Meet the Terror Bird, a Bone-Smashing Beast That Once Roamed the Americas

Prehistoric Earth was filled with all kinds of impressively scary animals. But one category of avians, an extinct clade called Phorusrhacidae, was so fierce that they're today nicknamed "terror birds," as the latest video from PBS Eons explains below.

Phorusrhacidae was a group of large, flightless, carnivorous birds that roamed Earth for about 60 million years, beginning in the early Cretaceous Period. Over time, they evolved into 25 different species. Some of these birds were likely scavengers, but others lusted for blood, judging from fossils that revealed their physical makeup.

Sharp beaks allowed some terror birds to rip their prey's flesh straight from the bone, and their curved claws were ideal for stabbing. Even their skeletons were natural weapons, with strong legs powerful enough to crack bone. If these features weren't terrifying enough, experts think that the birds may have also subdued their still-living meals by lifting them up and repetitively smashing them against the ground.

One of the largest species among these birds was Titanis walleri, which once roamed the coastal plains of what's today Texas and Florida after crossing a land bridge from South America around 5 million years ago. Learn how it came to America, and why it went extinct, by watching the video below.

Why You Should Never Flush Your Contacts Down the Drain

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iStock

When a pair of contact lenses reach the end of their short life span, it may be tempting to dump them—and the liquid they’re stored in—down the bathroom sink drain. As The Atlantic points out, though, this is bad for the environment.

However small and thin they may be, contact lenses can contribute to microplastic pollution in waterways when they’re not disposed of properly, according to a new study presented at the recent American Chemical Society national meeting in Boston. The study surveyed contact lens users and non-users, and found that 19 percent of users flush the lenses down the toilet or sink drain instead of placing them in the trash. That translates to about 3 billion contact lenses per year, Rolf Halden, a researcher at Arizona State University and one of the study's authors, told The Atlantic.

Halden said he was inspired to look into the issue out of personal interest—he, too, wears contact lenses—and because he couldn’t find any studies on what happens to lenses after they’re flushed down the drain. Halden and his team discovered that the lenses end up in wastewater, where they can sink to the bottom because they are denser than water. There, they could endanger aquatic life, especially bottom feeders that may ingest the particles.

Researchers also found that microbes in wastewater treatment plant systems can degrade the structure of the lenses themselves and break them into tinier pieces. In the larger environment, those bits could be consumed by every organism in the local food chain. In addition, some of the flushed lenses are turned into a treated sewage sludge that is ultimately used to fertilize crops, so the waste could end up in our soil and affect creatures like earthworms. The extent to which this affects humans' food supply is not currently known.

"Ultimately, we hope that manufacturers will conduct more research on how the lenses impact aquatic life and how fast the lenses degrade in a marine environment,” Halden says in a statement.

So the next time you’re done using your contact lenses, think of the fish and worms, and throw them in the trash instead.

[h/t The Atlantic]

Debunking 6 Common Home Remedies That Aren't Worth Trying

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iStock

While it’s never fun—or cheap—to go to the doctor, sometimes you just have to bite the bullet and make an appointment. While you may read a slew of articles online during your middle-of-the-night WebMD binge, the “natural” home remedies that some blogs swear by are often at best no better than placebos, and at worst actively harmful.

A new video from SciShow explores several home “remedies” that don’t actually help treat common medical issues. The nine-minute video debunks some of the "natural" treatments that people often cite as cures for ailments as benign as allergies or as serious as poisoning. Spoiler: Most of them have no scientific basis.

If, for instance, you’ve ever heard the idea that local honey can act as an allergy cure, put down the spoon. Despite being delicious, honey doesn’t provide enough exposure to the allergens that cause those sniffles and itches to help. When your seasonal allergies hit, take medication or visit an allergist instead.

How about the old custom of putting butter on a burn? Unsurprisingly, fatty foodstuffs don’t make great wound treatments. While people used to believe that burns shouldn’t be exposed to air, oily substances like butter will actually trap heat from your burn, making it worse. The key to treating a burn is cooling it off. You want to stick it in cool water, not warm butter.

If you are unlucky enough to catch head lice, you're probably willing to try whatever you can get your hands on to destroy the little critters. But that pricey medicated shampoo really is the best way to go. Scientists have found that washing your hair with vinegar isn’t the answer. Researchers have found that lice nesting in hair aren’t affected by vinegar, even when the hair in question is soaked for 8 hours.

Some of these home remedies seem a little out-there, but others are understandable. Ipecac syrup once had a place on every pharmacy shelf as a method of treating people who ingested poison. The syrup is poisonous itself, and it makes you vomit—but vomiting isn’t a guarantee that your body has rid itself of all the toxins, and it might just make it harder for your doctor to diagnose what’s going on. Poison Control no longer recommends keeping ipecac syrup on hand, and U.S. manufacturers stopped making it in 2010.

Tilting your head back to staunch a nosebleed is yet another common treatment that can backfire on you. Tilting your head back does stop the blood from flowing from your nose. But it means that your blood will flow down your throat instead of out your nose. So instead of getting a towel bloody, you put yourself at risk of choking on your own blood.

The last “remedy” SciShow tackles isn’t directly harmful, but it won’t help, either. Some people recommend treating pink eye by using warm chamomile tea bags as eye compresses. While chamomile does have some anti-inflammatory properties, there’s no evidence that chamomile is at all effective in treating pink eye. Draping warm tea bags over your eyes probably won’t harm you, and in fact, the heat may relieve some pain, but the tea itself isn’t going to cure you.

Dive into the facts behind these “remedies” in the video below. And remember: when in doubt, always go to the doctor.

[h/t Digg]

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