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Stringer, AFP/Getty Images
Stringer, AFP/Getty Images

Ranthambhore National Park Is Helping India's Famous Tigers Thrive

Stringer, AFP/Getty Images
Stringer, AFP/Getty Images

Forty-four years ago, India launched its “Protect Tiger” initiative and declared the Bengal tiger the national animal. At the time, the population had dwindled to just 268 cats due to poaching and habitat loss. The species is in much better shape today: India’s tiger population has increased by 1300 percent in the past four decades, and that’s thanks in part to tiger sanctuaries like Ranthambhore National Park.

According to Lonely Planet, Ranthambhore National Park may be the most famous tiger park in India. It’s certainly one of the most successful: The site has provided a secure home for generations of tigers since it was founded on the former hunting grounds of a Maharaja in 1955. While the overall tiger population in India is still threatened by poaching, habitat loss, and human-tiger conflict, Ranthambhore claims 67 tigers inside its borders—the highest-ever number for the park, according to the latest census. And with cubs making up 26 of those cats, the park has a promising future ahead of it.

Tigers within the park borders are so abundant that officials at Ranthambhore plan to share their good fortune. Cats from the park will be sent to the neighboring Sariska National Park, which was completely devoid of tigers in 2005 due to a poaching crisis. There are 13 tigers living in the park today, and the transplants from Ranthambhore will hopefully strengthen the population.

Ranthambhore National Park is open to tourists from October 1 to June 30. If you’re unable to book a tour, you can check out the photos below to see the park’s famous residents.

Tiger walking behind car.
Koshy Koshy, Wikimedia Commons // CC BY 2.0

Tiger laying on dirt path.

Tiger in the woods.
Himangini Rathore Hooja, Wikimedia Commons // Public Domain

Tiger laying down and yawning.
Aditya Singh, AFP/Getty Images

Tiger looking out from tall grass.
Stephen Jaffe, AFP/Getty Images

[h/t Lonely Planet]

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Animals
Where Do Birds Get Their Songs?
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iStock

Birds display some of the most impressive vocal abilities in the animal kingdom. They can be heard across great distances, mimic human speech, and even sing using distinct dialects and syntax. The most complex songs take some practice to learn, but as TED-Ed explains, the urge to sing is woven into songbirds' DNA.

Like humans, baby birds learn to communicate from their parents. Adult zebra finches will even speak in the equivalent of "baby talk" when teaching chicks their songs. After hearing the same expressions repeated so many times and trying them out firsthand, the offspring are able to use the same songs as adults.

But nurture isn't the only factor driving this behavior. Even when they grow up without any parents teaching them how to vocalize, birds will start singing on their own. These innate songs are less refined than the ones that are taught, but when they're passed down through multiple generations and shaped over time, they start to sound similar to the learned songs sung by other members of their species.

This suggests that the drive to sing as well as the specific structures of the songs themselves have been ingrained in the animals' genetic code by evolution. You can watch the full story from TED-Ed below, then head over here for a sample of the diverse songs produced by birds.

[h/t TED-Ed]

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NOAA, Wikimedia Commons // Public Domain
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Animals
Watch the First-Ever Footage of a Baby Dumbo Octopus
NOAA, Wikimedia Commons // Public Domain
NOAA, Wikimedia Commons // Public Domain

Dumbo octopuses are named for the elephant-ear-like fins they use to navigate the deep sea, but until recently, when and how they developed those floppy appendages were a mystery. Now, for the first time, researchers have caught a newborn Dumbo octopus on tape. As reported in the journal Current Biology, they discovered that the creatures are equipped with the fins from the moment they hatch.

Study co-author Tim Shank, a researcher at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution in Massachusetts, spotted the octopus in 2005. During a research expedition in the North Atlantic, one of the remotely operated vehicles he was working with collected several coral branches with something strange attached to them. It looked like a bunch of sandy-colored golf balls at first, but then he realized it was an egg sac.

He and his fellow researchers eventually classified the hatchling that emerged as a member of the genus Grimpoteuthis. In other words, it was a Dumbo octopus, though they couldn't determine the exact species. But you wouldn't need a biology degree to spot its resemblance to Disney's famous elephant, as you can see in the video below.

The octopus hatched with a set of functional fins that allowed it to swim around and hunt right away, and an MRI scan revealed fully-developed internal organs and a complex nervous system. As the researchers wrote in their study, Dumbo octopuses enter the world as "competent juveniles" ready to jump straight into adult life.

Grimpoteuthis spends its life in the deep ocean, which makes it difficult to study. Scientists hope the newly-reported findings will make it easier to identify Grimpoteuthis eggs and hatchlings for future research.

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