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NASA/Getty Images

What Will We Eat on the Way to Mars? Poop, Of Course

NASA/Getty Images
NASA/Getty Images

There are plenty of tough problems NASA has to work out before it can send astronauts on long-term manned missions to planets like Mars, but one of the biggest questions is sustenance. When we have sent robots to Mars, the trip has taken around eight months, but it required no food. If we were to send humans out into space for months at a time, they would need to either pack or grow enough food to keep them from starving for the entire duration of their mission. One answer may lie in our toilets, as The Independent reports.

In a study in the journal Life Sciences in Space Research, Penn State University astrobiologists report that with a little microbial magic, they can potentially turn wastewater into food. Using the methane produced during an anaerobic waste treatment process (a oxygen-free technique already used to treat Earthly sewage), they were able to culture three bacterial species, two of which—Methylococcus capsulatus and Thermus aquaticus—yield "protein- and lipid-rich biomass that can be directly consumed," according to the study. Yum.

In The Independent, Penn State professor Christopher House describes the resulting "microbial goo" as being kind of like Vegemite or Marmite. In theory, you could either eat it by itself—poop toast, anyone?—or use it as a high-protein supplement to feed fish, insects, or other live food sources.

Plenty of testing remains to be done before this type of microbial mixture could be made into human food at all, much less deployed on a spacecraft, where everything has to be perfectly engineered to balance astronauts' needs with space and weight considerations to stay fuel-efficient. But in Europe, the microbe is already approved to feed fish, pigs, and other farmed animals, so it wouldn’t be a stretch to think it could feed animals on a space ship. Whether astronauts will be eating it for months on end will have to be seen.

[h/t The Independent]

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Space
Now You Can Train to Be an Astronaut on Your Smartphone
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Just because you don't work for NASA doesn't mean you'll never make it as an astronaut. In the world of private space tourism, a little training could be all you need. And there's an app for that.

Space Nation, a Finnish space tourism startup, recently launched Space Nation Navigator, which the company touts as the first astronaut training app in the world. The app aims to train future space travelers using games, quizzes, and fitness challenges that fall into three categories: "body," "mind," and "social."

Each of the challenges is tailored to help you develop the skills you'd need to survive in space—even the mundane ones. One mission is called "Did you clean behind the fridge?" and is designed to highlight the unpleasant chores crew members on the ISS have to do to keep things tidy. There are "survival" quizzes that test your knowledge of how to properly build a fire, read a map, and dispose of your poop in the forest. The app also plugs into your smartphone fitness data so that you can participate in athletic challenges, like a 650-foot sprint designed to train you to escape a meteor impact zone.

Screenshots of the Space Nation Navigator app
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"Space Nation Navigator offers a way for anyone, anywhere to have a 15-minute astronaut experience every day. These astronaut skills—team building, problem solving, positive life hacks—are not just vital to survive in space," Space Nation CEO Kalle Vähä-Jaakkola said in a press statement. "They are also crucial in your daily life."

New challenges are added to your queue every few hours, and you can compete against other users for high scores. If you get enough points, you can become eligible for real-life training experiences with Space Nation, including a trip to Iceland. In 2019, Space Nation plans to hold an international competition to find one astronaut that the program will send to space.

If you're going to start training, we suggest you take some of the tests Project Mercury applicants faced back in 1958 to see how you'd stack up against the first NASA astronauts.

Get it: iOS, Android

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Big Questions
If Earth is Always Moving, Then How Do We See the Same Constellations Every Night?
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Luis Medrano:

6700 mph is nothing in cosmological speeds and distances. Constellations are freakin’ far away.

Get in a car at night and drive on a straight road, then look at the moon. The angle of the moon in respect to your point of view doesn’t change; it seems like the moon is following you wherever you go. Meanwhile, things that are really close to you—like electric poles, roadside buildings, and trees—seem to fly by really fast.

The effect is known as parallax. Things that are close seem to move faster and “travel more distance” (not really) than things that are far away.

In the video above, there are several objects in perspective. The light in the center, which represents the sun, was placed so far away you can barely see it move.

The sun is only eight light-minutes away; that’s 146 million km on average. At human scale it seems like a lot, but in cosmic distances it is nothing. Orion, for example, has stars that are from 243 to 1360 light years away from us. Imagine traveling at the speed of light for 1360 years. That’s how far these stars are. And these are not even the farthest stars. Some stars are Giga-light years away from us.

Now, with the proper precision instruments you can indeed notice the parallax in distant stars, just not with the naked eye. Furthermore, our solar system has moved so much since the early days of astronomy and astrology, the constellations do not correspond to the early astrology maps. The constellations appear shifted.

As a free info nugget: In case your life is ruled by astrology, whatever sign you think you are, you are not.

This post originally appeared on Quora. Click here to view.

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