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80 Years of Drive-in Theaters

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The outdoor movie theater, born in 1933 in Pennsauken, N.J., turned 80 on June 6. What started as an experiment from chemical company magnate Richard M. Hollingshead Jr. changed the way movie-goers experienced motion pictures. Hollingshead started small. Really small. His prototype consisted of a screen nailed to trees in his backyard, a radio behind the screen, and a 1928 Kodak projector positioned carefully on the hood of his car. And this all happened from his driveway.

Hollingshead got the idea from his mother, a tall woman who found traditional theater seats to be uncomfortable.

After receiving a patent for his idea, Hollingshead expanded, opening up the drive-in theater in Pennsauken with 400 car slots and a 40-by-50-foot screen. The first film ever shown was Wives Beware. Hollingshead chose to screen the film because it had already been in theaters for a few weeks, and he didn’t want any conflict with major releases at other theaters.

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Back then, going to a drive-in was about more than just watching a movie.

Hollingshead’s theater only operated for three years, but the concept caught on elsewhere. Drive-ins' popularity spiked in the late '50s and early '60s, especially in rural areas.

“Going to the drive-in is about the experience. … It was not about the movie,” filmmaker April Wright told USA Today after completing a documentary about the rise and fall of drive-ins.

Parents jumped on board because they could shuttle the family, and teens loved the idea because it was ideal for dates. And some drive-in owners tried to appease both audiences, showing both family-friendly entertainment and B films—which grew more trashy with time.

At the height of the outdoor concept, 4000 drive-ins were being operated. Over the years, though, the numbers have waned. This year, the number sits at 357. Only 1.5 percent of movie theaters are drive-ins; at the height of their popularity, drive-ins comprised 25 percent of all theaters.

Courtesy of Flickr user Chuck Wilson

In the '70s, the fad started to decline, largely because of the gas crisis and the increasing value of real estate. Eventually cable TV, at-home movies, malls, and even bucket seats in cars took their toll.

But one good sign about the future? Drive-in owners today who have made the switch to digital projection are obviously in for the long haul, making a commitment to stick around “for 20 or 30 years,” Wright said.

Playing on the nostalgia of the 80th anniversary, Instagram launched a special page to feature its users’ drive-in experiences.

Sources: Parade, USAToday, Wikipedia.

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Man Buys Two Metric Tons of LEGO Bricks; Sorts Them Via Machine Learning
May 21, 2017
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Jacques Mattheij made a small, but awesome, mistake. He went on eBay one evening and bid on a bunch of bulk LEGO brick auctions, then went to sleep. Upon waking, he discovered that he was the high bidder on many, and was now the proud owner of two tons of LEGO bricks. (This is about 4400 pounds.) He wrote, "[L]esson 1: if you win almost all bids you are bidding too high."

Mattheij had noticed that bulk, unsorted bricks sell for something like €10/kilogram, whereas sets are roughly €40/kg and rare parts go for up to €100/kg. Much of the value of the bricks is in their sorting. If he could reduce the entropy of these bins of unsorted bricks, he could make a tidy profit. While many people do this work by hand, the problem is enormous—just the kind of challenge for a computer. Mattheij writes:

There are 38000+ shapes and there are 100+ possible shades of color (you can roughly tell how old someone is by asking them what lego colors they remember from their youth).

In the following months, Mattheij built a proof-of-concept sorting system using, of course, LEGO. He broke the problem down into a series of sub-problems (including "feeding LEGO reliably from a hopper is surprisingly hard," one of those facts of nature that will stymie even the best system design). After tinkering with the prototype at length, he expanded the system to a surprisingly complex system of conveyer belts (powered by a home treadmill), various pieces of cabinetry, and "copious quantities of crazy glue."

Here's a video showing the current system running at low speed:

The key part of the system was running the bricks past a camera paired with a computer running a neural net-based image classifier. That allows the computer (when sufficiently trained on brick images) to recognize bricks and thus categorize them by color, shape, or other parameters. Remember that as bricks pass by, they can be in any orientation, can be dirty, can even be stuck to other pieces. So having a flexible software system is key to recognizing—in a fraction of a second—what a given brick is, in order to sort it out. When a match is found, a jet of compressed air pops the piece off the conveyer belt and into a waiting bin.

After much experimentation, Mattheij rewrote the software (several times in fact) to accomplish a variety of basic tasks. At its core, the system takes images from a webcam and feeds them to a neural network to do the classification. Of course, the neural net needs to be "trained" by showing it lots of images, and telling it what those images represent. Mattheij's breakthrough was allowing the machine to effectively train itself, with guidance: Running pieces through allows the system to take its own photos, make a guess, and build on that guess. As long as Mattheij corrects the incorrect guesses, he ends up with a decent (and self-reinforcing) corpus of training data. As the machine continues running, it can rack up more training, allowing it to recognize a broad variety of pieces on the fly.

Here's another video, focusing on how the pieces move on conveyer belts (running at slow speed so puny humans can follow). You can also see the air jets in action:

In an email interview, Mattheij told Mental Floss that the system currently sorts LEGO bricks into more than 50 categories. It can also be run in a color-sorting mode to bin the parts across 12 color groups. (Thus at present you'd likely do a two-pass sort on the bricks: once for shape, then a separate pass for color.) He continues to refine the system, with a focus on making its recognition abilities faster. At some point down the line, he plans to make the software portion open source. You're on your own as far as building conveyer belts, bins, and so forth.

Check out Mattheij's writeup in two parts for more information. It starts with an overview of the story, followed up with a deep dive on the software. He's also tweeting about the project (among other things). And if you look around a bit, you'll find bulk LEGO brick auctions online—it's definitely a thing!

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Scientists Think They Know How Whales Got So Big
May 24, 2017
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It can be difficult to understand how enormous the blue whale—the largest animal to ever exist—really is. The mammal can measure up to 105 feet long, have a tongue that can weigh as much as an elephant, and have a massive, golf cart–sized heart powering a 200-ton frame. But while the blue whale might currently be the Andre the Giant of the sea, it wasn’t always so imposing.

For the majority of the 30 million years that baleen whales (the blue whale is one) have occupied the Earth, the mammals usually topped off at roughly 30 feet in length. It wasn’t until about 3 million years ago that the clade of whales experienced an evolutionary growth spurt, tripling in size. And scientists haven’t had any concrete idea why, Wired reports.

A study published in the journal Proceedings of the Royal Society B might help change that. Researchers examined fossil records and studied phylogenetic models (evolutionary relationships) among baleen whales, and found some evidence that climate change may have been the catalyst for turning the large animals into behemoths.

As the ice ages wore on and oceans were receiving nutrient-rich runoff, the whales encountered an increasing number of krill—the small, shrimp-like creatures that provided a food source—resulting from upwelling waters. The more they ate, the more they grew, and their bodies adapted over time. Their mouths grew larger and their fat stores increased, helping them to fuel longer migrations to additional food-enriched areas. Today blue whales eat up to four tons of krill every day.

If climate change set the ancestors of the blue whale on the path to its enormous size today, the study invites the question of what it might do to them in the future. Changes in ocean currents or temperature could alter the amount of available nutrients to whales, cutting off their food supply. With demand for whale oil in the 1900s having already dented their numbers, scientists are hoping that further shifts in their oceanic ecosystem won’t relegate them to history.

[h/t Wired]

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