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5 Abandoned Stations of the London Underground

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London’s Underground subway network is celebrating its 150th year of operation this year, but as with any old institution there are a few skeletons in its closet. Despite the Underground map drawn up by electrical draughtsman Harry Beck being a (relatively) cogent series of equally-spaced stations, the reality of the rail system is somewhat more chaotic.

Beck’s 1933 map, a version of which is still used today, is highly stylised, taking elements of the electrical circuit drawings that he was confronted with in his day-to-day work and presenting it in a tidy, easily understandable package. But the development of the Underground network was not so neat, with different companies operating competing lines in a land grabbing free-for-all for many of the network’s first decades. They criss-crossed each other deep under the streets of London, with some areas overserved by stations while other areas of the UK capital went begging for a train line.

All this chaos—and the Underground’s sheer age—has led to a series of stations being abandoned to history. Some were abandoned before they opened, and remain ghosts on the line, overlooked and inaccessible to all but the most committed urban explorer.

1. Down Street – the wartime bunker

The two-platform Down Street station was part of the Piccadilly Line almost from that route’s inception in 1907. The company that initially commissioned the station had neglected to consider that the residents of the surrounding area, London’s posh Mayfair district, were a little too rich to slum it on the downmarket Underground. (People have become less snooty since then.) According to J. E. Connor's book, London's Disused Underground Stations, Down Street struggled on for a quarter century before it was closed in 1932, though it was not demolished. That came in handy seven years later when war broke out. Waiting for his Cabinet War Rooms to be built in Westminster, Prime Minister Winston Churchill used the reinforced safety of Down Street station as an underground refuge from World War II. 

2. British Museum – too much competition

A perfect example of the problem of a plurality of service providers on the Underground is British Museum station, now in its 80th year of disuse. The station was opened by Central London Railway in 1900. Six years later, a competing provider opened Holborn station less than 100 yards away. The young whippersnapper proved more popular than the older station, and with the ax looming for 20 years or more, once Holborn station was given a sprucing up in the early 1930s (including modern escalators to ground level instead of clunking elevators), British Museum shut up shop.

3. North End/Bull & Bush – the one that never opened

In 1903, the then-operators of what is now the Northern Underground line applied to open a station variously called North End and Bull & Bush. It was to be an engineering marvel, the deepest station below the surface on the Underground network. Tunnels were dug and the station was whittled out of the subsurface rock, ready for tiling and the final touches that make an Underground station useable. Yet it was never completed, and until the 1950s there was no way to access it from the surface. Potential passenger numbers were judged too low to risk the investment of finishing up the station, and so it never opened to the public.

4. Aldwych/Strand – the cultural hub

In 1994, Aldwych station, originally opened as Strand, shut forever. The station had been operating at high-traffic times only for three decades, but it was still a sad sight for the 450 people who used the station daily. It was also a sad occasion for culture vultures, who had Aldwych/Strand to thank for the survival of many pieces of precious art. London’s art galleries and museums used the station’s tunnels as a safe haven for priceless artifacts during both World Wars. Its cultural heritage lives on, though: Now disused but modern enough to pass for a present-day station, it has become a set for movies and TV shows.

5. York Road – the one that could come back

York Road was never the busiest Underground station. Being just a stone’s throw away from Kings Cross, the main terminus for the national rail network as well as the Underground, was always going to stunt its growth. It lasted 25 years from its opening in 1906 (albeit without Sunday service for more than half its existence), but has been closed for the best part of 80 years. It keeps threatening to come back to life, however. Transport for London (TfL), the company that runs the Underground, studied in 2005 whether York Road could reopen to alleviate strain on the system. It was too expensive then—but hope remains that York Road’s overhead lines could power up once more.

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13 Fantastic Museums You Can Visit for Free on Saturday
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On Saturday, September 23, museums and cultural institutions across the United States will open their doors to the public for free, as part of Smithsonian magazine’s annual Museum Day Live! event. Hundreds of museums are set to participate, ranging from world-famous institutions in major cities to tiny, local museums in small towns. While the full list of museums can be viewed, and tickets can be reserved, on the Smithsonian website, we’ve collected a small selection of the fantastic museums you can visit for free this Saturday.

1. NEWSEUM // WASHINGTON, D.C.

The Newseum in Washington, D.C. is an entire museum dedicated to the First Amendment. Celebrating freedom of religion, speech, press, assembly and petition, the museum features exhibits on civil rights, the Berlin Wall, and the history of news media in America. Their latest special exhibitions take a look back at the event of September 11, 2001 and go inside the FBI's crime-fighting tactics.

2. INTREPID SEA, AIR & SPACE MUSEUM // NEW YORK CITY, NEW YORK

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New York's Intrepid Sea, Air & Space Museum doesn’t just showcase America’s military and maritime history—it is a piece of that history. The museum itself is one of the Essex-class aircraft carriers built by the United States Navy during World War II. Visitors can explore its massive deck and interior, and view historic airplanes, a real World War II submarine, and a range of interactive exhibits. Normally, a ticket will set you back a whopping $33 (or $19 for New York City residents), but on Saturday, general admission is free with a Museum Day Live! ticket.

3. AUTRY MUSEUM OF THE AMERICAN WEST // LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA

Perfect for art lovers, history buffs, and cinephiles alike, the Autry Museum of the American West (named for legendary singing cowboy Gene Autry) offers up an eclectic mix of art, historical artifacts from the real American West, and Western film memorabilia and props.

4. MUSEUM OF ARTS AND SCIENCES // DAYTONA BEACH, FLORIDA

A massive art, science, and history museum located on a 90-acre nature preserve, the Museum of Arts and Sciences features the largest collection of Florida art anywhere in the world, as well as the largest collection of Coca-Cola memorabilia in all of Florida. Its diverse exhibits are alternately awe-inspiring, informative, and quirky, ranging from an exploration of 2000 years of sculpture art to an exhibition of 19th and 20th century advertising posters.

5. INTERNATIONAL MUSEUM OF THE HORSE AT THE KENTUCKY HORSE PARK // LEXINGTON, KENTUCKY

The International Museum of the Horse explores the history of—you guessed it!—the horse. That might sound like a narrow scope, but the museum doesn’t just display horse racing artifacts or teach you about modern horse breeds. Instead, it endeavors to tackle the 50-million-year evolution of the horse and its relationship with humans from ancient times to modern times.

6. THE PEGGY NOTEBAERT NATURE MUSEUM // CHICAGO, ILLINOIS

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The 160-year-old Peggy Notebaert Nature Museum is pulling out all the stops for this year’s Museum Day Live! In addition to their vast exhibits of animal specimens and cultural artifacts, the museum will be hosting a live animal feeding and a butterfly release throughout the day.

7. OGDEN MUSEUM OF SOUTHERN ART // NEW ORLEANS, LOUISIANA

The Ogden Museum of Southern Art aims to teach visitors about the rich culture and diverse visual arts of the American South. Right now, visitors can view a collection of William Eggleston's photographs and check out the museum's 10th annual invitational exhibition of ceramic teacups and teapots.

8. BALTIMORE MUSEUM OF INDUSTRY // BALTIMORE, MARYLAND

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Located in a 19th century oyster cannery on the Baltimore waterfront, the Baltimore Museum of Industry tells the story of American manufacturing from garment making to video game design. Visitors this weekend can meet video game designers and create custom games at the museum’s interactive “Video Game Wizards” exhibit.

9. SYLVAN HEIGHTS BIRD PARK // SCOTLAND NECK, NORTH CAROLINA

You can meet 2000 birds from around the world this weekend at the 18-acre Sylvan Heights Bird Park. Visitors to the massive garden can walk through aviaries displaying birds from every continent except Antarctica, including ducks, geese, swans, and exotic birds from all over the world.

10. DELTA BLUES MUSEUM // CLARKSDALE, MISSISSIPPI

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Visitors to the Delta Blues Museum can learn about the unique American musical art form in “the land where blues began,” with audiovisual exhibits centered on blues and rock legend Don Nix, as well as Paramount Records illustrator Anthony Mostrom.

11. NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NUCLEAR SCIENCE & HISTORY // ALBUQUERQUE, NEW MEXICO

America’s only congressionally chartered museum dedicated to the story of the Atomic Age, the National Museum of Nuclear Science & History features exhibits on everything from nuclear medicine to representations of atomic power in pop culture. Adult visitors to the museum will delight in its impressively nuanced take on nuclear technology, while kids will love the museum’s outdoor airplane exhibit and hands-on science activities at Little Albert’s Lab.

12. MUSEUM OF THE MOUNTAIN MAN // PINEDALE, WYOMING

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Dedicated to the mountain men who explored and settled Wyoming in the 19th century, the Museum of the Mountain Man brings American folklore and legends to life. The museum features exhibits on the Rocky Mountain fur trade and tells the story of American folk legend and famed mountain man Hugh Glass (the man Leonardo DiCaprio won an Oscar playing in 2015's The Revenant).

13. BESH BA GOWAH ARCHAEOLOGICAL PARK AND MUSEUM // GLOBE, ARIZONA

Arizona’s Besh Ba Gowah Archaeological Park and Museum lets visitors connect with history firsthand. The museum is home to the ruins and artifacts of the Salado Indians who inhabited Arizona from the 13th century through the 15th century, and even lets visitors wander through an 800-year-old Salado pueblo.

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‘American Gothic’ Became Famous Because Many People Saw It as a Joke
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In 1930, Iowan artist Grant Wood painted a simple portrait of a farmer and his wife (really his dentist and sister) standing solemnly in front of an all-American farmhouse. American Gothic has since inspired endless parodies and is regarded as one of the country’s most iconic works of art. But when it first came out, few people would have guessed it would become the classic it is today. Vox explains the painting’s unexpected path to fame in the latest installment of the new video series Overrated.

According to host Phil Edwards, American Gothic made a muted splash when it first hit the art scene. The work was awarded a third-place bronze medal in a contest at the Chicago Art Institute. When Wood sold the painting to the museum later on, he received just $300 for it. But the piece’s momentum didn’t stop there. It turned out that American Gothic’s debut at a time when urban and rural ideals were clashing helped it become the defining image of the era. The painting had something for everyone: Metropolitans like Gertrude Stein saw it as a satire of simple farm life in Middle America. Actual farmers and their families, on the other hand, welcomed it as celebration of their lifestyle and work ethic at a time when the Great Depression made it hard to take pride in anything.

Wood didn’t do much to clear up the work’s true meaning. He stated, "There is satire in it, but only as there is satire in any realistic statement. These are types of people I have known all my life. I tried to characterize them truthfully—to make them more like themselves than they were in actual life."

Rather than suffering from its ambiguity, American Gothic has been immortalized by it. The country has changed a lot in the past century, but the painting’s dual roles as a straight masterpiece and a format for skewering American culture still endure today.

Get the full story from Vox below.

[h/t Vox]

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