Original image
Mount Vernon Ladies' Association

7 Nifty Things in George Washington’s Presidential Library

Original image
Mount Vernon Ladies' Association

On Friday, George Washington was finally honored with his own presidential library near his Mount Vernon estate after a 216 year wait (Bill Clinton’s opened a mere four years after he left office back in 2004). Though the vault will only be accessible to visiting scholars and researchers, the historic new facility does sport a wealth of fascinating items. Here are seven of the most interesting.

1. A Farm Report Written By His Nephew

George Augustine Washington, son of the president’s brother Charles, was asked to assume control of Mount Vernon’s farms in 1786. The document in question was composed in August, 1790.

2. Wood From A 300-Year-Old Tree

The American sycamore, which was downed to provide some of the establishment’s trimming, is of particular significance to building director Douglas Bradburn because, in his words, “It was alive at the same time as Washington.”

3. Washington’s Copy of The Acts of Congress… Complete With Handwritten Notes!

Previously, this remarkable document containing, among other things, his copy of the Constitution (into which the owner scribbled personal commentary on the margins), had been lent to other presidential libraries such as those of Kennedy and Reagan.

4. Washington’s Copy of Don Quixote

Delivered as a gift in 1785 by a Spanish diplomat named Don Diego de Gardoqui, the book is written entirely in Spanish. Washington couldn’t read Spanish, and the four-volume set appears to have been rarely-opened.

5. Washington’s Copy of Thomas Paine’s "Common Sense"

For more on Washington’s erratic relationship with Paine (which grew cold later in life), do go here.

6. Washington’s Copy of A New System of Husbandry

Written by Charles Varlo in 1770, Washington grew enamored with the comprehensive agricultural guidebook and copied a number of the botanical experiments prescribed therein.

7. Massive Busts of Hamilton, Jefferson, and Other Founding Fathers

Washington and his Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton shared a long professional partnership spanning several decades ... in fact, the last letter Washington ever wrote was addressed to his former aide, in which he complimented Hamilton’s support for the creation of a national military academy. Jefferson, on the other hand, wasn’t always so warmly-regarded by our first president, who viewed his frequently dissenting opinions as “disloyal."


Original image
iStock // Ekaterina Minaeva
Man Buys Two Metric Tons of LEGO Bricks; Sorts Them Via Machine Learning
May 21, 2017
Original image
iStock // Ekaterina Minaeva

Jacques Mattheij made a small, but awesome, mistake. He went on eBay one evening and bid on a bunch of bulk LEGO brick auctions, then went to sleep. Upon waking, he discovered that he was the high bidder on many, and was now the proud owner of two tons of LEGO bricks. (This is about 4400 pounds.) He wrote, "[L]esson 1: if you win almost all bids you are bidding too high."

Mattheij had noticed that bulk, unsorted bricks sell for something like €10/kilogram, whereas sets are roughly €40/kg and rare parts go for up to €100/kg. Much of the value of the bricks is in their sorting. If he could reduce the entropy of these bins of unsorted bricks, he could make a tidy profit. While many people do this work by hand, the problem is enormous—just the kind of challenge for a computer. Mattheij writes:

There are 38000+ shapes and there are 100+ possible shades of color (you can roughly tell how old someone is by asking them what lego colors they remember from their youth).

In the following months, Mattheij built a proof-of-concept sorting system using, of course, LEGO. He broke the problem down into a series of sub-problems (including "feeding LEGO reliably from a hopper is surprisingly hard," one of those facts of nature that will stymie even the best system design). After tinkering with the prototype at length, he expanded the system to a surprisingly complex system of conveyer belts (powered by a home treadmill), various pieces of cabinetry, and "copious quantities of crazy glue."

Here's a video showing the current system running at low speed:

The key part of the system was running the bricks past a camera paired with a computer running a neural net-based image classifier. That allows the computer (when sufficiently trained on brick images) to recognize bricks and thus categorize them by color, shape, or other parameters. Remember that as bricks pass by, they can be in any orientation, can be dirty, can even be stuck to other pieces. So having a flexible software system is key to recognizing—in a fraction of a second—what a given brick is, in order to sort it out. When a match is found, a jet of compressed air pops the piece off the conveyer belt and into a waiting bin.

After much experimentation, Mattheij rewrote the software (several times in fact) to accomplish a variety of basic tasks. At its core, the system takes images from a webcam and feeds them to a neural network to do the classification. Of course, the neural net needs to be "trained" by showing it lots of images, and telling it what those images represent. Mattheij's breakthrough was allowing the machine to effectively train itself, with guidance: Running pieces through allows the system to take its own photos, make a guess, and build on that guess. As long as Mattheij corrects the incorrect guesses, he ends up with a decent (and self-reinforcing) corpus of training data. As the machine continues running, it can rack up more training, allowing it to recognize a broad variety of pieces on the fly.

Here's another video, focusing on how the pieces move on conveyer belts (running at slow speed so puny humans can follow). You can also see the air jets in action:

In an email interview, Mattheij told Mental Floss that the system currently sorts LEGO bricks into more than 50 categories. It can also be run in a color-sorting mode to bin the parts across 12 color groups. (Thus at present you'd likely do a two-pass sort on the bricks: once for shape, then a separate pass for color.) He continues to refine the system, with a focus on making its recognition abilities faster. At some point down the line, he plans to make the software portion open source. You're on your own as far as building conveyer belts, bins, and so forth.

Check out Mattheij's writeup in two parts for more information. It starts with an overview of the story, followed up with a deep dive on the software. He's also tweeting about the project (among other things). And if you look around a bit, you'll find bulk LEGO brick auctions online—it's definitely a thing!

Original image
Opening Ceremony
These $425 Jeans Can Turn Into Jorts
May 19, 2017
Original image
Opening Ceremony

Modular clothing used to consist of something simple, like a reversible jacket. Today, it’s a $425 pair of detachable jeans.

Apparel retailer Opening Ceremony recently debuted a pair of “2 in 1 Y/Project” trousers that look fairly peculiar. The legs are held to the crotch by a pair of loops, creating a disjointed C-3PO effect. Undo the loops and you can now remove the legs entirely, leaving a pair of jean shorts in their wake. The result goes from this:


Opening Ceremony

To this:


Opening Ceremony

The company also offers a slightly different cut with button tabs in black for $460. If these aren’t audacious enough for you, the Y/Project line includes jumpsuits with removable legs and garter-equipped jeans.

[h/t Mashable]