Wilder Penfield: The Pioneering Brain Surgeon Who Operated on Conscious Patients

Public Domain, Wikimedia Commons
Public Domain, Wikimedia Commons

For centuries, epilepsy was a source of mystery to scientists. Seizures were thought to be caused by everything from masturbation to demonic possession, and it wasn’t until the 1930s that a neurosurgeon showed the condition could sometimes be boiled down to specific spots in the brain. To do it, he had to open up patients’ heads and electrocute their brain tissue—while they were still conscious.

Wilder Penfield, the subject of today’s Google Doodle, was born on January 26, 1891 in Spokane, Washington. According to Vox, the Canadian-American doctor revolutionized the way we think about and treat epilepsy when he pioneered the Montreal Procedure. The operation required him to remove portions of the skulls of epilepsy sufferers to access their brains. He believed seizures were connected to small areas of brain tissue that were somehow damaged, and by removing the affected regions he could cure the epilepsy. His theory was based on the fact that people with epilepsy often experience “auras” before a seizure: vivid recollections of random scents, tastes, or thoughts.

To pinpoint the damaged brain tissue, he would have to locate the part of the brain tied to his patient’s aura. This meant that the patient would need to be awake to tell him when he struck upon the right sensation. Penfield stimulated the exposed brain tissue with an electrode, causing the patient to either feel numbness in certain limbs, experience certain smells, or recall certain memories depending on what part of the brain he touched. A local anesthetic reduced pain in the head; shocking the brain didn’t cause any pain because the organ doesn’t contain pain receptors.

During one of his surgeries, a patient famously cried, “I smell burnt toast!” That was the same scent that visited her before each seizure, and after Penfield removed the part of her brain associated with the sensation, her epilepsy went away.

Brain surgery isn’t a cure-all for every type of epilepsy, but treatments similar to the one Penfield developed are still used today. In some cases, as much as half of the brain is removed with positive results.

[h/t Vox]

Doctors at a British Hospital Are Now Prescribing Houseplants for Depression

Halfpoint/iStock via Getty Images
Halfpoint/iStock via Getty Images

You don’t have to take a trip to the countryside to reap the mental health benefits of being around nature—a single plant might just do the trick (as long as you can keep it alive).

Fast Company reports that the Cornbrook Medical Practice in Manchester, England, is one of the first in the country to prescribe houseplants to help treat anxiety and depression. It’s part of a horticultural therapy program led by a local nonprofit called Sow the City, which leads initiatives to foster community gardens in Manchester.

It’s just as much about building a sense of community through gardening as it is about the therapeutic advantages of caring for your own house plants. “There’s evidence that people who are socially isolated have worse health outcomes,” Sow the City director Jon Ross told Fast Company. The organization has also assisted Cornbrook Medical Practice in establishing its own herb garden, which patients are welcome to help maintain. Ross and his team work closely with doctors at different offices to optimize each garden for its particular clientele—sometimes, that means building a small, flora-filled sanctuary that’s just for rest and relaxation.

Other times, it’s a fully-fledged vegetable garden. For a “Hospital Beds” program at another hospital, Sow the City installed raised vegetable beds where long-term mental illness patients can soak in some sunlight, socialize with each other, and take pride in seeing the fruits (and vegetables) of their labors flourish. There’s an added physical health benefit, too: The patients get to eat the produce. “We really don’t have good food in our public hospitals,” Ross said.

Sow the City also makes sure that no green thumbs are necessary to participate in any gardening party. Its members populate the gardens with already-healthy, easy-to-tend plants, and they’ll even train patients on how to care for them.

If you’re thinking a garden might improve your own quality of life—doctor’s orders or not—here are 10 easy-to-grow plants for first-time gardeners.

[h/t Fast Company]

Illinois Becomes the First State to Require Insurance Companies to Cover EpiPens for Kids

Joe Raedle/Getty Images
Joe Raedle/Getty Images

The ever-changing landscape of the U.S. healthcare system has created difficulties for people who may no longer be able to afford potentially lifesaving medications like EpiPens. The Illinois government decided it was time to step in: Beginning on January 1, 2020, health insurance companies will be required to cover EpiPen costs for children in the state with severe allergic reactions. Tonya Winders, president and CEO of the Allergy & Asthma Network, told CNN that Illinois is the first state to pass such legislation.

CNN reports that Governor J.B. Pritzker officially signed the law, House Bill 3435, which mandates insurance coverage “for epinephrine injectors for persons 18 years of age or under.” Pritzker also tweeted that “this legislation takes a big step forward in protecting our children and families.” Illinois Senator Julie Morrison, who sponsored the initial proposal, echoed the governor’s sentiment in her own statement.

“We should be doing everything we can to expand access to affordable lifesaving drugs and medicines,” Morrison said. “No child with a serious allergy should be without an epinephrine injector because they cannot afford one.”

In 2009, the purchase of two EpiPens would have set you back about $100; by 2016, that number had skyrocketed to $600. During that time, the situation became so dire that some people were opting to fill their own syringes with epinephrine instead, making it more difficult to measure the dose and also administer the injection. Thankfully, the FDA approved a generic version of the EpiPen last year, providing market competition for pharmaceutical company Mylan, which has been manufacturing EpiPens thus far.

EpiPens work by injecting a high dose of epinephrine, or adrenaline, into your bloodstream, which reduces the rapid swelling of your airways during anaphylactic shock. Since allergic reactions can happen so quickly, your life could be seriously threatened if you don’t have an EpiPen nearby at the time of the attack. Wondering what anaphylactic shock looks like from the inside? Find out here.

[h/t CNN]

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