This 1907 Vision Test Was Designed for People of All Nationalities

George Mayerle, U.S. National Library of Medicine // Public Domain
George Mayerle, U.S. National Library of Medicine // Public Domain

At the turn of the 20th century, San Francisco was a diverse place. In fact, Angel Island Immigration Station, located on an island in the San Francisco Bay, was known as the “Ellis Island of the West,” processing some 300,000 people coming to the U.S. in the early 1900s. George Mayerle, a German optometrist working in the city at the time, encountered this diversity of languages and cultures every day in his practice. So in the 1890s, Mayerle created what was billed as “the only [eye] chart published that can be used by people of any nationality,” as The Public Domain Review alerts us.

Anticipating the difficulty immigrants, like those from China or Russia, would face when trying to read a vision test made solely with Roman letters for English-speaking readers, he designed a test that included multiple scripts. For his patients that were illiterate, he included symbols. It features two different styles of Roman scripts for English-speaking and European readers, and characters in Cyrillic, Hebrew, Japanese, and Chinese scripts as well as drawings of dogs, cats, and eyes designed to test the vision of children and others who couldn't read.

The chart, published in 1907 and measuring 22 inches by 28 inches, was double-sided, featuring black text on a white background on one side and white text on a black background on the other. According to Stephen P. Rice, an American studies professor at Ramapo College of New Jersey, there are other facets of the chart designed to test for a wide range of vision issues, including astigmatism and color vision.

As he explains in the 2012 history of the National Library of Medicine’s collections, Hidden Treasure [PDF], the worldly angle was partly a marketing strategy on Mayerle’s part. (He told fellow optometrists that the design “makes a good impression and convinces the patient of your professional expertness.”)

But that doesn’t make it a less valuable historical object. As Rice writes, “the ‘international’ chart is an artifact of an immigrant nation—produced by a German optician in a polyglot city where West met East (and which was then undergoing massive rebuilding after the 1906 earthquake)—and of a globalizing economy.”

These days, you probably won’t find a doctor who still uses Mayerle’s chart. But some century-old vision tests are still in use today. Shinobu Ishihara’s design for a visual test for colorblindness—those familiar circles filled with colored dots that form numbers in the center—were first sold internationally in 1917, and they remain the most popular way to identify deficiencies in color vision.

[h/t The Public Domain Review]

Writing a Term Paper? This Font Is a Sneaky Way to Meet Your Page Count

iStock
iStock

Stretching the margins, widening line spaces, making your periods slightly larger than the rest of the text—these tricks should sound familiar to any past or current students who've ever struggled to meet the page requirements of a writing assignment. As more professors get wise to these shortcuts, students are forced to get even sneakier when stretching their essays—and the digital agency MSCHF is here to help them.

As Fast Company reports, MSCHF has released an updated version of Times New Roman, the only difference from the standard font being that theirs takes up more space per character. When developing Times Newer Roman, the designers manipulated one character at a time, stretching them just enough to make a difference in the final page count without making the changes look noticeable. The result is a typeface that covers about 5 to 10 percent more line space than Times New Roman text of the same size, saving writers nearly 1000 words in a 15-page, single-spaced paper in 12-point type.

Getting the look right wasn't the only challenge MSCHF faced when designing the font. Times New Roman is a licensed property, so Times Newer Roman is technically a twist on Nimbus Roman No.9 L (1)—an open-source font that's meant to look indistinguishable from Times New Roman.

If you'd like to test out the font for yourself (for curiosity's sake, of course; definitely not to use on your term paper), you can download Times Newer Roman for free.

[h/t Fast Company]

Frank Lloyd Wright's Spiral House in Phoenix Hits the Market for $12.9 Million

Frank Lloyd Wright designed nearly 60 houses in his lifetime (and even more if you count the ones that were never built). You’ll find these iconic structures scattered throughout the U.S. Some are private homes in far-flung places, while others have been turned into museums.

One of these structures is the spiral-shaped David and Gladys Wright House in the affluent Arcadia neighborhood of Phoenix, Arizona. And if you have $12,950,000 to spare, it could be yours to keep. As Curbed reports, the home is currently up for sale via Russ Lyon Sotheby's International Realty.

The home’s distinctive shape and spiral walk-up are early examples of Wright’s rounded style, which he honed and mastered while drawing up plans for the Guggenheim Museum in New York City. The museum opened in 1959, just six months after his death.

Of course, even non-architecture aficionados would probably agree that this is a beautiful—and comfortable—home. It boasts three bedrooms, four baths, custom-designed furniture, and a roof deck overlooking Camelback Mountain. The home was constructed for and named after Wright’s son David and daughter-in-law Gladys in 1952. After their deaths, a developer bought the home and made plans to demolish it to make room for new houses in 2012.

However, another buyer—current owner Zach Rawling—stepped in and took it off the developer's hands for $2.3 million, saving it from certain death. Rawling’s plan was to donate it to the School of Architecture at Taliesin in order to preserve it, but that partnership fell through, so it’s back on the market once again.

Frank Lloyd Wright homes can be difficult to sell for a number of reasons. For one, the high asking price for these old-fashioned homes—some of which don’t have air conditioning and other modern comforts—can be hard to justify. But even if you can't cough up several million dollars for the David and Gladys Wright House, you can still scope it out via an online interactive floor plan.

[h/t Curbed]

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