Want to Improve Your Foreign-Language Skills? Grab a Beer.

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iStock

If you're in the midst of learning a new language, speaking can be the hardest part. Conjugating verbs and thinking up vocabulary on the fly isn't easy, even if you've been studying a foreign language for a while. A new study suggests that a little Dutch courage can go a long way when it comes to speaking in a new language, though, as Time reports.

The new research from Maastricht University in the Netherlands, published in the Journal of Psychopharmacology, asked 50 German-speaking students who recently passed the university's Dutch-as-a-second-language exam to get their drink on in the lab to see if they would be better or worse at speaking once they were drunk.

Part of the key to speaking a foreign language has to do with the brain's inhibitory control abilities. To speak a second language, your brain has to filter out the words you would use in your first language. Since drinking lowers your inhibitory control, it would stand to reason that booze would make your language skills worse rather than better.

For the study, some of the participants were given Smirnoff vodka and bitter lemon to drink, while others drank water. They then were breathalyzed to see if they had reached a certain blood alcohol level (around 0.4 percent, or about half of the legal limit for driving in the U.S.) and asked to talk about animal testing with a Dutch experimenter for two minutes. The conversation was recorded, then played back for two native Dutch speakers who graded the speakers on their speaking skills. The participants self-rated their speaking performance at the end of their speech, as well as taking a self-esteem test before and after. And to make sure their change in skill level was language specific, they also had to do some arithmetic for two minutes.

The students who got tipsy before speaking Dutch fared "significantly better" than the sober students in the eyes of the evaluators, who couldn't tell from the audio who was drunk or not. (They did not get any better or worse at arithmetic, though.)

Drunk people are apt to overestimate their own abilities, but in this study, the improvement wasn't in the participants' heads. In fact, they didn't perceive themselves to be speaking better when asked to self-evaluate. But according to the native Dutch speakers grading them, they were better speakers and had better pronunciation than the sober volunteers.

The researchers suggest that the improvement could be due to reduced anxiety over speaking a foreign language. Previous studies have found that students who are really anxious about speaking a foreign language tend to perform worse than students who aren't as anxious about it, so a little alcohol might loosen you up just enough to let you get past your fears of mispronunciation and botched cases to actually have a conversation.

The alcohol level was so low, though, that it's hard to extrapolate whether the result would be the same if people got more drunk; slurring your words certainly isn't the key to better pronunciation. And the study only tested Germans learning Dutch, so the results might not apply to all languages. Both languages are Germanic, so there are some similarities. It would be interesting to see whether the results would hold up across languages that aren't as closely related, like perhaps Punjabi and English or Chinese and Finnish. However, a 1972 study [PDF] on English speakers' drunken ability to pronounce unfamiliar words in Thai, a language that they had never studied, found that a little bit of booze can have a positive impact on foreign pronunciation, so it's not out of the question.

Notably, this is the first study to look at people's ability to drunkenly bumble through a language they had actually spent time studying. The case for getting a little tipsy with your language tutor just got a little stronger, though.

[h/t Time]

12 Animals Named After the Noises They Make

A bobolink, said to have been named for the call it makes
A bobolink, said to have been named for the call it makes
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If you were asked to name an onomatopoeic word, then you’d probably come up with something like boom, boing, whizz, smash, or tick-tock. They’re all perfectly good examples, of course, but onomatopoeia is actually responsible for a lot more words than you might think. For instance, etymologists believe that pebble might have been coined to imitate the sound of flowing water. Laugh might have been invented to sound like, well, a laugh. Owl, crow, and raven are all descended from Old English words (ule, crawe, hræfn) that were meant to imitate the owl’s hoot and the crow’s and raven’s squawks. And the 12 names listed here are all meant to represent the bizarre whoops, chips, peeps and wows made by the animals they describe.

1. AI

An ai in Venezuela
Fernando Flores, Wikimedia Commons // CC BY-SA 2.0

As well as being a contender for the world’s shortest animal name, ai (which should be pronounced “ah-ee") is another name for a three-toed sloth, especially the pale-throated sloth, found in the far northeast corner of South America. Although sloths are generally fairly docile, the name ai is apparently meant to resemble the high-pitched cry they can make when they’re agitated or alarmed.

2. BOBOLINK

Bobolinks can produce very long and surprisingly complex songs, but their usual go-to noise is a brief four-note call that’s commonly said to sound like someone saying “Bob-o-Lincoln.” The name Bob-o-Lincoln eventually was shortened to bobolink in the 1800s.

3. CHIPMUNK

One theory claims that the name chipmunk is an English interpretation of a native Ojibwe word, ajidamoo, meaning something like “red squirrel.” But because chipmunks were originally known as “chipping squirrels” in English, it seems more likely that the name is actually an English invention, in which case it’s probably meant to describe their short “chipping” call.

4. CHOWCHILLA

A chowchilla
Seabamirum, Flickr // CC BY 2.0

The chowchilla is type of logrunner, a small thrush-like bird, that’s native to Queensland, Australia. For a bird not much larger than a robin, the chowchilla has a particularly noisy call that to early European colonists and explorers apparently sounded like “chow-chilla-chow-chow.” The chowchilla was also once known as the “auctioneer bird,” apparently because (with a bit of imagination) its song sounds like an auctioneer's incessant chattering.

5. CHUCK-WILL’S-WIDOW

A cousin of the better-known whippoorwill, the chuck-will’s-widow is another species of nightjar (a family of nocturnal birds related to swifts and martins) native to the southern United States and much of Central America. Dozens of different species of nightjar are found all over the world, and they all share incredible camouflaged plumage and strange whooping calls—so if the “whippoorwill” makes a noise that sounds like poor Will is about to be whipped, then the “chuck-will’s-widow” makes a sound like poor Will’s widow is about to be chucked.

6. GANG-GANG

A gang-gang cockatoo
iStock.com/JohnCarnemolla

The peculiar croaking noise made by the gang-gang cockatoo of southeast Australia has been likened to everything from a creaking wooden door to a cork being pulled from a wine bottle. However you might want to describe it, the onomatopoeic name gang-gang was adopted into English from a Wiradhuri name that was supposed to imitate it.

7. HOOPOE

Hoopoe bird on a branch
iStock.com/shurub

The hoopoe is a striking-looking songbird whose name is meant to imitate its strange whooping call. Their bizarre appearance has also helped make them the frequent subject of myths and folktales over time: the Ancient Egyptians worshipped them and drew pictures of them inside the pyramids; the Romans believed that they were filthy creatures because they fed on dung and frequently nested in graveyards; and at least one old European legend claims that the younger birds look after the older ones in their old age, restoring their youth by plucking out dying feathers and licking blindness from their eyes.

8. KATYDID

A katydid on a purple flower
iStock.com/blindsquirrelphoto

Katydids make their loud and often three-syllable “ka-ty-did” call by rubbing their forewings together. They hear each other, incidentally, with ears located on their front legs. There are more than 6000 species in the katydid family, found on every continent except Antarctica.

9. MACAQUE

The name macaque was borrowed into English via French in the late 17th century, but it’s thought to originally derive from an old Bantu name, kaku, for any of the numerous monkey species found in West Africa. The name kaku is in turn supposed to be imitative of a monkey call, and it’s from the plural form of kaku—namely makaku in Bantu—that the word macaque eventually evolved.

10. PEEWIT

A type of plover with characteristic green plumage and a long curled crest, the northern lapwing has a number of nicknames in English—including the peewit, the swipe, the peepsweep, the teewhit, and the teeack—every one of which is supposed to emulate its noisy alarm call. The common name lapwing, incidentally, refers to the bird’s tactic of feigning a broken wing in order to distract predators from their nest when they feel threatened.

11. PIET-MY-VROU

Piet-my-vrou is another name for the red-chested cuckoo, a species of cuckoo found across much of sub-Saharan Africa. Cuckoos are well known for their instantly recognizable call, and it’s the loud three-note descending call of the piet-my-vrou (which literally means “Pete my wife” in Afrikaans) that gives it its name.

12. WOW-WOW

A wow-wow, or agile gibbon

Gibbons are famous for their lengthy and surprisingly complex songs, and the whooping or “wowing” call of the wow-wow or wawa—a local Indonesian name for either the agile gibbon or the silvery gibbon—is no exception. Sadly both species are now listed as endangered, due to their localized distribution and on-going habitat destruction.

This story first ran in 2014.

Guess Which Language These Words Likely Originated In

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