to need more and more insulin to see any effect.

Type 2 used to be known as adult-onset diabetes and type 1 as juvenile diabetes, but both kids and adults can and do develop both types. And while being overweight or obese does increase a person's risk of developing diabetes, thin people get it too. To complicate matters even further, researchers in Finland and Sweden recently identified five subgroups of diabetes, each with its own unique characteristics and risks for complications. Knowing which subgroup people fall into may improve treatment in the future.

And while we're myth-busting: The idea that diabetes is the product of eating too much sugar is a gross oversimplification. How you eat affects your body, of course, and a low-carb diet can help keep blood sugar in check, but diabetes can be caused by a lot of different factors, including genetics, medications, and other health conditions. (If you're on insulin, talk to a doctor before starting a low-carb diet, as low blood glucose levels can result if not done carefully.)

There's no common cure for diabetes—at least not yet. An artificial pancreas and other treatments for the immune system and pancreas cells are all in the works. In the meantime, both types can usually be managed with medication, diet changes, exercise, and a lot of doctor visits.

Is There An International Standard Governing Scientific Naming Conventions?

iStock/Grafissimo
iStock/Grafissimo

Jelle Zijlstra:

There are lots of different systems of scientific names with different conventions or rules governing them: chemicals, genes, stars, archeological cultures, and so on. But the one I'm familiar with is the naming system for animals.

The modern naming system for animals derives from the works of the 18th-century Swedish naturalist Carl von Linné (Latinized to Carolus Linnaeus). Linnaeus introduced the system of binominal nomenclature, where animals have names composed of two parts, like Homo sapiens. Linnaeus wrote in Latin and most his names were of Latin origin, although a few were derived from Greek, like Rhinoceros for rhinos, or from other languages, like Sus babyrussa for the babirusa (from Malay).

Other people also started using Linnaeus's system, and a system of rules was developed and eventually codified into what is now called the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN). In this case, therefore, there is indeed an international standard governing naming conventions. However, it does not put very strict requirements on the derivation of names: they are merely required to be in the Latin alphabet.

In practice a lot of well-known scientific names are derived from Greek. This is especially true for genus names: Tyrannosaurus, Macropus (kangaroos), Drosophila (fruit flies), Caenorhabditis (nematode worms), Peromyscus (deermice), and so on. Species names are more likely to be derived from Latin (e.g., T. rex, C. elegans, P. maniculatus, but Drosophila melanogaster is Greek again).

One interesting pattern I've noticed in mammals is that even when Linnaeus named the first genus in a group by a Latin name, usually most later names for related genera use Greek roots instead. For example, Linnaeus gave the name Mus to mice, and that is still the genus name for the house mouse, but most related genera use compounds of the Greek-derived root -mys (from μῦς), which also means "mouse." Similarly, bats for Linnaeus were Vespertilio, but there are many more compounds of the Greek root -nycteris (νυκτερίς); pigs are Sus, but compounds usually use Greek -choerus (χοῖρος) or -hys/-hyus (ὗς); weasels are Mustela but compounds usually use -gale or -galea (γαλέη); horses are Equus but compounds use -hippus (ἵππος).

This post originally appeared on Quora. Click here to view.

An Ice Age Wolf Head Was Found Perfectly Preserved in Siberian Permafrost

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iStock/stevegeer

Don’t lose your head in Siberia, or it may be found preserved thousands of years later.

A group of mammoth tusk hunters in eastern Siberia recently found an Ice Age wolf’s head—minus its body—in the region’s permafrost. Almost perfectly preserved thanks to tens of thousands of years in ice, researchers dated the specimen to the Pleistocene Epoch—a period between 1.8 million and 11,700 years ago characterized by the Ice Age. The head measures just under 16 inches long, The Siberian Times reports, which is roughly the same size as a modern gray wolf’s.

Believed to be between 2 to 4 years old around the time of its death, the wolf was found with its fur, teeth, and soft tissue still intact. Scientists said the region’s permafrost, a layer of ground that remains permanently frozen, preserved the head like a steak in a freezer. Researchers have scanned the head with a CT scanner to reveal more of its anatomy for further study.

Tori Herridge, an evolutionary biologist at London’s Natural History Museum, witnessed the head’s discovery in August 2018. She performed carbon dating on the tissue and tweeted that it was about 32,000 years old.

The announcement of the discovery was made in early June to coincide with the opening of a new museum exhibit, "The Mammoth," at Tokyo’s Miraikan National Museum of Emerging Science and Innovation. The exhibit features more than 40 Pleistocene specimens—including a frozen horse and a mammoth's trunk—all in mint condition, thanks to the permafrost’s effects. (It's unclear if the wolf's head is included in the show.)

While it’s great to have a zoo’s worth of prehistoric beasts on display, scientists said the number of animals emerging from permafrost is increasing for all the wrong reasons. Albert Protopopov, director of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Sakha, told CNN that the warming climate is slowly but surely thawing the permafrost. The higher the temperature, the likelier that more prehistoric specimens will be found.

And with average temperatures rising around the world, we may find more long-extinct creatures rising from the ice.

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