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Where Did the 8 Glasses of Water A Day Myth Come From?

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By Chris Gayomali

We have all been told at some point that proper hydration requires us to consume eight glasses of water a day. That works out to about two liters, which is an awful lot of fluid, considering the average human stomach (when unexpanded) is about the size of a balled fist.

But health researchers have refuted the eight-glasses-a-day claim as a silly myth riding a wave of flimsy scientific literature. In fact, many of the groups behind the public push for over-hydration have been exposed as having — surprise! — monetary interests in the fluid industry.

For example: In a 2011 article published in the British Medical Journal, Margaret McCartney debunked the eight glasses a day myth and noted that one water advocacy group in Europe, Hydration for Health, is not only sponsored by, but was actually created by food giant Danone. Under the company's expansive culinary umbrella? Volvic, Evian, and Badoit bottled waters.

Set aside the entangled interests of Big Bottled Water, and you'll see that study after study continues to show that the human body is remarkably resilient when it comes to quenching our thirst. Saharan nomads, for example, are capable of subsisting on very little water for days at a time in one of Earth's most hellish climates, as was first noted in 1976 by anthropologist Claude Paque.

You and I, on the other hand, may get a bit cranky in our air-conditioned offices if we forget to visit the water cooler for a morning, but it's highly, highly, highly improbable that we'd shrivel and die at the dusty hands of the dehydration monster. Consider all the other stuff we consume. Despite the widely held notion that tea and coffee dehydrate us, they actually count toward our overall water intake, says Dr. Stanley Goldfarb, a nephrologist (kidney researcher) at the University of Pennsylvania. Even though we're told it's important to drink eight glasses of water a day, "there's no evidence that benefits health in any real way and it really represents an urban myth," says Goldfarb. Even something like, say, a baked potato, is 75 percent water.

So where exactly did this eight glasses of water a day voodoo come from? The very idea of a "minimal water requirement" is actually a fairly recent notion that first appeared in dietary guidelines published in 1945 by the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academy of Sciences. The academy spuriously suggested that "2,500 mL [2.5 liter] of fluid should be ingested on a daily basis," although a primary clinical study was never actually cited.

The idea may have been at least partly put forth by Frederick J. Stare, an influential 20th century nutritionist and founding chairman of the department of nutrition at the Harvard School of Public Health. (He passed away in 2002 at age 91.) Stare was one of the first to recommend that humans consume six or so 12-ounce glasses of water a day.

Since then, researchers have begun to see eight glasses a day as an overestimate (especially considering our diets), but there are still advocates pushing for eight glasses of pure water or more. Those proponents include Dr. Fereydoon Batmanghelidi, a medical practitioner in Virginia who claims that a lack of water is responsible for many preventable diseases. Water, after all, is still good for us. Recent studies have suggested that adequate hydration may not only give our cognition a boost, but goes a long way toward keeping chronic kidney disease at bay.

As for how much we should be drinking, there is unfortunately no hard and fast rule. (Sorry!) And when you include all the other stuff we munch on or guzzle throughout the day, we actually consume more than the recommended two liters. A 1995 Australian survey found that the diet of average adults provides more than enough daily fluid: Women take in about 2.8 liters a day, and men consume 3.4 liters a day.

Research suggests that drinking water when you start to feel thirsty is sufficient should you desire to continue existing. Clearly, it's all relative, as when you feel thirsty will be different if you're drenching yourself in spin class or spinning in your cushy chair at work. As with most things, it's probably best to listen to your body before proceeding accordingly.

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Why Do Cats Love Scratching Furniture?
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Allergy suffering aside, cat ownership has proven health benefits. A feline friend can aid in the grieving process, reduce anxiety, and offer companionship.

The con in the cat column? They have no reservations about turning your furniture into shredded pleather. No matter how expensive your living room set, these furry troublemakers will treat it with the respect accorded to a college futon. Do cats do this out of some kind of spite? Are they conspiring with Raymour & Flanigan to get you to keep updating home decor?

Neither. According to cat behaviorists, cats gravitate toward scratching furniture mostly because that love seat is in a really conspicuous area [PDF]. As a result, cats want to send a message to any other animal that may happen by: namely, that this plush seating belongs to the cat who marked it. Scratching provides both visual evidence (claw marks) as well as a scent marker. Cat paws have scent glands that can leave smells that are detectable to other cats and animals.

But it’s not just territorial: Cats also scratch to remove sloughed-off nail tips, allowing fresh nail growth to occur. And they can work out their knotted back muscles—cramped from sleeping 16 hours a day, no doubt—by kneading the soft foam of a sectional.

If you want to dissuade your cat from such behavior, purchasing a scratching post is a good start. Make sure it’s non-carpeted—their nails can get caught on the fibers—and tall enough to allow for a good stretch. Most importantly, put it near furniture so cats can mark their hangout in high-traffic areas. A good post might be a little more expensive, but will likely result in fewer trips to Ethan Allen.

Have you got a Big Question you'd like us to answer? If so, let us know by emailing us at bigquestions@mentalfloss.com.

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Big Questions
Who Was Chuck Taylor?
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From Betty Crocker to Tommy Bahama, plenty of popular labels are "named" after fake people. But one product with a bona fide backstory to its moniker is Converse's Chuck Taylor All-Star sneakers. The durable gym shoes are beloved by everyone from jocks to hipsters. But who's the man behind the cursive signature on the trademark circular ankle patch?

As journalist Abraham Aamidor recounted in his 2006 book Chuck Taylor, All Star: The True Story of the Man behind the Most Famous Athletic Shoe in History, Chuck Taylor was a former pro basketball player-turned-Converse salesman whose personal brand and tireless salesmanship were instrumental to the shoes' success.

Charles Hollis Taylor was born on July 24, 1901, and raised in southern Indiana. Basketball—the brand-new sport invented by James Naismith in 1891—was beginning to take the Hoosier State by storm. Taylor joined his high school team, the Columbus High School Bull Dogs, and was named captain.

After graduation, instead of heading off to college, Taylor launched his semi-pro career playing basketball with the Columbus Commercials. He’d go on to play for a handful of other teams across the Midwest, including the the Akron Firestone Non-Skids in Ohio, before finally moving to Chicago in 1922 to work as a sales representative for the Converse Rubber Shoe Co. (The company's name was eventually shortened to Converse, Inc.)

Founded in Malden, Massachusetts, in 1908 as a rubber shoe manufacturer, Converse first began producing canvas shoes in 1915, since there wasn't a year-round market for galoshes. They introduced their All-Star canvas sports shoes two years later, in 1917. It’s unclear whether Chuck was initially recruited to also play ball for Converse (by 1926, the brand was sponsoring a traveling team) or if he was simply employed to work in sales. However, we do know that he quickly proved himself to be indispensable to the company.

Taylor listened carefully to customer feedback, and passed on suggestions for shoe improvements—including more padding under the ball of the foot, a different rubber compound in the sole to avoid scuffs, and a patch to protect the ankle—to his regional office. He also relied on his basketball skills to impress prospective clients, hosting free Chuck Taylor basketball clinics around the country to teach high school and college players his signature moves on the court.

In addition to his myriad other job duties, Taylor played for and managed the All-Stars, a traveling team sponsored by Converse to promote their new All Star shoes, and launched and helped publish the Converse Basketball Yearbook, which covered the game of basketball on an annual basis.

After leaving the All-Stars, Taylor continued to publicize his shoe—and own personal brand—by hobnobbing with customers at small-town sporting goods stores and making “special appearances” at local basketball games. There, he’d be included in the starting lineup of a local team during a pivotal game.

Taylor’s star grew so bright that in 1932, Converse added his signature to the ankle patch of the All Star shoes. From that point on, they were known as Chuck Taylor All-Stars. Still, Taylor—who reportedly took shameless advantage of his expense account and earned a good salary—is believed to have never received royalties for the use of his name.

In 1969, Taylor was inducted into the Basketball Hall of Fame. The same year, he died from a heart attack on June 23, at the age of 67. Around this time, athletic shoes manufactured by companies like Adidas and Nike began replacing Converse on the court, and soon both Taylor and his namesake kicks were beloved by a different sort of customer.

Still, even though Taylor's star has faded over the decades, fans of his shoe continue to carry on his legacy: Today, Converse sells more than 270,000 pairs of Chuck Taylors a day, 365 days a year, to retro-loving customers who can't get enough of the athlete's looping cursive signature.

Have you got a Big Question you'd like us to answer? If so, let us know by emailing us at bigquestions@mentalfloss.com.

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