The Mental Floss Guide to the November Night Sky

November is a great month for skywatching with two dazzling meteor showers, the rare view of a tiny planet, and an eerie celestial meeting of two bright worlds. None require telescopes or sophisticated knowledge of the sky above. If you have eyes, live on Earth, and want a good dose of the cosmos, you're in for a treat. Here are a few highlights that skywatchers should be on the lookout for.

NOVEMBER 4: FIREBALL SEASON BEGINS

The Taurid meteor shower dominates the early part of November, with the northern and southern hemispheres each getting their own shows. The South Taurids peak after midnight on November 4. The North Taurids peak at the same time, but on different days: the 10th going into the 11th. The source of the Taurids is the debris field of the comet Encke. The meteor stream is massive and spread out, with the gravitational influence of Jupiter, most notably, causing a split and thus the dual peaks.

Meteors, though appearing to be massive chunks of rock coursing toward Earth, are generally dust- or sand-sized particles that burn brightly as they slam into the atmosphere. The Taurids tend to be a bit larger than most, frequently producing what are called "fireballs" (really bright meteors). While you won't see many Taurid meteors per hour (around seven or so at best), what the shower lacks in quantity it makes up for in quality. If you have low levels of light pollution and your eyes are adjusted to darkness, you should be in for quite a show.

NOVEMBER 13: THE JV TEAM DEBUTS

On November 13, Venus and Jupiter will appear alarmingly close in the pre-dawn sky, practically as a single object, separated by a mere 0.3 degrees. But don't worry, the planets aren't colliding. Rather, it's a trick of perspective. Venus is about the size of Earth (it is, in many ways, our evil twin), and is one planet closer to the Sun than Earth in its orbit. It is a stunning, unblinking dot in the sky. Jupiter, meanwhile, is about five times farther from the Sun than is the Earth, but what it lacks in distance, it makes up for in size: you could fit about 1300 Earths inside of it. What makes their conjunction so fun is that you don't have to know much about space or astronomy to see the magic of orbital mechanics. How to see it: One hour before sunrise, look east. The two bright, eerily adjacent worlds will appear on the horizon. As the sun rises over the next hour, it will wash them out, so have coffee with you and enjoy the moment.

NOVEMBER 17: THE BEST METEOR SHOWER OF THE YEAR PEAKS

After midnight on November 17, the Leonids meteor shower will peak, and here is why you need to see it. 1. It coincides with a new moon, which means there will be no moonlight to wash out the sky. 2. This shower has a history of delivering the goods, some years bringing as many as 1000 meteors per minute. Note: This is not one of those years! Expect between 10 and 20 per hour, which still isn't bad when the sky is inky black, a celestial canvas waiting for brushes of light. (Incidentally, while the Taurid meteors collide with Earth's atmosphere at a snail's pace—a mere 65,000 miles per hour—the Leonids do not play around. They're smashing into us at a blistering 160,000 miles per hour.) 3. The 17th is a Friday and you can sleep late the next morning, so what are you going to do: Binge-watch somebody else's adventure on Netflix, or go live your own?

NOVEMBER 24: MERCURY SHINES AT ITS BIGGEST AND BRIGHTEST

Mercury will reach greatest eastern elongation, meaning it will be as far from the Sun as it can get for the rest of the year, relative to the Earth, and will thus be as big and bright as it's going to get in the sky. If you want to see the elusive little planet, this is your big chance. Just before sunset, look west. You will most easily see Saturn not too far above the horizon. As the minutes move forward and the sky slowly darkens, you'll notice another bright spot below Saturn. That's Mercury. Enjoy it while you can, because you'll only have about 30 minutes from its first appearance before it sinks below the horizon and thus falls out of view.

If bad weather ruins any of your November viewings, do not fret. Next month we've got meteor showers, pagan rituals, and supermoons to help bid 2017 adieu.

The Northern Lights May be Visible in New York, Michigan, and Illinois on Saturday

iStock.com/den-belitsky
iStock.com/den-belitsky

The Northern Lights, a meteorological event most common to areas north of the Arctic Circle, may be visible over parts of America this weekend, Newsweek reports. Due to a solar storm, the light show may appear Saturday night over states in the northern part of the contiguous U.S., including New York, Michigan, Illinois, and Washington state.

Aurora borealis, or the Northern Lights, occur when solar particles react to gases in Earth's atmosphere. Magnetic energy exaggerates this effect, which is why auroras most often appear at the geomagnetic poles where Earth's magnetic field is strongest. Rare circumstances can produce this phenomenon at lower latitudes, which may be the case this weekend.

On Wednesday, March 20, a solar flare sent a blast of solar particles toward Earth. The resulting geomagnetic storm could make for a vibrant and colorful aurora reaching as far south as New York and Wisconsin.

To catch the spectacle, look up at the night sky on Saturday, March 23. People in areas with minimal light pollution have the best chance of seeing the Northern Lights, though cloudy weather may make them hard to see.

[h/t Newsweek]

5 Fast Facts About the Spring Equinox

iStock.com/AHPhotoswpg
iStock.com/AHPhotoswpg

The northern hemisphere has officially survived a long winter of Arctic temperatures, bomb cyclones, and ice tsunamis. Spring starts March 20, which means warmer weather and longer days are around the corner. To celebrate the spring equinox, hear are some facts about the event.

1. The spring equinox arrives at 5:58 p.m.

The first day of spring is today, but the spring equinox will only be here for a brief time. At 5:58 p.m. Eastern Time, the Sun will be perfectly in line with the equator, which results in both the northern and southern hemispheres receiving equal amounts of sunlight throughout the day. After the vernal equinox has passed, days will start to become shorter for the Southern Hemisphere and longer up north.

2. The Equinox isn't the only time you can balance an egg.

You may have heard the myth that you can balance on egg on its end during the vernal equinox, and you may have even tried the experiment in school. The idea is that the extra gravitational pull from the Sun when it's over the equator helps the egg stand up straight. While it is possible to balance an egg, the trick has nothing to do with the equinox: You can make an egg stand on its end by setting it on a rough surface any day of the year.

3. Not every place gets equal night and day.

The equal night and day split between the northern and southern hemispheres isn't distributed evenly across all parts of the world. Though every region gets approximately 12 hours of sunlight the day of the vernal equinox, some places get a little more (the day is 12 hours and 15 minute in Fairbanks, Alaska), and some get less (it's 12 hours and 6 minutes in Miami).

4. The name means Equal Night.

The word equinox literally translates to equal ("equi") and night ("nox") in Latin. The term vernal means "new and fresh," and comes from the Latin word vernus for "of spring."

5. The 2019 spring equinox coincides with a supermoon.

On March 20, the day the Sun lines up with equator, the Moon will reach the closest point to Earth in its orbit. The Moon will also be full, making it the third supermoon of 2019. A full moon last coincided with the first day of spring on March 20, 1981, and it the two events won't occur within 24 hours of each other again until 2030.

SECTIONS

arrow
LIVE SMARTER