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26 Halloween Costume Ideas from an 1887 Guide to Fancy Dress

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Need a costume idea? Fear not: Fancy Dresses Described, or What to Wear at Fancy Balls, has you covered. This comprehensive guide, published in 1887 and written by Ardern Holt, outlines in exhaustive detail hundreds of outfits appropriate for all manner of fancy dress balls (what we would today call costume parties), tackling everything from historical and literary figures to the elements and seasons and beyond. Here are a few of our favorites.

1. Air

In its basic form, this dress—long for an adult, short for a child—should be made of tulle, have several layered skirts, and be white over white or blue over white. Since you’re going as air, the idea is to be as light as possible—at least before you layer on the additional adornments. “The lower skirt is dotted about with silver swallows and other birds, the upper edged with silver fringe or lace, and covered with silver bees and a variety of insects,” Holt writes. (The insects "may be, if preferred, of their natural colours, the birds of gorgeous plumage.”) The bodice, described as “low,” should be likewise trimmed, “a silver-spangled scarf loosely thrown across.” Completing the outfit is the headwear—“a veil attached to the head with silver butterflies; marabout feathers”—and the shoes, which should be satin and have silver butterflies on the bows.

If you’re afraid that a number of girls may show up at the fancy dress ball wearing this basic Air costume, Holt has also laid out the guidelines for “a newer and more original rendering,” comprised of a short, blue satin skirt that is painted red toward the waist and adorned with a windmill on one side and a balloon on the other. Other ideas: “The low blue bodice draped with grey tulle, forming the tunic, but starting from a gold brooch in the form of a face; crimson embroidered waist-band, bellows and horn hanging from it; birds nestling in the tulle. Head-dress, a gold weather-vane.”

2. Alphabet

Like Air, the costume makes use of multiple layered skirts: First, a short black underskirt with Roman letters in gold along the bottom; then a white skirt with old English letters in ruby velvet; the third and final skirt is blue and covered with black velvet letters. Holt advises that the bodice should be black velvet and low, and the lady should don a blue cap with “Alphabet” written on the band. (Another option is “a battlemented crown, a letter on each.”) Spice up your costume with “aigrette of goose-quills ; birch rod and primer as chatelaine.”

But those are more like suggestions than guidelines; Holt stresses that the costume “may also be made in any coloured silk, satin, cotton, or tarlatan, and the letters printed on the more substantial materials.” What’s more, any evening dress can be turned into this costume “by wearing a belt across bodice, a band of black velvet round the throat, and high cap all adorned with letters; or carried out as follows: Black tulle evening dress, silver letters stuck on spirally; huge A, B, C on train ; large black fan with A, B, C upon it; the same on shoes; the vowels on velvet round the neck; black capitals on the handkerchief.”

3. Aquarium

Mermaid costumes are so last year. Go as a full-on aquarium instead! This costume is comprised of a “fashionable evening dress of blue and green tulle, trimmed with marine plants and ornamented with fish and shells, the octopus on one side of the skirt; veil of green tulle; hair floating on shoulders. Bodice trimmed with seaweed and coral; ornaments, silver fish and coral.” Another sea-themed costume: Holt’s “Gem of the Ocean,” which is “taken from the anemone tanks of an aquarium.”

4. Backgammon

Sure, you could go as Monopoly, or maybe even Operation, but what’s the fun in that? Instead, dress as one of the oldest board games for two players. The bodice of this dress should be made of maize satin, and the first skirt should be short and trimmed with black velvet and gold braid. The upper skirt should be “cut in deep points alternately cerise and black satin” to evoke the backgammon board, and “bordered with gold braid.” Accessorize with a velvet necklet, enamel dice earrings, a cerise satin cap, and a cup for dice “suspended by gold cord from waist to hold handkerchief.”

Another, more elaborate version of the costume features a full, short skirt of ecru satin, “bordered with circles of red and white satin appliqued on with gold braid to simulate the pieces of the game.” Costumers should include “a small plaiting of lace let in between points of alternate red and black satin falling from waist, with a gold tassel at each point.” The bodice should be low and made of squares of black and ecru satin, and shoulder knots should be made of white, crimson, and black ribbon. Wear a hat resembling dice, and don’t forget “a pocket, formed like another dice ... at side of skirt; red fan, shoes, and stockings, with buckles; black gloves.”

And if lawn games is more your thing, Holt has you covered there, too—simply suit up as Badminton or Lawn Tennis!

5. Bee, Busy

Set aside that cookie cutter “Sexy Bee” costume in favor of its 19th century predecessor. Craft a short skirt of black and gold striped satin. The stripes should be about 8 inches wide, “and over each, a double box plait of black or yellow tulle. The skirt may be edged with a fringe of tinsel balls.” The lowcut, sleeveless bodice should be made of gold plush and edged with gold balls. Place the wings, which are made of “black tulle, stretched on wire, veined and spotted with gold spangles” at the center of the back. Top off your costume with “a small cap imitating a bee's head with eyes and antennae” and carry in your hand a gold wand “surmounted by a miniature bee-hive.”

Maybe you don’t want to be a busy bee. Maybe you want to be a regular bee. Holt has you covered there, too. Make similar skirt, but switch the bodice to black velvet striped with gold, “made as a deep cuirass” (in the style of the armored chest plate that soldiers wore), “or as a coat, with tails having the markings of a bee.” Add long sleeves and gloves, and make your wings out of “yellow gauze bordered with gold, or of white gauze veined with gold.” Complete the outfit with a “black velvet cap to imitate the head and antennas of the insect, or formed as a large bee; black high-heeled shoes with yellow bows; yellow and black striped stockings.”

The hornet (above) is costumed similarly, but don’t confuse any of these with the Wasp. Though it has a similar dress, “but the stripes are more decided. Velvet and satin or plush are suitable materials. It is sometimes rendered with a skirt of puffed green tulle and bands of black velvet at intervals.”

6. Canal, Suez

It’s safe to say that you’ll be the only person at the Halloween party rocking a costume dedicated to an artificial waterway opened in 1869. Here’s how to do it, according to Holt: “Long flowing robe of cloth-of-gold, with waves of blue satin bordered with pearls; under-skirt of red satin embroidered in Egyptian designs. A gold key at the girdle; Egyptian head-dress of pearls, turquoise, and diamonds; girdle of roses and lilies.” You might also consider a nametag, so you don’t have to explain to people what you are all night long.

7. Carrier Pigeon

You might think of them as nothing more than rats with wings, but pigeons have their admirers—among them inventor Nicola Tesla, and probably the soldiers who received messages carried by the birds during wartime. (In fact, after World War II, 32 pigeons were presented with the Dickin medal, which honor the works animals do in wars.) To honor these goofy-looking but noble birds by dressing as one for Halloween, wear a white tulle skirt over a satin one, and craft a tunic in the shape of wings; cover it with white feathers. Place a pigeon (presumably not a live one) in your hair and on your shoulder. Complete your costume with a “band of red ribbon across bodice from right shoulder to under left arm, with letter attached; letters falling from feather fan; head-dress, cap like pigeon's head.” You can also go gray instead of white, and craft a bodice entirely of feathers, “the draperies caught up by pigeons, and the edges bordered with feathers … Pigeons in the hair. A letter suspended from the waist by a red ribbon.” You’ll probably need to kill a lot of pillows to make this one happen.

8. Champagne Bottle

Also appropriate for New Year’s Eve, this fancy dress is comprised of a black velvet skirt and a cuirass bodice made of gold satin with black sleeves. On your head, wear “an old gold and green satin cap with rows of gold braid, a large white satin label on front of skirt, printed with ‘Jules Mumm, Rheims. Very dry,’ or any suitable label.”

9. Day

Create this costume using a white tulle veil and evening dress with “clouds of rose-coloured tulle draped over it” and “rays in silver cloth radiating from the waist.” Powder your hair in gold. Place a gold sun “above the forehead” and “butterflies on the shoulders.”

10. Daydream

This is a costume for those who are low on time, really bad at crafting, or simply lazy: “White silk evening gown with crimson striped tablier and train. ‘Daydream’ embroidered on the sash.”

11. Esmeralda

This costume, probably inspired by a character in The Hunchback of Notre Dame, is comprised of “a rich gipsy dress in yellow, black, and scarlet satin, made short, trimmed with coins and gold braid,” with “a sash of gold tissue tied about the hips, a tambourine carried in hand.” And don’t forget the coins: The bracelets above and below your elbow should be “united by coins; stay-bodice with coins and gold braid; gold net with sequins; ornaments, sequins.” You can also wear a loose black jacket with a yellow blouse and a red skirt, as shown.

12. Express

If you love trains, this elaborate costume is for you. The back of the skirt is stiff, steel-colored satin, edged in black velvet and “showing a series of rails in steel braid”; the hem should be “edged with a row of movable wheels, which must turn at every movement of the wearer.” The front of the skirt, meanwhile, is made of black velvet, striped downward. The cuirass-style bodice should be steel-colored. Place a “miniature steam engine in flowing hair, with grey feathers issuing from the funnel,” and wear “wheeled skates for shoes.”

13. Footwoman of the Future

Minus the powdered hair, this costume would look right on just about any steampunker: “Black satin quilted skirt; maroon double-breasted tail-coat, brass buttons; black waistcoat showing beneath the jacket in front, and lace ruffles; hair powdered; tricorn black and gold hat; gold-headed cane in hand.”

14. Gold Mine

Holt had gold on the brain: In addition to “gold,” “shower of gold,” “golden hen,” and “golden idea,” he suggests a gold mine costume consisting of a “dress of white and gold brocade or tulle, made as a fashionable evening dress, trimmed with sequins; a painted panel let into one side, with a sketch of a gold mine.”

15. Gymnasia

This one is for people truly devoted to their gym routine: Create a short gown out of red velvet, and festoon the bodice and skirt with “trapeze, dumb bells, parallel bars, and other gymnastic paraphernalia … and introduced as ornaments.”

16. Hours

Long flowing cashmere dress, with loose low bodice and pendent sleeves; scarf draped on shoulders; round the skirt a band, half blue half gold, with the hours upon it; the hair flowing; a crescent coronet of gold. Veil of spangled tulle; gold armlets and necklet; sandals.

17. Jack and Jill

Finally, a couple’s costume! Jack should wear “a smock frock and round felt hat.” Jill, meanwhile, should have “a flowered cotton bodice and tunic, over a short petticoat; small shawl; poke bonnet, or Dorothy hat.” Both should carry pails. For good measure, embroider “Jack” and “Jill” on your respective pockets.

18. Joan of Arc

Be a vision in the costume for this 15th Century warrior—just not the kind that Joan herself said she experienced. First step: Procure a suit of armor, complete with helmet, plume, mailed feet, and gloves. Once that’s out of the way, create a white, plaited cashmere skirt and a red cloak. Another option is to dress as Holt says Joan did when she appeared at the coronation of the French King: In a skirt and tunic of blue satin, “spangled with fleurs-de-lys; silver helmet with white plume; coat of mail, mail on arms, gauntlets, feet encased in long boots; sword with cross on hilt, and shield; the hair floating on shoulders.”

Worried about where you can find armor? Don’t fret: Holt says it can be “silver, burnished steel, or what is called scale armour. But it can also be made by cutting out in strong brown paper the various pieces required, copied from any illustrated history, or from Knight's Shakespeare, pasted over with silvered paper.”

19. Photography

The difficulty in assembling the costume today might be finding enough actual photographs to festoon yourself with. (I hope you have a printer!) Holt suggests “a green silk dress trimmed with tulle of the same shade.” Around bouillonnes, or puffs, in the skirt, nestle in a row of photographs. Next, drape a silk scarf across the skirt “with medallion photographs at intervals, all bordered with green galon; the bertha of the low bodice fastened at the front, back, and on the shoulders with them; a cap in the form of a lunette, with cartes-de-visite” (a small type of photograph). A long green veil is optional.

20. Press, or Newspapers

If you’re interested in this costume, better start stocking up on newspapers now: The costume is fully made of it. “The skirt consists of box-plaited illustrations from the papers, coming to the waist, with portraits and names of newspapers pasted across here and there.” The bodice should be in the “bertha” style, exposing the shoulders, and have scarlet velvet bows. Stick quill pens, and ink-bottle, and sealing-wax in your hair—”it has a much better effect than would appear, and has been a favourite dress at Fancy Balls,” Holt reassures.

21. Sleep

This costume is all about the poppies, which are a symbol of sleep. Start with a straw-colored ball dress, “wreathed with poppies”. Top it off by powdering your hair and wearing “a cap in the shape of a poppy turned upside down and worn on one side … or a wreath of poppies.”

22. Sour Grapes

We’re not sure what distinguishes this sour grapes costume from a regular grapes costume—perhaps your facial expression? Create a maize sateen dress covered with grapes “cut out from chintz and appliqued on.” Wear a muslin cap covered with grapes on your head, and place “bunches of artificial grapes on the low square bodice and elbow-sleeves, and in the muslin apron turned up and forming a lap.”

23. Toilet-Table

You could also call this costume a vanity. The dress is white muslin dress over pink calico; the bodice is long-sleeved, low (and filled with a handkerchief called a fichu) and trimmed with lace. Suspend a looking-glass from the waist, “with brush, combs, scissors, etc.; powder-puff in hand; cap, like pincushion, stuck with pins; ribbon epaulettes, with scissors, etc., attached.”

24. White Cat

Take your Grumpy Cat costume to the next level with Holt’s instructions: Make a short, white skirt of cashmere, silk, or satin, and edge it with white fur or swansdown. The bodice can be low and square or a high jacket, and trimmed with fur on the back. “From the shoulders hangs a loose white fur mantle,” Holt writers. “Head-dress [is] a cap of white fur, like a cat's head, with ears and red bead eyes; round the neck either a red collar and bells, or a red collar with the words ‘Touch not the cat but with the glove.’” Powdering your hair is optional, he says, “but it looks better.” Wear “high white satin boots bordered with fur, and long gloves edged with fur, hanging at side.” Have a kitten perched on your shoulder and carry a “fan painted with cat.” (Yeah, we're not quite sure what that means, either.) Prefer to go as Alice in Wonderland's Cheshire Cat? Holt recommends wearing a coat of chinchilla (and make sure to smile big!).

25. Windmill

Also known as "Moulin a Vent," this is a short costume made of pink satin, "with low yellow satin bodice and white stomacher" (a triangular panel in the front part of the bodice), "laced across with two shades." Powder your hair, and get ready to add windmills: Put one on your head as a head-dress, place one on your left shoulder, put windmills on your shoes, wear them as earrings, and paint them on your gloves. Wear "a bow at neck, windmill depending."

26. Yachts

“Many balls are now given at our seaports, where the dresses of the ladies are supposed to represent yachts,” Holt says. Today’s ladies may attain this look by wearing “scarves carried across the bodice denoting the name, such as the Sivallow, the Raven, and so on. Sometimes a white tulle gown is simply draped with flags and the burgee; or if American or other vessels are meant, the national flag falls from one shoulder.”

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8 Bizarre Places People Have Gotten Stuck
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Some days it just doesn’t pay to venture outside, particularly when you wind up the subject of a police and fire department rescue because you’ve somehow trapped yourself inside an ATM machine. Check out eight other strange environments that have ensnared bystanders and prompted emergency responses.


A giant see-through container full of plush toys is any child’s idea of paradise, and they will attempt any means possible to inhabit it. For three-year-old Jamie Bracken-Murphy of Nenagh, Tipperary, Ireland, that meant crawling through the small flap from which the toys can be retrieved and finding himself lodged in a claw machine. Murphy was on display for about 10 minutes before an off-duty fireman was able to coax him back out the way he came in. Jamie’s father, Damien, expressed little surprise at his son’s predicament, saying that, "He's a very mischievous, sharp kid who's always pushing boundaries."


A man has a traffic cone over his head

In 2013, a man in Hemel Hempstead, Hertfordshire, England thought he’d have a bit of fun by sticking a traffic cone—otherwise known as a bollard—on his head. To his dismay, the large cone slid down over and past his shoulders, entombing him in plastic. John Waterman, a witness to the incident, captured it all on his cell phone. "It was very random," Waterman told The Telegraph. "It's not the usual thing you see in the middle of Hemel Hempstead on a Sunday lunchtime." The man stumbled around for more than two hours before anyone bothered to call police.


Aurora, Illinois was the site of a recent cement mix-up, when an unidentified man became trapped in a cement hopper. The worker had climbed into the machine to clean it, but found he was unable to move when residual cement on the machine's floor began hardening around his legs. It took firefighters more than two hours to extricate him from the hopper. He was taken to a nearby hospital and treated for minor injuries, but released the same day, according to the local fire department.


A stock shot of a person stuck in a toilet

In 2016, a Norwegian man named Cato Berntsen Larsen found himself in deep trouble after he tried lowering himself into a public toilet to retrieve a friend’s cell phone. The toilet’s tank was located underneath the seat, allowing enough room for Larsen to become trapped. To his dismay, the tank—which is not connected to a sewage system and is only emptied sporadically—was full of human waste. Adding to the putrid nature of his enclave, Larsen vomited and was bitten by an unknown animal: His situation did not improve until authorities were able to come and pull him out. "It was damn disgusting," Larsen said, "the worst I have experienced. There were animals down there, too."


Tourists and residents of Tübingen, Germany are quite familiar with Chacán-Pi, a giant stone sculpture of a vagina created by Peruvian artist Fernando de la Jara. The towering display sits just outside Tübingen University’s Institute for Microbiology and Virology and has attracted curious onlookers since 2001. In 2014, an unnamed American student decided to go spelunking in the 32-ton carving for a photo opportunity and became trapped, necessitating rescue by 22 firefighters. The Guardian called them “midwives” and reported that the student was “delivered by hand.”


A man appears to be stuck inside a washing machine

Sometimes, games of hide-and-seek can go very wrong. That was the case for a man near Melbourne, Australia in 2014, who climbed into his top-loading washing machine fully nude to surprise his partner. Unfortunately, he was unable to climb back out. Responders were able to grease him with a liberal application of olive oil and pull him out. First Constable Luke Ingram told the Australian Broadcasting Corporation that, as a rule, “My advice would be for people not to climb into appliances.” The warning went unheeded by another Australian man in 2015, who found himself lodged in a front-loading machine and had to wait while rescuers disassembled the entire unit in order to free him.


If you’re ever challenged by your adult friends to fit into a baby swing at a public park, you can confidently say that it won’t work. That’s because a man from Vallejo, California tried it in 2011. While he managed to slide into the seat using liquid laundry detergent, he couldn’t slide back out. As his legs began to swell, his friends abandoned him overnight. He wasn’t rescued until nine hours later, when a groundskeeper heard his screams for help at 6 o'clock the following morning. "The man sustained non-life threatening injuries to his body," the San Francisco Chronicle reported, "but there’s no word yet on the condition of his ego."


A chimney sits on a rooftop

There are many Santa jokes to be made, but when you’re the man trapped in your own home’s chimney for four hours, there probably isn’t a huge urge to start laughing. In late 2016, a Tucson, Arizona homeowner who had locked his keys in his home opted to retrieve them by re-entering his abode via the chimney. While it was a spectacularly bad idea, he actually almost made it: His feet were touching the floor of his fireplace before the space grew too narrow to allow for any further passage and he got stuck. Firefighters were able to pull him out from the roof, covered in soot but otherwise unharmed.

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This Puzzling Math Brain Teaser Has a Simple Solution
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Fans of number-based brainteasers might find themselves pleasantly stumped by the following question, posed by TED-Ed’s Alex Gendler: Which sequence of integers comes next?

1, 11, 21, 1211, 111221, ?

Mathematicians may recognize this pattern as a specific type of number sequence—called a “look-and-say sequence"—that yields a distinct pattern. As for those who aren't number enthusiasts, they should try reading the numbers they see aloud (so that 1 becomes "one one," 11 is "two ones," 21 is "one two, one one,” and so on) to figure the answer.

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