CLOSE
NYC Dot Flickr
NYC Dot Flickr

Why Are Road Partitions Called Jersey Barriers?

NYC Dot Flickr
NYC Dot Flickr

Most people take the partitions that divide the traffic on U.S. highways for granted. But these seemingly simple barriers are actually deceptively sophisticated: Their designs have been well-tested and tweaked to ensure driver safety on both sides of the road in the event of a crash. The most common name for these ubiquitous concrete slabs is “Jersey Barriers”—but why?

Concrete road barriers were first used in California in 1946; they replaced the standard (but weak) wood beam guardrails on the treacherous Grapevine section of the state’s Ridge Route highway—the home of the original “Dead Man’s Curve”—where the roads had a 6 percent downgrade that led to many head-on collisions. Then, in 1949, the state of New Jersey adopted comparable concrete structures and installed preventative parabolic median barriers on the Jugtown Mountain section of US Route 22 in Hunterdon County, which had a similarly hazardous downgrade to the Ridge Route highway.

These original barriers measured 19 inches high and 30 inches wide, with 2 inches buried in the road to provide stability. Each was anchored to the roadbed by steel dowels and consisted of a 2-inch thick outer layer of white concrete to make it more visible at night. Though the initial barriers were somewhat successful in reducing the impact of collisions, New Jersey state highway engineers continued to tinker with the design, creating progressively larger prototypes based on amounts of observed accidents (as opposed to performing controlled crash testing). Eventually, in 1959, they settled on a standard barrier height of 32 full inches above the pavement with a 24-inch-wide base. The base is 3 inches high and is followed by a 13-inch side slope before the barrier becomes vertical. These barriers would be implemented in various states, but would bear the name of the state in which they were developed.

Jersey Barriers are designed to redirect a crash, using the car’s momentum to absorb the impact and slide the vehicle up parallel along the side of the barrier to prevent a rollover. In high-speed crashes with small cars along Jersey Barriers, however, there is a greater likelihood that the car will roll over, so an alternate barrier was created. According to the Federal Highway Administration, the F-Shape barrier has the same 3-inch-high base, but features a side that slopes 10 inches above the pavement—three inches less than the side slope of the Jersey Barrier—and is thus able to better absorb proportional impacts from smaller chassis to prevent a rollover. Though the F-Shape is generally preferred, the use of Jersey Barriers—as well as other barrier designs, including constant slope, single slope, and vertical—are still acceptable, because they adequately pass crash tests administered by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Additional Source: Federal Highway Adminstration [PDF]; primary image courtesy of NYC Dot Flickr.

nextArticle.image_alt|e
Jack Taylor, Getty Images
arrow
Big Questions
How Are Royal Babies Named?
Jack Taylor, Getty Images
Jack Taylor, Getty Images

After much anticipation, England's royal family has finally received a tiny new addition. The birth of the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge's second son was confirmed by Kensington Palace on April 23, but the name of the royal newborn has yet to be announced. For the heir to the British throne and his wife, choosing a name for their third child—who is already fifth in line to the throne—likely won't be as easy as flipping through a baby name book; it's tradition for royals to select names that honor important figures from British history.

According to ABC WJLA, selecting three or four names is typical when naming a royal baby. Will and Kate followed this unwritten rule when naming their first child, George Alexander Louis, and their second, Charlotte Elizabeth Diana. Each name is an opportunity to pay homage to a different British royal who came before them. Some royal monikers have less savory connotations (Prince Harry's given name, Henry, is reminiscent of a certain wife-beheading monarch), but typically royal babies are named for people who held a significant and honorable spot in the family tree.

Because there's a limited pool of honorable monarchs from which to choose, placing bets on the royal baby name as the due date approaches has become a popular British pastime. One name that keeps cropping up this time around is James; the original King James ruled in the early 17th century, and it has been 330 years since a monarch named James wore the crown.

If the royal family does go with James for the first name of their youngest son, that still leaves at least a couple of slots to be filled. So far, the couple has stuck with three names each for their children, but there doesn't seem to be a limit; Edward VIII, who abdicated the throne to George VI in 1936, shouldered the full name of Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David.

Have you got a Big Question you'd like us to answer? If so, let us know by emailing us at bigquestions@mentalfloss.com.

nextArticle.image_alt|e
CHRIS JACKSON, AFP/Getty Images
arrow
Big Questions
Why Does the Queen Have Two Birthdays?
CHRIS JACKSON, AFP/Getty Images
CHRIS JACKSON, AFP/Getty Images

On April 21, Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II will turn 92 years old. To mark the occasion, there are usually a series of gun salutes around London: a 41 gun salute in Hyde Park, a 21 gun salute in Windsor Great Park, and a 62 gun salute at the Tower of London. For the most part, the monarch celebrates her big day privately. But on June 9, 2018, Her Majesty will parade through London as part of an opulent birthday celebration known as Trooping the Colour.

Queen Elizabeth, like many British monarchs before her, has two birthdays: the actual anniversary of the day she was born, and a separate day that is labeled her "official" birthday (usually the second Saturday in June). Why? Because April 21 is usually too cold for a proper parade.

The tradition started in 1748, with King George II, who had the misfortune of being born in chilly November. Rather than have his subjects risk catching colds, he combined his birthday celebration with the Trooping the Colour.

The parade itself had been part of British culture for almost a century by that time. At first it was strictly a military event, at which regiments displayed their flags—or "colours"—so that soldiers could familiarize themselves. But George was known as a formidable general after having led troops at the Battle of Dettingen in 1743, so the military celebration seemed a fitting occasion onto which to graft his warm-weather birthday. Edward VII, who also had a November birthday, was the first to standardize the June Trooping the Colour and launched a tradition of a monarchical review of the troops that drew crowds of onlookers.

Even now, the date of the "official" birthday varies year to year. For the first seven years of her reign, Elizabeth II held her official birthday on a Thursday but has since switched over to Saturdays. And while the date is tied to the Trooping the Colour in the UK, Commonwealth nations around the world have their own criteria, which generally involve recognizing it as a public holiday.

Australia started recognizing an official birthday back in 1788, and all the provinces (save one) observe the Queen's Birthday on the second Monday in June, with Western Australia holding its celebrations on the last Monday of September or the first Monday of October.

In Canada, the official birthday has been set to align with the actual birth date of Queen Victoria—May 24, 1819—since 1845, and as such they celebrate so-called Victoria Day on May 24 or the Monday before.

In New Zealand, it's the first Monday in June, and in the Falkland Islands the actual day of the Queen's birth is celebrated publicly.

All in all, just another reason it's great to be Queen.

Have you got a Big Question you'd like us to answer? If so, let us know by emailing us at bigquestions@mentalfloss.com.

SECTIONS

arrow
LIVE SMARTER
More from mental floss studios