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Flickr user Langston Creative
Flickr user Langston Creative

10 Fun Firefly Facts

Flickr user Langston Creative
Flickr user Langston Creative

No summer evening is complete without watching—and sometimes catching—fireflies. There are about 2000 different species of lightning bugs, and there's still a lot that scientists don't know about them. Here are a few things we do know.

1. They’re actually not flies—they’re beetles.

Courtesy of Flickr user Wesley Fleming

Up close, it's easier to see that fireflies are beetles. And like all other beetles, they have hardened forewings. Fireflies use the forewings—also called elytra—for balance while in flight.

2. A firefly's glow is a chemical reaction—which makes them bioluminescent.

According to LiveScience, the light is produced when oxygen is mixed with a pigment called luciferin, an enzyme called luciferase, and a chemical that provides cells with energy called adenosine triphosphate. The final part of the formula is uric acid crystals, which are located in the cells that make the light and shine the light away from the firefly's body. (The light-emitting part of the firefly is called a photic organ, by the way.)

3. Males focus on finding a mate.

At the nucleus of their night flights, the brightness of their glow, and their flashing patterns is one thing: reproduction. These guys are intent on mating. Typically, the females sit immobile, and only flash back when they see a male with a particularly impressive display.

4. Each species has its own flash pattern.

As males fly through the air searching for a mate, each uses a "flash fingerprint" specific to its species. According to the American Museum of Natural History,

Males fly through the air and search for females with a species-specific light display. Some flash only once. Some emit “flash trains” of up to nine carefully timed pulses. Others fly in specific aerial patterns, briefly dipping before sharply ascending and forming a “J” of light. A few even shake their abdomens from side to side and appear to be twinkling.

Scientists can use these patterns to determine how many species are in an area.

5. Some sync up.

Called "simultaneous bioluminescence" by scientists, the phenomenon of fireflies flashing in unison only happens in two places in the world: southeast Asia and the Great Smoky Mountains National Park in Tennessee.

6. Flashing fireflies almost don’t exist west of the Rocky Mountains.

There are a few rare exceptions, but for the most part, flashing fireflies don't live west of the Rockies. Why? Well, no one is really sure. Whereas flashing fireflies communicate with their flickers, non-flashing ones use phermones to stay in touch with one another.

7. They can be poisonous.

Not only do fireflies taste nasty, they can actually kill. When predators attack, fireflies kick in to a process called "reflex bleeding." They shed drops of blood that contain bitter-tasting chemicals that are poisonous to vertebrates, including lizards and sometimes birds. They're not so great for humans, either: When scientist Marc Branham with the American Museum of Natural History gently put a firefly he'd caught in a net between his lips (his hands were full with a jar), “Both lips went numb. Then my throat constricted. They really taste sort of astringent. I quickly put them into my jar and I haven’t done that since.”

8. In much of Europe, female fireflies don’t actually fly.

European female fireflies remain flightless into adulthood and take on the form of a worm that glows rather than flashes.

9. Female fireflies can be cannibalistic.

In general, fireflies don't feed, but when they do, they tend to eat mites or pollen. However, the femme fatales of the genus Photuris like the taste of their own. Using "aggressive mimicry," the female of this particular subfamily waits for a male firefly to flash, then imitates that male's flash pattern, suggesting that she is a receptive mate. After luring him in, she chows down.

10. And the larvae aren't a picnic, either.

These glowing worms will follow the slime trails of snails and slugs, paralyze them with a bite, and chow down.

Sources: National GeographicAbout, Firefly, LiveScience, and American Museum of Natural History ( target="_blank">2), Animal New York

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Martin Wittfooth
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Art
The Cat Art Show Is Coming Back to Los Angeles in June
Martin Wittfooth
Martin Wittfooth

After dazzling cat and art lovers alike in 2014 and again in 2016, the Cat Art Show is ready to land in Los Angeles for a third time. The June exhibition, dubbed Cat Art Show 3: The Sequel Returns Again, will feature feline-centric works from such artists as Mark Ryden, Ellen von Unwerth, and Marion Peck.

Like past shows, this one will explore cats through a variety of themes and media. “The enigmatic feline has been a source of artistic inspiration for thousands of years,” the show's creator and curator Susan Michals said in a press release. “One moment they can be a best friend, the next, an antagonist. They are the perfect subject matter, and works of art, all by themselves.”

While some artists have chosen straightforward interpretations of the starring subject, others are using cats as a springboard into topics like gender, politics, and social media. The sculpture, paintings, and photographs on display will be available to purchase, with prices ranging from $300 to $150,000.

Over 9000 visitors are expected to stop into the Think Tank Gallery in Los Angeles during the show's run from June 14 to June 24. Tickets to the show normally cost $5, with a portion of the proceeds benefiting a cat charity, and admission will be free for everyone on Wednesday, June 20. Check out a few of the works below.

Man in Garfield mask holding cat.
Tiffany Sage

Painting of kitten.
Brandi Milne

Art work of cat in tree.
Kathy Taselitz

Painting of white cat.
Rose Freymuth-Frazier

A cat with no eyes.
Rich Hardcastle

Painting of a cat on a stool.
Vanessa Stockard

Sculpture of pink cat.
Scott Hove

Painting of cat.
Yael Hoenig
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Tony Karumba, AFP/Getty Images
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Animals
How a Pregnant Rhino Named Victoria Could Save an Entire Subspecies
Sudan, the last male member of the northern white rhino subspecies, while being shipped to Kenya in 2009
Sudan, the last male member of the northern white rhino subspecies, while being shipped to Kenya in 2009
Tony Karumba, AFP/Getty Images

The last male northern white rhino died at a conservancy in Kenya earlier this year, prompting fears that the subspecies was finally done for after decades of heavy poaching. Scientists say there's still hope, though, and they're banking on a pregnant rhino named Victoria at the San Diego Zoo, according to the Associated Press.

Victoria is actually a southern white rhino, but the two subspecies are related. Only two northern white rhinos survive, but neither of the females in Kenya are able to reproduce. Victoria was successfully impregnated through artificial insemination, and if she successfully carries her calf to term in 16 to 18 months, scientists say she might be able to serve as a surrogate mother and propagate the northern white rhino species.

But how would that work if no male northern rhinos survive? As the AP explains, scientists are working to recreate northern white rhino embryos using genetic technology. The San Diego Zoo Institute for Conservation Research has the frozen cell lines of 12 different northern white rhinos, which can be transformed into stem cells—and ultimately, sperm and eggs. The sperm of the last northern white male rhino, Sudan, was also saved before he died.

Scientists have been monitoring six female southern white rhinos at the San Diego Zoo to see if any emerge as likely candidates for surrogacy. However, it's not easy to artificially inseminate a rhino, and there have been few successful births in the past. There's still a fighting chance, though, and scientists ultimately hope they'll be able to build up a herd of five to 15 northern white rhinos over the next few decades.

[h/t Time Magazine]

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