5 Important Things to Know About the 2018 Flu Season

iStock
iStock

It's normal for people to fantasize about taking a Hawaiian vacation in the dead of winter, but the far-flung tropical state holds extra allure right now: Hawaii is the only area in the U.S. that hasn't yet reported widespread influenza activity, according to the Center for Disease Control's latest flu report.

Thirty-two states so far (plus New York City and Puerto Rico) are currently experiencing "high" flu activity, and nearly 9000 influenza-related hospitalizations (mainly involving seniors, middle aged patients, and children) have been reported since October 1, 2017. Whether you've been personally affected by the virus or managed to avoid it thus far, here's what you need to know about this year's flu season.

1. IT'S BAD BUT NOT UNPRECEDENTED.

Yes, this flu season is bad, but not apocalyptically so. In fact, the 2014–2015 season was "just as bad, if not worse," Anthony Fauci, the director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) at the National Institutes of Health (NIH), told MD Magazine. "Though the perception has been ‘Wow, this is unprecedented,' in no way is it unprecedented."

Most states have reported high influenza levels and an increase in pediatric influenza hospitalizations. But both the 2014–2015 and 2012–2013 seasons saw even greater child hospitalization rates in early January, according to Fauci. The current flu season has been hyped mostly because it came in earlier than expected, and with a vengeance—not because it's more severe than in the past.

2. MULTIPLE STRAINS OF FLU ARE CIRCULATING—AND ONE IS PARTICULARLY VIRULENT.

Multiple influenza strains are currently circulating throughout the U.S., with the most vicious one being the H3N2 flu. According to CDC experts, flu seasons dominated by H3N2 can lead to an increase in hospitalizations and deaths—and unfortunately, the current flu vaccine may be just 30 percent effective against this particular strain. On average, a flu shot is around 40 to 60 percent effective.

The seasonal flu shot allows individuals to develop infection-fighting antibodies against strains that experts predict will soon be be widespread. This year, experts thought that the H1 strain would reign supreme, and they designed the vaccine accordingly. People are indeed still catching it, and the shot grants them protection against this strain. While it offers less protection against H3N2, it can still lessen the severity of your illness if you do come down with it.

3. THE FLU SEASON HAS LIKELY PEAKED, BUT IT'S NOT OVER QUITE YET.

The CDC announced on Friday, January 12, that the influenza illness had likely reached its zenith for the 2017–2018 flu season. But just because it's peaked doesn't mean it's over; in fact, officials say we may have up to three months to go until we're officially out of the germy woods. Keep your guard up: Wash your hands, tote around hand sanitizer, and avoid sniffly colleagues.

4. IT'S NOT TOO LATE TO GET YOUR FLU SHOT.

Getting an annual flu shot in the fall provides you with maximum protection, but it isn't too late to get vaccinated if you forgot to schedule a seasonal appointment.

Even if you're not worried about getting sick yourself, it's still important to get the shot to protect others; when it comes to infectious disease, we're all in this together. Epidemiologists call that mutual collective protection herd immunity. Hundreds of thousands of people are hospitalized with influenza each year, and thousands or tens of thousands die from it, according to the CDC. The flu can be particularly dangerous for seniors, young children, pregnant women, and those with chronic medical conditions. They run the risk of developing severe complications that can lead to hospitalization and even death. Eighty-five percent of the 30 children who have died from flu this year so far were not vaccinated.

Bottom line: Make a beeline to your doctor or pharmacy post-haste if you haven't gotten your shot. This also goes for those who've already come down with the flu—it's still possible that you could become infected by yet another strain.

5. FLU CAN LIVE FOR A LEAST A DAY IN A HANDKERCHIEF. 

In addition to hand hygiene, practice tissue hygiene—and steer clear of hankies at all cost—to avoid coming down with the flu. Viruses can survive in a handkerchief for about a day and spread, and the same presumably goes for a used tissue, which is why it's important to use it just once before tossing it into the trash.

BONUS: SCIENTISTS ARE WORKING ON A UNIVERSAL FLU VACCINE.

In 2017, the NIH resolved to work towards a universal flu vaccine, designed to safeguard against all (or almost all) flu strains. More than 150 researchers have collaborated to work on the initiative, with researchers searching for rare flu targets and playing close attention to animal flu strains that might jump to humans.

Several vaccine prototypes are now entering the first stages of human safety testing. One vaccine removes the "head" of a protein coating the virus, where mutations often occur. Another alters the protein so that it's alien to the immune system, triggering a response. Yet another combines four different proteins in hopes the immune system will mount defenses against multiple strains. Ideally, a universal vaccine would be given to people when they are young to hopefully create a lifetime of protection, the NIH's Fauci told CBS News: "The vision of the field is that ultimately if you get the really good universal flu vaccine, it's going to work best when you give it to a child."

Pioneering Heart Surgeon René Favaloro Is Being Honored With a Google Doodle

Dr. René Favaloro (left) pictured with colleague Dr. Mason Sones.
Dr. René Favaloro (left) pictured with colleague Dr. Mason Sones.
The Cleveland Clinic Center for Medical Art & Photography, Wikimedia Commons // CC BY 4.0

Argentinian heart surgeon René Favaloro is the subject of today’s Google Doodle, which features a sketched portrait of the doctor along with an anatomical heart and several medical tools, The Independent reports.

The renowned doctor was born on this day in 1923 in La Plata, the capital of Argentina’s Buenos Aires province, and pursued a degree in medicine at La Plata University. After 12 years as a doctor in La Pampa, where he established the area’s first mobile blood bank, trained nurses, and built his own operating room, Favaloro relocated to the U.S. to specialize in thoracic surgery at the Cleveland Clinic.

In 1967, Favaloro performed coronary bypass surgery on a 51-year-old woman whose right coronary artery was blocked, restricting blood flow to her heart. Coronary bypass surgery involves taking a healthy vein from elsewhere in the body (in this case, Favaloro borrowed from the patient’s leg, but you can also use a vein from the arm or chest), and using it to channel the blood from the artery to the heart, bypassing the blockage. According to the Mayo Clinic, it doesn’t cure whatever heart disease that caused the blocked artery, but it can relieve symptoms like chest pain and shortness of breath, and it gives patients time to make other lifestyle changes to further manage their disease.

Favaloro wasn’t keen on being called the “father” of coronary bypass surgery, but his work brought the procedure to the forefront of the clinical field. He moved back to Argentina in 1971 and launched the Favaloro Foundation to train surgeons and treat a variety of patients from diverse economic backgrounds.

Favaloro died by suicide on July 29, 2000, at the age of 77, by a gunshot wound to the chest. His wife had died several years prior, and his foundation had fallen deeply into debt, which Argentinian hospitals and medical centers declined to help pay, The New York Times reported at the time.

“As a surgeon, Dr. Favaloro will be remembered for his ingenuity and imagination,” his colleague Dr. Denton A. Cooley wrote in a tribute shortly after Favaloro’s death. “But as a man ... he will be remembered for his compassion and selflessness.” Today would have been his 96th birthday.

[h/t The Independent]

A Simple Way to Cure Brain Freeze Quickly

vitapix/iStock via Getty Images
vitapix/iStock via Getty Images

As one of life’s simple pleasures, ice cream should not have the capacity to cause spontaneous and agonizing pain immediately after ingestion. Yet ice cream and other extremely cold food frequently catches us off-guard by inciting what is known as “brain freeze” or “ice cream headache.” Fortunately, there’s a way to alleviate this harsh side effect.

According to Johns Hopkins University, a bout of radiating pain in your head after eating cold food is known as cold neuralgia or sphenopalatine ganglioneuralgia. It’s likely caused by your body entering survival mode when it detects a freezing temperature on the palate (roof) of the mouth: our system constricts blood vessels in the palate to preserve our core temperature. When they rapidly open back up, a pain signal is sent to the brain via the trigeminal nerve. Since that nerve leads directly to the midface and forehead, your face bears the brunt of the referred pain from the mouth.

A brain freeze typically lasts less than five minutes. But when your head is throbbing, that can feel like forever. To minimize the pain, the best strategy is to warm the palate up. You can do this by pressing your tongue or a thumb against the roof of your mouth, by drinking a warm liquid, or both. Covering your face and breathing into your hands can also warm the air inside your mouth that was chilled by the ice cream.

If you want to take preventive measures, avoid gulping cold drinks and take smaller bites. Holding the ice cream in your mouth to warm it before swallowing can also reduce the potential for a painful end to your cone or slushy drink.

[h/t Johns Hopkins Medicine]

SECTIONS

arrow
LIVE SMARTER