10 Magnificent European Museums

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We previously looked at beautiful libraries from across the globe, but if you’re looking to expand your travels to educational locales with beautiful architecture, you may also consider traveling to these lovely museums, starting with those in Europe.

It’s important to note that not only is this not an exhaustive list, but these museums were not selected based on their contents. There are plenty of mediocre-looking museums with fantastic collections, just as there are stunning museums with mediocre collections.

1. Guggenheim Museum Bilbao, Spain

The Guggenheim Museum Bilbao, designed by legendary architect Frank Gehry, is one of the most world-renowned contemporary museum buildings in the world. In fact, Architect Philip Johnson boldly described it as "the greatest building of our time."

The 256,000 square foot museum is still pretty new—it opened in 1997—but it's already well-respected thanks to its impressive permanent collection—featuring works by Mark Rothko, Andy Warhol, Richard Serra, and more—and attracts fantastic traveling exhibits courtesy of its namesake, the famous Guggenheim Foundation. In fact, when it was opened, the museum had more space than the New York and Venice Guggenheim museums combined.

2. Louvre, France

It should come as no surprise that the most popular museum in the world is also one of the most beautiful. The Louvre also happens to be one of the world’s largest, stretching over 650,000 square feet. The grounds themselves have held an important place in French history since the late 12th century, when Philip II built a fortress on the site. After that time, the building continued to evolve into a grand palace that held the royal family (until Sun King Louis XIV decided to move his home to the Palace of Versailles in 1682). After that time, the building served as a place to display the royal collection, including a massive collection of Greek and Roman sculpture, along with the museum’s most famous item, the Mona Lisa.

During the French Revolution, the National Assembly declared the building should be used as a museum. When Louis XVI was imprisoned in 1792, the royal collection in the Louvre was deemed public property and the museum officially opened the next year. The collection has continued to increase throughout the years, and these days, the Louvre houses almost 380,000 objects dating from prehistory to modern times. The classic building's iconic modern element—the controversial glass pyramid, designed by American architect Ieoh Ming Pei—was finished in 1989 and serves as the entrance to the museum.

3. The Musee d’Orsay, France

While the Musee d’Orsay only opened in 1986, the impressive building that hosts the museum was completed back in 1900, when it was a train station. After being decommissioned, it was eventually scheduled to be demolished, but the country’s Minister for Cultural Affairs vetoed a plan to build a new hotel in its spot. By 1978, the building was declared a historical monument, and plans were developed to turn the space into a museum that would bridge the gap between the older artwork shown at the Louvre and the newer works displayed at the National Museum of Modern Art.

These days, the museum features a variety of French artwork dating from the mid-1800s to pre-WWI. It's the third most popular museum in France and the tenth most popular in the world—not bad for a train station that was nearly demolished.

4. The Museum of Natural History and The Museum of Art History of Vienna, Austria

These twin buildings were constructed across a large square from one another, both opening to the public in 1889. The museums were commissioned by the Emperor in order to offer a suitable shelter for the impressive art collection of the royal Habsburg family. The rectangular buildings are each topped with a nearly 200-foot tall dome. Inside, the museums are adorned with marble, gold leaf, paintings and stucco ornamentations.

While both museums are impressive, and the artwork at the Museum of Art History is world class, the Museum of Natural History remains one of the most important of such museums and houses around 30 million artifacts—part of a collection that began over 250 years ago. The museum has so many specimens that it even has a staff of 60 full-time scientists.

5. British Museum, England

The creation of the British Museum can largely be attributed to one man: physician and naturalist Sir Hans Sloane, who gathered an impressive collection of around 71,000 antiquities, artifacts, and artworks during his lifetime. Not wanting to see his collection broken up after his death, he left it to King George II. In 1753, King George and Parliament created the British Museum with the collection from Sloane and two library collections, including one assembled by Sir Robert Cotton that dated back to Elizabethan times, and the Royal Library.

The museum originally opened in Montagu House, a previous manor of a wealthy family, in 1759, but by the 1800s, the building had become dilapidated and the museum needed more space. The Montagu House was demolished and a new Greek Revival structure, designed by Sir Robert Smirke, was built in its place. The new building was officially opened to the public in 1857, but additions, such as the famous Round Reading Room, continued to be added over the next century. When the book collections were moved to the British Library in 1998, the vacant space in the court was redeveloped into the Queen Elizabeth II Great Court, which is now the largest covered square in Europe.

While the museum no longer holds books or natural history items, the collection continues to grow, now numbering around 13 million works documenting the story of human culture from prehistoric times to today, although only 1 percent of the collection is on display at any given time. These days, it is the most visited museum in England and the third most visited museum in the world.

6. The Vatican Museum, Vatican City

The Roman Catholic Church has collected quite an array of art and antiquities throughout the centuries, so it should be no surprise that they have a pretty impressive museum collection. The museum is now over 500 years old; it officially opened to the public when Pope Julius II put a sculpture of Laocoon and his Sons on display in 1506.

Since then, the Vatican has had building after building added to house their impressive collection. The two most famous works in the collection are the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel painted by Michelangelo and the Stanze della Segnatura by Raphael. Aside from the world-famous artwork, the museum also houses many important Etruscan and Egyptian artifacts uncovered in archeological excavations sponsored by the Vatican.

7. The State Hermitage Museum, Russia

Catherine the Great founded this massive Saint Petersburg museum in 1764, with the opening of the Small Hermitage building. Since then, five other main structures have been added, along with parts of two other massive buildings. The Winter Palace is the most famous of the additional structures; it was once the main residence of Russian czars.

The collection of the museum includes over three million items and makes up the largest collection of paintings in the world, ranging from Raphael and Rembrandt to Matisse and Picasso. Today, the museum is the most popular in Russia and the thirteenth most visited art museum in the world.

8. State Historical Museum, Russia

Chances are you’ve seen pictures of the State Historical Museum—it stands just outside of the world famous Red Square in Moscow. The stunning neo-Russian building was completed in 1881 to document the history of Russia dating from prehistoric tribes to modern times. When the building was first completed, it was adorned in the Russian Revival style by artists such as Viktor Vasnetsove, Henrik Semiradsky, and Ivan Aivazvosky, but during the Soviet period of rule, the murals were determined to be too gaudy and were plastered over. Fortunately, the amazing paintings were artfully restored after the fall of the USSR.

The museum is home to over four million artifacts, most notably a longboat excavated from the Volga River, gold artifacts of the Scythians and scrolls of Novgorod.

9. Rijksmuseum, Netherlands

This Netherlands landmark was originally founded in The Hague in 1800, but soon moved to Amsterdam in 1808. The current building featuring both gothic and renaissance elements was designed by Pierre Cuypers and opened to the public in 1885. Both the inside and outside were adorned with pieces by B. van Hove J.F. Vermeylen, G. Sturm and W.F. Dixon, all of which featured references to Dutch art history.

While many museums have had to change locations and expand over and over throughout the years, the main building of the Rijksmuseum still looks practically the same as it did in this image from 1895. Of course, other structures have been added to hold the collection of over one million objects, and the main building has had to go through a lot of renovations over the last decade, only recently reopening after a ten year restoration phase. At any given time, the museum has around 8000 items from their total collection on display, including world-famous works by Dutch masters such as Rembrandt, Johannes Vermeer and Jan Steen.

10. Museum Island, Germany

To be fair, this island is actually home to five different museums—and it's so important to Berlin that it was named a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1999.

The five museums located on the island are the Altes Museum (completed in 1830), the Neues Museum (destroyed in WWII and re-opened in 2009), the Alte Nationalgalerie (opened in 1876), The Bode Museum (completed in 1904), and The Pergamon Museum (constructed in 1930). The Altes Museum features Greek and Roman art as well as traveling exhibitions; the Neues Museum displays archaeological objects and ancient Egyptian and Etruscan sculptures, including the famous bust of Queen Nefertiti. The Alte Nationalgalerie features artwork from the 19th century, and the Bode Museum displays paintings from the Late Byzantine period to the 1800s. Lastly, the Pergamon includes reconstructions of historically significant buildings, including the Pergamon Altar and the Ishtar Gate of Babylon.

As I said, this list is by no means exhaustive, so feel free to add your favorite lovely museums in Europe. Plus, since we’re planning to cover beautiful museums from around the globe, go ahead and nominate lovely museums outside of Europe as well. Maybe you’ll see them on an upcoming list in the near future.

15 Delicious Facts About Pizza Hut

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iStock.com/RiverNorthPhotography

For more than 60 years, Pizza Hut has been slinging hot, cheesy pies to hungry consumers all over the world. (There are more than 16,000 locations worldwide.) Whether you're a meat lover or vegetarian, here are 15 things you should know about the popular pizza chain.

1. It was founded by two brothers who were still in college.

Dan and Frank Carney borrowed $600 from their mother in 1958 to open a pizza place while attending Wichita State University. The name was inspired by the former bar that they rented to open their first location.

2. Pizza Hut franchising was almost instant.

A year after the first location opened in Wichita, Kansas, the Carney brothers had already incorporated the business and asked their friend Dick Hassur to open the first franchise location in Topeka, Kansas. Hassur, who had previously gone to school and worked at Boeing with Dan Carney, was looking for a way out of his insurance agent job. He soon became a multi-franchise owner, and worked to find other managers who could open Pizza Huts across the country.

Once, when a successful manager of a Wichita location put in his notice, Hassur was sent in to convince the man to stay. That manager happened to be Bill Parcells, who had resigned his Pizza Hut job in order to take his first coaching job at a small Nebraska college. Of course, he later went on to coach numerous NFL teams, including leading the New York Giants to two Super Bowl victories. "I might have been wrong there," Hassur said of trying to convince Parcells his salary would be better as a manager than as a coach, "but I'm sure he'd have been successful with Pizza Hut, too."

3. There was a mascot in the early days.

image of vintage Pizza Hut restaurants featuring mascot Pizza Pete
Roadsidepictures, Flickr // CC BY-NC-ND 2.0

Before the iconic red roof logo was adopted in 1969, Pizza Hut had a mascot named Pizza Pete who also served as its logo. The mustachioed cartoon man wore a chef’s hat, neckerchief, and an apron while serving up hot meals to hungry customers. Pizza Pete was still used throughout the 1970s on bags, cups, and advertisements, but was eventually phased out.

4. Pizza Hut perfume was a thing that existed.

It was announced late in 2012 that Pizza Hut had plans to release a limited edition perfume that smelled like "fresh dough with a bit of spice." One hundred fans of the Pizza Hut Canada Facebook page won bottles of the scent, and another promotion around Valentine's Day gave American pizza lovers a chance to own the fragrance via a Twitter contest. The packaging for the perfume resembled mini pizza boxes, and a few later surfaced on eBay for as much as $495.

5. They struck gold with the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles.

image of people dressed as the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles
Kevin Winter, Getty Images

When a group of crime fighting turtles that love pizza become huge pop culture icons, it's a no-brainer that a pizza company should do business with them. Domino's was featured in the first Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles film in 1990, but ads for Pizza Hut were included on VHS when the film hit home video. Pizza Hut also reportedly spent around $20 million on marketing campaigns for the Turtles during the 1990 "Coming Out of Their Shells" concert tour and album release. The partnership continued all the way up to the 2014 release of Michael Bay's Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles.

6. Pizza Hut Easy-Bake ovens were also real.

Children of the '70s were lucky enough to own small toy ovens shaped like the restaurant in which they could bake tiny little Pizza Hut pizzas under a 60-watt light bulb.

7. Their vintage commercials are star-studded.

An 11-year-old Elijah Wood got his start flinging potato salad at his co-star; Ringo Starr and the Monkees marveled at the stuffed-crust pizza; and former Soviet statesman Mikhail Gorbachev had a very odd, political pizza pitch, appearing along with his young granddaughter in a Russian Pizza Hut (though the ad was not set to run in Russia).

8. The Book It! program is 35 years old.

In 1984, Pizza Hut kicked off the BOOK IT! program, an initiative to encourage children to read by rewarding them with "praise, recognition and pizza." It was such a success that First Lady Barbara Bush threw a reading-themed pizza party at the White House in 1989. The program is now the "longest-running corporate-supported reading program in the country" and has reached over 60 million children.

9. They were early to the pan pizza create.

image of someone removing a slice from a personal pan pizza
iStock

Pizza Hut introduced pan pizza in 1980, nine years before their competition, Domino's, added the style to their menu. In 1983, they introduced personal pan pizzas, which are still the coveted prize of the BOOK IT! program and the only pizza option at smaller Pizza Hut cafes (like those inside Target stores).

10. They were also early to online ordering.

In 1994, Pizza Hut and The Santa Cruz Operation created PizzaNet, an ahead-of-its-time program that allowed computer users to place orders via the internet. The Los Angeles Times called the idea "clever but only half-baked" and "the Geek Chic way to nosh." And, the site is still up and running! Seriously, go ahead and try to order.

11. Pizza Hut pizza has been to space ...

image of the International Space Station hovering above Earth
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In 2001, Pizza Hut became the first company to deliver pies into space. Before being sealed and sent to the International Space Station, the pizza recipe had to undergo "rigorous stabilized thermal conditions" to make sure that it would be still be edible when it got there. Pizza Hut also paid a large, unspecified sum (but definitely more than $1 million) to have a 30-foot-wide ad on a rocket in 1999.

12. … but not to the Moon.

In 1999, Pizza Hut's then-CEO Mike Rawlings (and current Mayor of Dallas) told The New York Times that an earlier idea for space marketing was for the logo to be shown on the moon with lasers. But once they started looking into it, astronomers and physicists advised them that the projected image would have to be as large as Texas to be seen from Earth—and the project would also have cost the company hundreds of millions of dollars. Better to stick with Super Bowl ads.

13. They once offered pizza engagement packages.

image of someone proposing marriage
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What's the perfect way to pop the big question? In 2012, Pizza Hut suggested that grooms- (or brides-) to-be order the engagement party package that included a $10 dinner box, a limo, a ruby ring, fireworks, flowers, and a photographer, all for $10,010. In keeping with the theme, only 10 of the packages were offered. But, to be clear—if you bought a Pizza Hut engagement package, you would have spent $10 on food and approximately the cost of a wedding on the proposal.

14. Pizza Hut accounts for three percent of U.S. cheese production.

With all those locations and cheese-stuffed crusts, Pizza Hut needs a lot of dairy. The company uses over 300 million pounds of cheese annually and is one of the largest cheese buyers in the world. To make that much cheese, 170,000 cows are used to produce an estimated 300 billion gallons of milk. Something to think about the next time you order an Ultimate Cheese Lover's pizza with extra cheese.

15. There are a lot of repurposed Pizza Hut locations.

An empty, former Pizza Hut building
Mike Kalasnik, Flickr // CC BY-SA 2.0

Franchise locations of companies are not always successful, and when they close, the buildings are often left untouched by their new owners rather than being demolished and replaced. Because the hut-shaped stores have become synonymous with the company, their former locations are easy to spot. The blog "Used to Be a Pizza Hut" has an interactive map of more than 500 ex-huts submitted by people all over the world. There is also a successful Kickstarter-funded photo book—called Pizza Hunt—documenting the "second lives" of the restaurants.

5 Fast Facts About Sake Dean Mahomed

Today's Google Doodle will be many people's first introduction to Sake Dean Mahomed, a noted traveler, surgeon, author, and entrepreneur who was born in Patna, India in 1759. Though he's been left out of many modern history books, Mahomed left a profound impact on Western culture that is still being felt today.

In honor of the 225th anniversary of the publication of his first book—The Travels of Dean Mahomed, a Native of Patna in Bengal, Through Several Parts of India, While in the Service of the Honorable the East India Company—on January 15, 1794, here are some facts about the figure.

1. He was the first Indian author to publish a book in English.

In 1794, Sake Dean Mahomed published The Travels of Dean Mahomet, an autobiography that details his time in the East India Company's army in his youth and his journey to Britain. Not only was it the first English book written by an Indian author, The Travels of Dean Mahomet marked the first time a book published in English depicted the British colonization of India from an Indian perspective.

2. His marriage was controversial.

While studying English in Ireland, Mahomed met and fell in love with an Irish woman named Jane Daly. It was illegal for Protestants to marry non-Protestants at the time, so the pair eloped in 1786 and Mahomed converted from Islam to Anglicanism.

3. He opened the England's first Indian restaurant.

Prior to Sake Dean Mahomed's arrival, Indian food was impossible to find in England outside of private kitchens. He introduced the cuisine to his new home by opening the Hindoostane Coffee House in London in 1810. The curry house catered to both British and Indian aristocrats living in the city, with "Indianised" versions of British dishes and "Hookha with real Chilm tobacco." Though the restaurant closed a few years later due to financial troubles, it paved the way for Indian food to become a staple of the English food scence.

4. He brought "shampooing" to Europe.

Following the failure of his restaurant venture, Mahomed opened a luxury spa in Brighton, England, where he offered Eastern health treatments like herbal steam baths and therapeutic, oil-based head massages to his British clientele. The head massages eventually came to be known as shampoo, an anglicized version of the Hindi word champissage. Patrons included the monarchs George IV and William IV, earning Mahomed the title shampooer of kings.

5. He wrote about the benefits of spa treatments.

Though The Travels of Dean Mahomet is his most famous book, Mahomed published another book in English in 1828 called Shampooing; or, Benefits Resulting from the Use of the Indian Medicated Vapour Bath.

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