NASA/JPL/Cal-Tech
NASA/JPL/Cal-Tech

Voyager 1 Has Left the Solar System!

NASA/JPL/Cal-Tech
NASA/JPL/Cal-Tech

Today, it was announced that Voyager 1 has left the solar system for interstellar space.

It’s not the first time the announcement has been made.

In October 2012, it was thought the intrepid probe, first launched in September 1977, had blasted out of the heliosheath and left the solar system—until a couple of months later, when particles weren’t quite acting as scientists thought they should in a region that came to be called the “magnetic highway”—the outer boundary of the heliosphere, where the sun’s magnetic particles and those from interstellar space mingle, not unlike a two-lane highway.

Scientists had thought two things would happen when Voyager officially left the solar system: That the solar winds would fade to nothing (which happened), and that the magnetic fields of the region would change direction marking the end of the sun’s influence. That one didn’t happen.

In recent months some scientists have been reassessing the data and saying “Yes, it might have left the solar system after all.” Now, NASA has confirmed that.

The whole debate was enough of a headache to get a nice ribbing from former JPL employee turned XKCD cartoonist Randall Munroe.

The Future of Interstellar Space Travel

Voyager 1 is now the first craft to officially leave the solar system, pacing along at 38,610 miles per hour. Others are set to follow.

Voyager 1's sister craft, Voyager 2, is not yet beyond the solar system, but is just a few years behind, traveling at a more sluggish crawl of around 35,000 MPH.

Two other probes, Pioneer 10 and 11, will also leave the solar system someday. Pioneer 10 was reported to have left by the New York Times in 1983except it was just past the orbit of Neptune at the time. Pioneer 11 accomplished this feat in 1990. But as the Voyagers have revealed, that is far, far shy of the end of the solar system.

Currently, Voyager 1 is more than 125 times the distance (called an AU, or astronomical unit) from the Earth to the Sun. Pioneer 10 is far behind that, projected at 109 AU in 2012. Communication was lost in 2003. Voyager 2 is still active, and is approximately 103 AU out. Pioneer 11, which NASA lost contact with in 1995, is estimated to be at 86 AU as of 2012.

We’d of course be remiss not to mention New Horizons, the craft currently on a trajectory for Pluto, which it will swoop by in 2015 before continuing on to the outer solar system. Thus far, it’s only about 27 AU out from the sun. It is expected to leave the solar system in 2029. A booster rocket of the craft is also on a path set to exit the solar system.

Little Green Men

With some push from Carl Sagan, both Voyager probes were given a “Golden Record,” a phonograph of words and images meant to tell aliens of existence here on earth, should the probes be found. Classical music melds with sounds of nature and a series of hellos in various languages on the disc.

Included in the music selections? “Johnny B. Goode” by Chuck Berry.

The Pioneers contain simple plaques, showing two naked humans, the position of the solar system in relation to a group of stars, and the location of the Earth within the solar system. (Prior to Pluto’s demotion, of course.)

Speaking of Pluto, New Horizons doesn’t have an equivalent to either on board. There are a few objects on board, though, which might pique the interest of the discoverers, even if they’ll have no way to tell what they are. Included is a CD with the names of 400,000 persons, as well as the ashes of Clyde Tombaugh, the astronomer who first discovered Pluto in 1930. A Florida state quarter and a scrap of SpaceShipOne are among the few other personal effects on the craft.

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6 Signs You're Getting Hangry
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Hangry (adjective): Bad-tempered or irritable as a result of hunger. This portmanteau (of hungry and angry) is not only officially recognized as a word by the Oxford English Dictionary, but it's also recognized by health experts as a real physiological state with mood-altering consequences.

That hangry feeling results from your body's glucose level dropping, putting you into a state of hypoglycemia, or low blood sugar. Glucose is the body's primary source of energy, so when you don't have enough, it affects your brain and other bodily functions, including the production of the hormones insulin and glucagon, which help regulate blood sugar. Check out the symptoms below to see if you've crossed over into the hanger danger zone.

1. IT TAKES EVERYTHING IN YOUR POWER JUST TO KEEP YOUR EYES OPEN.

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Glucose equals energy, so when your blood sugar levels are low, you may start wishing you were back in bed with the shades drawn. If you start feeling sluggish or tired even though you’re well-rested, you might just need to eat something.

2. THE EASIEST ITEM ON YOUR TO-DO LIST SEEMS LIKE AN IMPOSSIBLE TASK …

It’s hard to concentrate when all you can think about is whether you're going to order the fish or beef tacos for lunch. The distraction goes beyond fantasies about food, though. The brain derives most of its energy from glucose, so when it's low on fuel, a serious case of brain fog can set in. Confusion and difficulty speaking are among the more serious symptoms you may experience when you're hangry.

3. … AND YOU HAVE A BAD CASE OF WORD VOMIT.

Blame this on brain fog too. The gray matter in your noggin goes a little haywire when blood sugar is in short supply. That's why you may start stuttering or slurring your words. You might also have difficulty finding your words at all—it can feel like your mouth and brain are disconnected.

4. YOU’RE SHAKING LIKE A LEAF AND FEEL LIGHTHEADED.

Tremors and dizziness are both signs that you should pay closer attention to your body, which is screaming, "Feed me!" Once again, low blood sugar is often the culprit of trembling hands and feeling faint, and exhaustion and stress make the symptoms worse.

5. YOUR COWORKERS SEEM ESPECIALLY ANNOYING.

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You’re tense and irritable, and it’s starting to show. Hunger causes your body to release cortisol and adrenaline, the same hormones responsible for stress. This can put you on edge and lower your tolerance for other people’s quirks and irksome habits, which suddenly seem a lot less bearable.

6. YOU SNAPPED AT YOUR FRIEND OR PARTNER FOR NO GOOD REASON.

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Not only are you irritable, but you’re more likely to lash out at others because of it. The doses of adrenaline and cortisol in your body can induce a fight-or-flight response and make you go on the attack over matters that—if you had some food in you—would seem unimportant.

So what should you do if these descriptions sound all too familiar? Eat a snack, pronto—one with complex carbohydrates, lean protein, and healthy fats. The first one brings up your blood sugar level, and the other two slow down how fast the carbohydrates are absorbed, helping you to avoid a sugar crash and maintain a normal blood sugar level. Eating small meals every few hours also helps to keep hanger at bay.

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Astronomers Discover 12 New Moons Around Jupiter
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As the largest planet with the largest moon in our solar system, Jupiter is a body of record-setting proportions. The fifth planet from the Sun also boasts the most moons—and scientists just raised the count to 79.

A team of astronomers led by Scott S. Sheppard of the Carnegie Institute for Science confirmed the existence of 12 additional moons of Jupiter, 11 of which are “normal” outer moons, according to a statement from the institute. The outlier is being called an “oddball” for its bizarre orbit and diminutive size, which is about six-tenths of a mile in diameter.

The moons were first observed in the spring of 2017 while scientists looked for theoretical planet beyond Pluto, but several additional observations were needed to confirm that the celestial bodies were in fact orbiting around Jupiter. That process took a year.

“Jupiter just happened to be in the sky near the search fields where we were looking for extremely distant solar system objects, so we were serendipitously able to look for new moons around Jupiter while at the same time looking for planets at the fringes of our solar system,” Sheppard said in a statement.

Nine of the "normal" moons take about two years to orbit Jupiter in retrograde, or counter to the direction in which Jupiter spins. Scientists believe these moons are what’s left of three larger parent bodies that splintered in collisions with asteroids, comets, or other objects. The two other "normal" moons orbit in the prograde (same direction as Jupiter) and take less than a year to travel around the planet. They’re also thought to be chunks of a once-larger moon.

The oddball, on the other hand, is “more distant and more inclined” than the prograde moons. Although it orbits in prograde, it crosses the orbits of the retrograde moons, which could lead to some head-on collisions. The mass is believed to be Jupiter’s smallest moon, and scientists have suggested naming it Valetudo after the Roman goddess of health and hygiene, who happens to be the great-granddaughter of the god Jupiter.

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