8 Ways to Tell If Someone Is Lying to You

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Sociopaths and narcissists may believe they have lying down to a science, but it turns out there are a lot of little clues that reveal even the most sophisticated level of mendacity. If you want to catch a liar in their tracks, look for the following "tells," courtesy of father and daughter Dan and Lisa Ribacoff, credibility assessment experts and advanced certified polygraph examiners based in New York. They use their skills in criminal investigations, business matters, family and relationship issues, and other areas; you might have seen them on TV. Dan is also a private investigator.

The Ribacoffs use a mix of psychology, body-language analysis, expert interview skills, and polygraph tests to determine whether someone is lying. A polygraph is a combination of medical devices that monitor any physiological changes, particularly heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, and perspiration rate, that an interview subject undergoes during an interview. To begin this process, the examiner conducts a pretest interview, asking questions that should be easy for the subject to answer, such as name and age. This establishes a "baseline" of normal autonomic responses to benign questions. They may also do a "stimulation test" in which the subject is asked to lie consciously. Changes from the baseline may indicate deception—though that interpretation is up to the examiner.

The accuracy of polygraph tests has been questioned by numerous critics, including the American Psychological Association. Guilty people have passed them, and innocent people have failed them. But they're just one factor in the Ribacoffs' assessments, which are based mostly on reading people, not polygraphs.

Credibility assessment is not built upon a single tell but a combination, Dan tells Mental Floss: "There's not one verbal or non-verbal cue that is going to be the absolute indicator [of a lie]. It's a process of collecting pieces to the puzzle and putting that puzzle together."

Read on for tips to identify when someone might be lying to you.

1. THEY CREATE PHYSICAL DISTANCE.

A common habit for a person obfuscating the truth is to put physical distance between themselves and the person they're lying to, particularly if they're being questioned. "Sitting back and stretching your legs out is trying to gain distance between you and the interviewer," Dan says. Crossing one's arms, a defensive posture, is also a potential sign of duplicity.

2. THEY FIDGET.

Because lying activates the limbic system, whose goal is to keep you calm under stress, liars may have a hard time sitting still. "It's like the popcorn maker pops its lid [in your mind]," Dan says. "You do things to burn off nervous energy, like pick off imaginary lint, rub your arm—self-soothing behaviors such as moving or fidgeting." Lisa tells Mental Floss that "rubbing your neck or playing with hair" are also signs of potential deception, particularly if someone does it right after they lie to you.

3. THEY AVOID EYE CONTACT AT THE MOMENT OF UNTRUTH.

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Eye contact is intimate, vulnerable—and lots of liars can't hold a gaze when they're working up a mistruth. Lisa says she's found that examinees will often maintain eye contact "right up until they give the answer they're lying about." The polygraph usually reveals physiological changes that suggest the person is lying. There are other reasons that a person might not make eye contact, such as being on the autism spectrum or having certain psychological disorders, but Dan says the baseline of normal behavior is established for each individual subject. What examiners look for is a change or departure from the person's unique baseline.

4. THEY ANSWER A QUESTION WITH A QUESTION.

A liar will not directly say they haven't done something wrong; they'll answer with a dodge, a question back at you, or a nonsequitor. Not answering directly is an immediate alarm bell to Dan. An innocent person will usually just say "no" when asked if they've done something wrong. "A guilty person has a hard time saying no," Dan says. When they don't answer the question, you might sniff out a lie.

5. THEY RAMBLE AND SHIFT BLAME.

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Another surefire trick of the treacherous is to over-explain. "They hard sell it to you, they go off on tangents, they ramble," Dan says. "They give you unimportant information." Or, they'll shift the blame onto someone else.

Dan, who lends his expertise to The Steve Wilkos Show, recently assessed a situation where an employee of a hotel was accused of stealing money from a hotel room. He polygraphed the entire hotel security staff, because it involved taking money from a safe that only they would have access to. When Dan questioned the accused employee, the man proclaimed his innocence and shifted the blame to his manager, Kara, and another employee named John. "When I said, 'Did you take the money?' he said, ‘I didn't take the money, it's that goddamn Kara, she's constantly favoring this one guy John because she grew up with him, and he's her boy,'" Dan recalls.

But John passed the polygraph, while the employee—who was guilty—failed it.

6. THEY TELL A STORY THAT KEEPS CHANGING …

Liars also tend to change the story every time they tell it. In a recent case, Dan interviewed a man who was charged with stealing from his workplace and selling the items. He claimed to Dan that a security guard at the company had actually committed the crime. He even mentioned that he'd run into the security guard recently at a party. But conveniently, the man didn't know the guard's name or have his phone number. Lisa put him through a second interview, asking him the same questions, and "suddenly he knows the security guard's name and has his number," she says. This spelled a lie to Dan, and the polygraph results backed up his assessment.

7. … AND DOESN'T ADD UP.

"If the story doesn't make sense, it's usually not true," Dan says. In a recent case, a wife had agreed to take a polygraph at the request of her jealous husband, who had found numerous texts between her and a coworker on her phone. At first she told Dan that she and her colleague were merely friends who texted a lot, but that nothing physical happened between them. But as the polygraph went on, she added their communications went on for three years … and then confessed that they included nude photos of her.

She failed the polygraph—but then agreed to a second one, during which she denied having sexual contact with the friend. After she failed that test too, she admitted she had kissed the friend. (Even without these confessions, her body language throughout both tests was telling, Dan says; she was distraught and trembling. "I felt really bad for her," he admits. "I knew it wouldn't end well.")

"There's a saying: If it doesn't add up," Dan says, "it's usually because the truth wasn't in the equation."

8. THEY EXHIBIT FIGHT-OR-FLIGHT SYMPTOMS.

Close-up of perspiring, tense, frowning young blonde woman
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You breathe shallower when you lie, your face flushes, and you may begin to sweat. In addition, Dan says, "You lick your lips because digestion stops when fight or flight kicks in." Of course, these symptoms can also happen if you are genuinely afraid or have issues with authority, but according to Dan, this is where that valuable baseline of behavior helps an examiner determine if you were already nervous when you walked in.

Dan has one more tip that's useful no matter how astute your observational powers are: Get the person talking. He suggests approaching your line of questioning as an interview rather than an interrogation. "When I interview you, I let you talk," he notes. "In an interrogation, I'm doing the talking to get you to confess."

10 Things You Should Know About Asthma

iStock.com/Wojciech Kozielczyk
iStock.com/Wojciech Kozielczyk

To anyone with asthma, the feeling of an attack is unmistakable. Patients have compared an asthma attack's feeling of breathlessness, caused by inflammation in the lungs and airways, to being smothered by a pillow or having an elephant sit on their chest. Medical experts have already figured out some aspects of asthma, like how to diagnose and treat it, but other components, like what causes asthma and how to cure it, remain unclear. From the triggers people encounter at work to the connection to allergies, here are some facts about asthma symptoms and treatments you should know.

1. Asthma attacks are related to allergies.

The physical process that occurs when someone has a sneezing fit during pollen season is similar to what happens during an asthma attack. But while the former causes discomfort, the latter produces potentially life-threatening symptoms. When people with allergies are exposed to an allergen like pollen, they produce antibodies that bind to that allergen. This signals the body to release the chemicals that cause allergic symptoms. In most people, the symptoms are limited to the head, such as a runny nose or watery eyes, but in people with asthma, they're felt in the lungs. If the lungs are inflamed, the airways that carry air swell up and fill with mucus, constricting airflow and causing common asthma symptoms like coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath. Such asthma attacks can be fatal when patients can’t get enough air to their lungs.

2. Asthma is the most prevalent chronic disease among children.

Asthma is common, affecting 25 million in the U.S. alone, and of those patients, about 7 million are children. Most people with the disease develop it during childhood. Asthma is the most prevalent chronic illness among kids, and each year, students miss 13.8 million school days because of it.

3. Asthma may be inherited.

Doctors aren’t entirely sure what causes asthma, but they know it sometimes runs in families. A 2010 study found that people with one parent with the condition were nearly twice as likely to have it themselves, and people with a parent and a grandparent with asthma were four times more likely to develop it. Because asthma is connected to allergies, a genetic disposition toward allergies, known as atopy, may explain some inherited asthma cases.

4. Asthma is surprisingly easy to diagnose.

One of the simplest ways to diagnose asthma is through a lung function test. If a patient is reporting asthma symptoms (coughing, chest tightness, a feeling of not getting enough air), their doctor may check the strength of their exhalations before and after having them use an inhaler. If their breathing improves with the medicine, they likely have asthma. An X-ray of the patient’s chest can also be used to reach an asthma diagnosis.

5. Kids who grow up around germs are less likely to have asthma.

A person’s environment early in life may also play a role in whether or not they develop asthma. People who grew up in rural areas, around animals, and in large families are less likely to have asthma than those who did not. One possible explanation is the hygiene hypothesis: According to this theory, kids who were exposed to germs and pathogens while their immune systems were developing are better equipped to deal with allergens, while kids who were sheltered from germs may be more likely to have an exaggerated (and in the case of asthma, potentially deadly) immune response to harmless substances. The hygiene hypothesis hasn’t been proven, however, and it’s definitely not an excuse to expose children to infections in an attempt to strengthen them against asthma attacks in the future.

6. Asthma triggers are everywhere.

To manage their symptoms, doctors tell asthma patients to limit exposure to their triggers when possible. Common asthma triggers include irritants and allergens like dust, tobacco smoke, car exhaust, mold, pet dander, and smoke from burning wood. Triggers that don’t come from the environment, like colds, sinus infections, acid reflux, and hyperventilation brought on by stress, can be even harder to avoid.

7. There's one asthma trigger patients shouldn't avoid.

Physical activity causes fast breathing, which can provoke asthma attacks in some people with the condition. There’s even a type of asthma called exercise-induced bronchoconstriction that specifically describes people who suffer from these kinds of attacks. But the risks of living a sedentary lifestyle outweigh those of exercising carefully, even with asthma. Instead of cutting out cardio altogether, doctors work with patients to come up with an exercise plan that’s safe for them. This might include warming up and using an inhaler before working out, practicing cool-down activities afterward, and wearing scarves or masks to limit exposure to irritants that may also trigger asthma symptoms.

8. There are two types of asthma treatments.

Long-term controllers and quick-relievers are the two types of medications used to treat asthma. Immediate medicines like short-acting beta agonists and anticholinergics relax muscles in the airways when flare-ups occur, and they’re typically administered directly to the lungs with an inhaler. Long-term medications help keep asthma symptoms under control over time are taken as often as once a day, regardless of whether symptoms are present. They include inhaled long-acting beta agonists and corticosteroids, biologic injections, and theophylline and leukotriene modifier pills and liquids. All of these medications suppress asthma symptoms by either relaxing muscles, reducing swelling, or preventing inflammation in the airways.

9. Asthma can be an occupational hazard.

Occupational asthma develops when a patient’s triggers come from their work environment. According to the National Institutes of Health, wood dust, grain dust, animal dander, fungi, and various chemicals are some of the most common asthma triggers that patients encounter in the workplace. Bakers, farmers, laboratory workers, millers, and woodworkers predisposed to asthma are all at higher risk.

10. There's no cure for asthma, but symptoms can lessen over time.

Though asthma is treatable, there’s no cure for the chronic illness. Some people, however, do appear to grow out of the condition after suffering from it as kids. It’s possible for asthma symptoms to become less severe and go into remission as patients get older, but once someone is diagnosed with asthma, the risk of an episode never goes away completely. Changes in hormone levels are a factor that could possibly bring asthma symptoms back in patients who haven’t experienced an attack in years.

James Cameron Directed Entourage's Aquaman, But He Could Never Direct the Real One

Tommaso Boddi, Getty Images for AMC
Tommaso Boddi, Getty Images for AMC

Oscar-winning director James Cameron is no stranger to CGI. With movies like Avatar under his belt, you’d expect Cameron to find a particular sort of enjoyment in special effects-heavy movies like James Wan's Aquaman. But Cameron—who directed the fictional version of Aquaman featuring fictional movie star Vinnie Chase in the very real HBO series Entourage—has a little trouble with suspension of disbelief.

In a recent interview with Yahoo!, Cameron said that while he did enjoy Aquaman, he would never have been able to direct the movie itself because of its lack of realism.

"I think it’s great fun,” Cameron said. “I never could have made that film, because it requires this kind of total dreamlike disconnection from any sense of physics or reality. People just kind of zoom around underwater, because they propel themselves mentally, I guess, I don’t know. But it’s cool! You buy it on its own terms.”

"I’ve spent thousands of hours underwater," the Titanic director went on to say. "While I can enjoy that film, I don’t resonate with it because it doesn’t look real.”

While Aquaman was shot on a soundstage, Cameron will be employing state-of-the-art technology that will allow him to actually be underwater while shooting underwater scenes for his upcoming Avatar sequels.

[h/t Yahoo!]

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