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Thanks to NASA, the Search for Habitable Worlds Just Got Easier

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NASA

New NASA research will make it easier to find the planets out there that can support life. Detailed in the The Astrophysical Journal, the new model can simulate atmospheric conditions in a more comprehensive way, taking circulation of the atmosphere and other factors into account.

The search for habitable planets requires detailed modeling. The scope of the universe is simply too vast for scientists to spend time searching planet-by-planet. Instead, they calculate factors that would allow a planet to support liquid water—a requirement to support life as we know it—using simulations. For instance, it has to be just far enough from its parent star that the atmosphere isn't so cold that bodies of water freeze, but not so hot that they evaporate.

When planets are losing their oceans due to evaporation, they enter what's called a "moist greenhouse" state as the water vapor rises into the stratosphere and the hydrogen atoms break apart from the oxygen atoms to escape into space, eventually resulting in the loss of the planet's oceans. The new research details how a star's radiation influences how the atmosphere of an exoplanet circulates and plays a role in creating that moist greenhouse state. 

Planets that orbit a low-mass star—the most common kind of star in our galaxy—would have to be closer to that star than the Earth is to the Sun in order to support life, since a low-mass star is cooler and dimmer. The gravity from such a close star would slow down the rotation of the planet, and it might even become locked, with one side perpetually facing the star and one side perpetually facing away. (It would be as if the Eastern Hemisphere were always light and the Western Hemisphere were always dark.)

In turn, the planet would form a thick layer of clouds on the perpetually sunny side. The near-infrared radiation from the star—and cooler stars emit more of this radiation than hotter ones do—interacts with the water vapor in the air and the droplets and ice crystals in the clouds to warm up the air, creating the moist greenhouse state.

The moist greenhouse state could happen even at temperatures as low as those found in the tropical regions of Earth because of that near-infrared radiation interaction, according to the new model, but the study found that in exoplanets close to their stars, the process happens gradually enough that they could remain habitable. This more nuanced model will help guide scientists in their search for habitable planets near low-mass stars.

"As long as we know the temperature of the star, we can estimate whether planets close to their stars have the potential to be in the moist greenhouse state," study co-author Anthony Del Genio explained in a NASA press release. "Current technology will be pushed to the limit to detect small amounts of water vapor in an exoplanet's atmosphere. If there is enough water to be detected, it probably means that planet is in the moist greenhouse state."

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Space
Now You Can Train to Be an Astronaut on Your Smartphone
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Just because you don't work for NASA doesn't mean you'll never make it as an astronaut. In the world of private space tourism, a little training could be all you need. And there's an app for that.

Space Nation, a Finnish space tourism startup, recently launched Space Nation Navigator, which the company touts as the first astronaut training app in the world. The app aims to train future space travelers using games, quizzes, and fitness challenges that fall into three categories: "body," "mind," and "social."

Each of the challenges is tailored to help you develop the skills you'd need to survive in space—even the mundane ones. One mission is called "Did you clean behind the fridge?" and is designed to highlight the unpleasant chores crew members on the ISS have to do to keep things tidy. There are "survival" quizzes that test your knowledge of how to properly build a fire, read a map, and dispose of your poop in the forest. The app also plugs into your smartphone fitness data so that you can participate in athletic challenges, like a 650-foot sprint designed to train you to escape a meteor impact zone.

Screenshots of the Space Nation Navigator app
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"Space Nation Navigator offers a way for anyone, anywhere to have a 15-minute astronaut experience every day. These astronaut skills—team building, problem solving, positive life hacks—are not just vital to survive in space," Space Nation CEO Kalle Vähä-Jaakkola said in a press statement. "They are also crucial in your daily life."

New challenges are added to your queue every few hours, and you can compete against other users for high scores. If you get enough points, you can become eligible for real-life training experiences with Space Nation, including a trip to Iceland. In 2019, Space Nation plans to hold an international competition to find one astronaut that the program will send to space.

If you're going to start training, we suggest you take some of the tests Project Mercury applicants faced back in 1958 to see how you'd stack up against the first NASA astronauts.

Get it: iOS, Android

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Big Questions
If Earth is Always Moving, Then How Do We See the Same Constellations Every Night?
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Luis Medrano:

6700 mph is nothing in cosmological speeds and distances. Constellations are freakin’ far away.

Get in a car at night and drive on a straight road, then look at the moon. The angle of the moon in respect to your point of view doesn’t change; it seems like the moon is following you wherever you go. Meanwhile, things that are really close to you—like electric poles, roadside buildings, and trees—seem to fly by really fast.

The effect is known as parallax. Things that are close seem to move faster and “travel more distance” (not really) than things that are far away.

In the video above, there are several objects in perspective. The light in the center, which represents the sun, was placed so far away you can barely see it move.

The sun is only eight light-minutes away; that’s 146 million km on average. At human scale it seems like a lot, but in cosmic distances it is nothing. Orion, for example, has stars that are from 243 to 1360 light years away from us. Imagine traveling at the speed of light for 1360 years. That’s how far these stars are. And these are not even the farthest stars. Some stars are Giga-light years away from us.

Now, with the proper precision instruments you can indeed notice the parallax in distant stars, just not with the naked eye. Furthermore, our solar system has moved so much since the early days of astronomy and astrology, the constellations do not correspond to the early astrology maps. The constellations appear shifted.

As a free info nugget: In case your life is ruled by astrology, whatever sign you think you are, you are not.

This post originally appeared on Quora. Click here to view.

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