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11 Debut Films of Famous Directors

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Even the most cinematically inclined of us may not have heard of the debut films of some of today’s most well-known directors. Before Jaws, Lord of the Rings, and Star Wars, these highly regarded directors made some films that don’t always fit in with the content or caliber of their later works. Read on to learn about the science fiction films, questionable sequels, and made-for-TV movies that paved the way for some of the most successful directors of the past hundred years.

1. Steven Spielberg, Duel (1971)

While Spielberg had directed several episodes of popular TV shows in the late ‘60s and very early ‘70s (and made a movie called Firelight for just $500 when he was 18), Duel was his first standalone feature-length film. Though it was broadcast as a TV movie in the United States, this story of a murderous truck received a theatrical release in Europe. The entire film consists of the Peterbilt 281 tanker, whose driver is never fully in view, attempting to run a terrified traveling salesman off the road. Though the salesman gets the upper hand in the end, he never does figure out the story behind the driver (truck?) who was to determined to see him dead. It’s safe to say he didn’t risk cutting anyone off for a long time afterward.

2. Peter Jackson, Bad Taste (1987)

Like Jackson’s other splatter horror comedy Braindead (or Dead Alive, if you’re watching it in North America), Bad Taste is not for the faint of heart—or stomach. This alien invasion movie features lots of alien-on-human eating, human-on-alien eating, and general guts and gore that led to numerous cut versions of the film being played in various countries. Over the years, Bad Taste has become a cult film of sorts, which is an achievement in and of itself considering the low budget used to produce the film and the fact that most roles were played by Jackson and his friends.

3. Danny Boyle, Shallow Grave (1994)

Boyle, who would go on to direct such popular movies as Trainspotting, 28 Days Later, and Slumdog Millionaire, began his directorial work—and his professional relationship with Ewan McGregor—with this dark comedy. A tale of friendship, betrayal, money, and murder, Shallow Grave helped launch the careers of McGregor and Christopher Eccleston, who would go on to play the ninth incarnation of the Doctor in Doctor Who.

4. Cecil B. DeMille, The Squaw Man (1914)

This silent western movie adapted from the play of the same name was DeMille’s first attempt at directing and producing. It holds the distinction of being the first feature-length film made in Hollywood, save for harbor scenes and a few others requiring varied landscapes. DeMille must have harbored an affection for The Squaw Man as he went on to film it twice more in the form of a 1918 silent remake and a 1931 talkie.

5. Stanley Kubrick, Fear and Desire (1953)

Kubrick’s first feature film came two years after he directed documentaries on Irish-American boxer Walter Cartier and New Mexican priest Father Fred Stadtmuller. Fear and Desire exudes an air of ambiguity throughout as it follows a group of soldiers, one of whom is clearly unstable, in a war between two unnamed countries. With a budget of $10,000 largely raised by family and friends, the film was lauded as a success—though not a financial one. After its initial showings, Kubrick tried to prevent it from being seen again, going so far as to call the film “a bumbling amateur film exercise.”

6. Francis Ford Coppola, Dementia 13 (1963)

Known in the United Kingdom as The Haunted and the Hunted, Dementia 13 was Coppola’s first mainstream directorial attempt after working on several nude films. Producer Roger Corman initially brought in Coppola to make a gothic Psycho-esque movie, but during production stages the two disagreed so violently as to lead Corman to bring in another director to shoot additional scenes. Upon release, the film received mixed reviews and currently has 65 percent on Rotten Tomatoes. Not bad for a cheap remake about a murderous lunatic.

7. James Cameron, Piranha II: The Spawning (1981)

Cameron has come quite a long way in the visual effects department since his debut. Piranha II, also known as Flying Killers, is the story of a school of piranha living in the wreckage of a ship in the Caribbean. The movie is exactly what you’d expect a sequel of the original Piranha to be: namely, man-eating, flying fish killing lots of people.

8. George Lucas, THX 1138 (1971)

Rising from the ashes of his 1967 student film Electronic Labyrinth: THX 1138 4EB, this film depicts a world in which drugs are mandatory, sex is banned, and the few who rebel are sent to a limbo-like prison even fewer attempt to escape. The film currently holds a rating on Rotten Tomatoes of 90 percent—higher than all but two of the Star Wars movies.

9. John Carpenter, Dark Star (1974)

Described by Carpenter as “Waiting for Godot in space,” Dark Star is a dark science fiction comedy surrounding a bored crew’s travels through space. Most of the film consists of the crew members’ attempts to fill their time with stargazing, target practice, making music, or chasing a small alien around the ship. (Interestingly enough, this alien would later be the inspiration for the much more frightening one in Ridley Scott’s Alien, which was written by Carpenter’s co-writer, Dan O’Bannon.) Dark Star ends in a kind of philosophical tailspin. Note: Don’t teach Cartesian doubt to sentient bombs.

10. Ridley Scott, The Duellists (1977)

This movie, which won the Best Debut Film award at the 1977 Cannes Film Festival, could not have been more different from the movies for which Scott is most famous. It is based on Joseph Conrad’s short story The Duel, and it features Harvey Keitel and Keith Carradine as enemies in Strasbourg in the early 1800s. Praised for its historical accuracy, The Duellists marked the beginning of a varied and successful career for Scott, who would go on to make the aforementioned Alien as well as Thelma & Louise, Blade Runner, and Black Hawk Down.

11. Christopher Nolan, Following (1998)

Like others on this list, Nolan was working on an extremely short budget with his first film. He paid for the 16mm film out of his own pocket, and he insisted on extensively rehearsed scenes so as to not require numerous takes. Additionally, he largely eschewed professional film lighting in favor of whatever light was readily available. The black-and-white movie involves a young writer who makes a habit of following strangers, only to one day become engrossed in following a man who ends up confronting him. Seduced by this man’s dangerous lifestyle, the protagonist turns to a life of crime that ultimately derails and leaves him the victim of his fellow thieves’ manipulation.

The Origins of 5 International Food Staples

Food is more than fuel. Cuisine and culture are so thoroughly intertwined that many people automatically equate tomatoes with Italy and potatoes with Ireland. Yet a thousand years ago those dietary staples were unheard of in Europe. How did they get to be so ubiquitous there—and beyond?


For years, the wonderful fruit that’s now synonymous with Italy was mostly ignored there. Native to South America and likely cultivated in Central America, tomatoes were introduced to Italy by Spanish explorers during the 1500s. Shortly thereafter, widespread misconceptions about the newcomers took root. In part due to their watery complexion, it was inaccurately thought that eating tomatoes could cause severe digestive problems. Before the 18th century, the plants were mainly cultivated for ornamental purposes. Tomato-based sauce recipes wouldn’t start appearing in present-day Italy until 1692 (although even those recipes were more like a salsa or relish than a sauce). Over the next 150 years, tomato products slowly spread throughout the peninsula, thanks in no small part to the agreeable Mediterranean climate. By 1773, some cooks had taken to stuffing tomatoes with rice or veal. In Naples, the fruits were sometimes chopped up and placed onto flatbread—the beginnings of modern pizza. But what turned the humble tomato into a national icon was the canning industry. Within Italy’s borders, this business took off in a big way during the mid-to-late 19th century. Because tomatoes do well stored inside metal containers, canning companies dramatically drove up the demand. The popularity of canned tomatoes was later solidified by immigrants who came to the United States from Italy during the early 20th century: Longing for Mediterranean ingredients, transplanted families created a huge market for Italian-grown tomatoes in the US.


Bowl of chicken curry with a spoon in it

An international favorite, curry is beloved in both India and the British Isles, not to mention the United States. And it turns out humans may have been enjoying the stuff for a very, very long time. The word “curry” was coined by European colonists and is something of an umbrella term. In Tamil, a language primarily found in India and Sri Lanka, “kari” means “sauce.” When Europeans started traveling to India, the term was eventually modified into “curry,” which came to designate any number of spicy foods with South or Southeast Asian origins. Nonetheless, a great number of curry dishes share two popular components: turmeric and ginger. In 2012, traces of both were discovered inside residue caked onto pots and human teeth at a 4500-year-old archaeological site in northern India. And where there’s curry, there’s usually garlic: A carbonized clove of this plant was also spotted nearby. “We don’t know they were putting all of them together in a dish, but we know that they were eating them at least individually,” Steve Weber, one of the archaeologists who helped make this astonishing find, told The Columbian. He and his colleagues have tentatively described their discovery as "proto-curry."


Several baguettes

A quintessential Gallic food, baguettes are adored throughout France, where residents gobble up an estimated 10 billion every year. The name of the iconic bread ultimately comes from the Latin word for stick, baculum, and references its long, slender form. How the baguette got that signature shape is a mystery. One popular yarn credits Napoleon Bonaparte: Supposedly, the military leader asked French bakers to devise a new type of skinny bread loaf that could be comfortably tucked into his soldiers’ pockets. Another origin story involves the Paris metro, built in the 19th century by a team of around 3500 workers who were apparently sometimes prone to violence during meal times. It’s been theorized that the metro foremen tried to de-escalate the situation by introducing bread that could be broken into pieces by hand—thereby eliminating the need for laborers to carry knives. Alas, neither story is supported by much in the way of historical evidence. Still, it’s clear that lengthy bread is nothing new in France: Six-foot loaves were a common sight in the mid-1800s. The baguette as we know it today, however, didn’t spring into existence until the early 20th century. The modern loaf is noted for its crispy golden crust and white, puffy center—both traits made possible by the advent of steam-based ovens, which first arrived on France’s culinary scene in the 1920s.


Bowl of red, white, and black potatoes on wooden table

Historical records show that potatoes reached Ireland by the year 1600. Nobody knows who first introduced them; the list of potential candidates includes everyone from Sir Walter Raleigh to the Spanish Armada. Regardless, Ireland turned out to be a perfect habitat for the tubers, which hail from the misty slopes of the Andes Mountains in South America. Half a world away, Ireland’s rich soils and rainy climate provided similar conditions—and potatoes thrived there. They also became indispensable. For millennia, the Irish diet had mainly consisted of dairy products, pig meats, and grains, none of which were easy for poor farmers to raise. Potatoes, on the other hand, were inexpensive, easy to grow, required fairly little space, and yielded an abundance of filling carbs. Soon enough, the average Irish peasant was subsisting almost entirely on potatoes, and the magical plant is credited with almost single-handedly triggering an Irish population boom. In 1590, only around 1 million people lived on the island; by 1840, that number had skyrocketed to 8.2 million. Unfortunately, this near-total reliance on potatoes would have dire consequences for the Irish people. In 1845, a disease caused by fungus-like organisms killed off somewhere between one-third and one-half of the country’s potatoes. Roughly a million people died as a result, and almost twice as many left Ireland in a desperate mass exodus. Yet potatoes remained a cornerstone of the Irish diet after the famine ended; in 1899, one magazine reported that citizens were eating an average of four pounds’ worth of them every day. Expatriates also brought their love of potatoes with them to other countries, including the U.S. But by then, the Yanks had already developed a taste for the crop: The oldest record of a permanent potato patch on American soil dates back to 1719. That year, a group of farmers—most likely Scots-Irish immigrants—planted one in the vicinity of modern-day Derry, New Hampshire. From these humble origins, the potato steadily rose in popularity, and by 1796, American cookbooks were praising its “universal use, profit, and easy acquirement.”


Corn growing in a field

In the 1930s, geneticist George W. Beadle exposed a vital clue about how corn—also known as maize—came into existence. A future Nobel Prize winner, Beadle demonstrated that the chromosomes found in everyday corn bear a striking resemblance to those of a Mexican grass called teosinte. At first glance, teosinte may not look very corn-like. Although it does have kernels, these are few in number and encased in tough shells that can easily chip a human tooth. Nonetheless, years of work allowed Beadle to prove beyond a shadow of a doubt that corn was descended from teosinte. Today, genetic and archaeological data suggests that humans began the slow process of converting this grass into corn around 8700 years ago in southwestern Mexico. If you're wondering why early farmers showed any interest in cultivating teosinte to begin with, while the plant is fairly unappetizing in its natural state, it does have a few key attributes. One of these is the ability to produce popcorn: If held over an open fire, the kernels will “pop” just as our favorite movie theater treat does today. It might have been this very quality that inspired ancient horticulturalists to tinker around with teosinte—and eventually turn it into corn


Person sitting cross-legged holding a cup of green tea

The United Kingdom’s ongoing love affair with this hot drink began somewhat recently. Tea—which is probably of Chinese origin—didn’t appear in Britain until the 1600s. Initially, the beverage was seen as an exotic curiosity with possible health benefits. Shipping costs and tariffs put a hefty price tag on tea, rendering it quite inaccessible to the lower classes. Even within England’s most affluent circles, tea didn’t really catch on until King Charles II married Princess Catherine of Braganza. By the time they tied the knot in 1662, tea-drinking was an established pastime among the elite in her native Portugal. Once Catherine was crowned Queen, tea became all the rage in her husband’s royal court. From there, its popularity slowly grew over several centuries and eventually transcended socioeconomic class. At present, the average Brit drinks an estimated three and a half cups of tea every day.

All photos courtesy of iStock.

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10 Filling Facts About A Charlie Brown Thanksgiving
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Warner Home Video

Though it may not be as widely known as It’s the Great Pumpkin, Charlie Brown or A Charlie Brown Christmas, A Charlie Brown Thanksgiving has been a beloved holiday tradition for many families for more than 40 years now. Even if you've seen it 100 times, there’s still probably a lot you don’t know about this Turkey Day special.


We all know the trombone “wah wah wah” sound that Charlie Brown’s teacher makes when speaking in a Peanuts special. But A Charlie Brown Thanksgiving, which was released in 1973, made history as the first Peanuts special to feature a real, live, human adult voice. But it’s not a speaking voice—it’s heard in the song “Little Birdie.”


Being the first adult to lend his or her voice to a Peanuts special was kind of a big deal, so it makes sense that the honor wasn’t bestowed on just any old singer or voice actor. The song was performed by composer Vince Guardaldi, whose memorable compositions have become synonymous with Charlie Brown and the rest of the gang.

“Guaraldi was one of the main reasons our shows got off to such a great start,” Lee Mendelson, the Emmy-winning producer who worked on many of the Peanuts specials—including A Charlie Brown Thanksgivingwrote for The Huffington Post in 2013. “His ‘Linus and Lucy,’ introduced in A Charlie Brown Christmas, set the bar for the first 16 shows for which he created all the music. For our Thanksgiving show, he told me he wanted to sing a new song he had written for Woodstock. I agreed with much trepidation as I had never heard him sing a note. His singing of ‘Little Birdie’ became a hit."


While Peanuts specials are largely populated by children, there’s usually at least an adult or two seen or heard somewhere. That’s not the case with A Charlie Brown Thanksgiving. “Charlie Brown Thanksgiving may be the only Thanksgiving special (live or animated) that does not include adults,” Mendelson wrote for HuffPo. “Our first 25 specials honored the convention of the comic strip where no adults ever appeared. (Ironically, our Mayflower special does include adults for the first time.)”


Though early on in the special, viewers get that staple scene of Lucy pulling a football away from Charlie Brown at the last minute, that’s all we see of Chuck’s nemesis in A Charlie Brown Thanksgiving. (Lucy's brother, Linus, however, is still a main character.)


Though they only had a single scene together, Todd Barbee, who voiced Charlie Brown, told Noblemania that he and Robin Kohn, who voiced Lucy in the Thanksgiving special, still keep in touch. “We actually went to high school together,” Barbee said. “We still live in Marin County, are Facebook friends, and occasionally see each other.”


One unique aspect of the Peanuts specials is that the bulk of the characters are voiced by real kids. In the case of A Charlie Brown Thanksgiving, 10-year-old newcomer Todd Barbee was tasked with giving a voice to Charlie Brown—and it wasn’t always easy.

“One time they wanted me to voice that ‘AAAAAAARRRRRGGGGG’ when Charlie Brown goes to kick the football and Lucy yanks it away,” Barbee recalled to Noblemania in 2014. “Try as I might, I just couldn’t generate [it as] long [as] they were looking for … so after something like 25 takes, we moved on. I was sweating the whole time. I think they eventually got an adult or a kid with an older voice to do that one take."


While Barbee got a crash course in the downside of celebrity at a very early age—“seeing my name printed in TV Guide made everyone around me go bananas … everybody … just thought I was some big movie star or something,” he told Noblemania—Stephen Shea, who voiced Linus, still gets a pretty big reaction.

"I don't walk around saying 'I'm the voice of Linus,'" Shea told the Los Angeles Times in 2013. "But when people find out one way or another, they scream 'I love Linus. That is my favorite character!'"


As is often the case in a Peanuts special, Linus gets to play the role of philosopher in A Charlie Brown Thanksgiving and remind his friends (and the viewers) about the history and true meaning of whatever holiday they’re celebrating. His speech about the Pilgrims’ first Thanksgiving eventually led to This is America, Charlie Brown: The Mayflower Voyagers, a kind of spinoff adapted from that Thanksgiving Day prayer, which sees the Peanuts gang becoming a part of history.


In writing for HuffPo for A Charlie Brown Thanksgiving’s 40th anniversary, Mendelson admitted that one particular scene in the special led to “a rare, minor dispute during the creation of the show. Mr. Schulz insisted that Woodstock join Snoopy in carving and eating a turkey. For some reason I was bothered that Woodstock would eat a turkey. I voiced my concern, which was immediately overruled.”


Though Mendelson lost his original argument against seeing Woodstock eating another bird, he was eventually able to right that wrong. “Years later, when CBS cut the show from its original 25 minutes to 22 minutes, I sneakily edited out the scene of Woodstock eating,” he wrote. “But when we moved to ABC in 2001, the network (happily) elected to restore all the holiday shows to the original 25 minutes, so I finally have given up.”


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