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Aaron Lloyd Barr

5 Legendary Art Trials

Original image
Aaron Lloyd Barr

By Clay Wirestone
Illustration by Aaron Lloyd Barr

Taking masterpieces to court is a tradition as old as the legal system. So is letting them off the hook.

1. India Balks at Arundhati Roy’s Matchmaking

Released in 1997, Indian writer Arundhati Roy’s The God of Small Things won Britain’s prestigious Booker Prize. It also won the attention of outraged locals. But it wasn’t the scenes of incest or pedophilia that offended these critics. Instead, the book—a complex tale involving multiple time lines and generations along with plenty of political intrigue—drew jeers because it told a love story between members of different castes.

Roy, an outspoken political activist, was accused of “corrupting public morality” and faced obscenity charges in her home state of Kerala. According to Roy, while the judge didn’t want to punish her, he also couldn’t ignore the local government, which found the book offensive. So he put off making a decision—for 10 years!

THE VERDICT: When a new judge finally took on the case, he dismissed the charges. That may seem like a victory, but Roy’s fiction career ground to a halt in the interim, and she still hasn’t produced a follow-up novel.

2. The U.S. Government Confiscates Underwear

American artist J.S.G. Boggs makes money. Literally. Boggs draws intricately detailed bank notes, crafting whimsical takeoffs of actual U.S. currency. Unlike legal tender, however, Boggs’s bills feature his own signature as “Secret of the Treasury.” One of his works is worth “tan dollars.” Sometimes the bills are bright orange and issued from the Florida United Numismatists (they have FUN scrawled across them in giant letters). Others bear the portraits Boggs believes they should have—Harriet Tubman is featured on one, while Boggs’s self-portrait modestly graces the $5,000 bill.

What makes his art dicier is the performance component. Boggs barters with people, offering to pay for goods and services with his hand-drawn bills but only for items of lesser value—a $10 bill for a $9.75 meal, for instance. Change and a receipt must be provided. He also trades exclusively with people who are unfamiliar with his legend. Unfortunately for Boggs, U.S. law forbids color illustrations of currency unless a big NONNEGOTIABLE is slapped across the front in quarter-inch-tall letters. From 1990 to 1992, Secret Service agents raided exhibits in Boggs’s study, his home, and his Carnegie Mellon University office. They seized more than 1,000 pieces of his artwork. And not just bills—they also took “rugs, cakes, cookies, and underwear with images of money on them,” Boggs says.

Strangely, the proceedings stopped there. Even though government officials insisted Boggs was breaking the law, they didn’t prosecute. They just held onto his artwork—permanently.

THE VERDICT: Boggs was never charged with counterfeiting, but he did end up in court. In 1993, Boggs sued the U.S. Department of the Treasury to get his artwork back. District Judge Royce C. Lamberth in Washington, D.C., simply dismissed the case.

3. France Gets Outraged Over an Affair

While today’s readers wouldn’t blush at the thought of steamy French literature, public opinion of the 19th century was a bit different. Gustave Flaubert’s Madame Bovary, the tragic tale of Emma Bovary’s extramarital dalliances serialized in La Revue de Paris in 1856, apparently crossed the line.

Almost immediately after publication, Flaubert was charged with outrage à la morale publique et religieuse et aux bonnes moeurs, or insulting public and religious morality. The problem? The book suggested that the titular character might have had reasons—a cloddish husband, for one—to disregard her marriage vows.

By early 1857, Flaubert was hauled into court on obscenity charges by imperial prosecutor Ernest Pinard, an unpopular bureaucrat among artists (he later went after the Modernist poet Charles Baudelaire). The case looked grim, but Flaubert hired Jules Sénard, a brilliant defense attorney. Sénard’s defense—since reprinted in most French editions of Madame Bovary—insisted that only through looking at vice could readers be educated about virtue.

THE VERDICT: Not only did the judges buy Sénard’s argument, but the trial brought Flaubert so much publicity that he was able to republish Madame Bovary as a book, which he dedicated to his lawyer.

4. Art That’s Too Punk for L.A.

In 1985, Tipper Gore took an overeager interest in the listening habits of America’s youth. Gore cofounded the warning-label-touting Parents Music Resource Center, which drew the ire of Frank Zappa, among others. But she wasn’t the only public figure with musical morality on her mind.

Michael Guarino, a new hire at the Los Angeles district attorney’s office, was eager to make a name for himself. In 1986, on the heels of 30 wins in a row, he decided to take aim at a punk icon. His target? Jello Biafra, singer of the hardcore band Dead Kennedys.

Their album Frankenchrist caught Guarino’s attention with a special insert featuring art by Oscar-winning designer H.R. Giger. The graphic piece was aptly titled “Penis Landscape.” Guarino recalled, “I remember looking at the piece of art and thinking, just on the basis of the insert, that we had a great case. It seemed to me that is the kind of material that most adults wouldn’t want to see distributed to kids.”

Guarino prosecuted the band for obscenity. But as he told the public radio program “This American Life” in 2005, he could quickly see that his case wasn’t going his way. Biafra wore a coat and tie to the trial, hardly the wardrobe of a ratty punk. The Dead Kennedys songs played for the jurors came across as pithy and catchy. And the illustration? It was shown enough in court that the shock wore off.

THE VERDICT: The jury deadlocked, and the case was dropped. Guarino—who left the D.A.’s office soon after—and Biafra were reunited on “This American Life.” They reminisced, discovering that they agreed on politics—Biafra had tied for second in the Green Party’s vote for the 2000 presidential nomination—and ended up making dinner plans.

5. Massachusetts Refuses to Get Religion

When British colonist William Pynchon wasn’t busy trading fur or founding Springfield, Mass., he was writing religious criticism, including the 1650 book The Meritorious Price of Our Redemption. Not the most thrilling read, it argued against one particular Puritan belief—that Jesus had suffered the torments of hell after being crucified. Pynchon’s point: the “price of our redemption” was Jesus’s perfect obedience. No additional suffering should have been required.

His heretical argument pushed the buttons of the Massachusetts Bay Colony General Court, which in those days was not only a legislature but also an actual court, and it ordered every copy of the British-printed book burned in Boston’s marketplace.

Pynchon defended his work in front of the court in May 1651, but he decided against making a follow-up appearance that October. The Court ordered him to recant or “stand to the judgment and censure of the court.” Rejecting both options, he left his property to his son and hightailed it back to England, where he lived out the rest of his life writing religious pamphlets in peace.

THE VERDICT: Guilty. Only a few copies of Pynchon’s book survived—and Boston judges were just getting started. In the 1920s, they started regularly banning works, including books by Upton Sinclair, William Faulkner, and H.G. Wells. So many great works have been “banned in Boston” that some now consider it an honor!

This article originally appeared in mental_floss magazine. You can get a free issue here.

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iStock // Ekaterina Minaeva
Man Buys Two Metric Tons of LEGO Bricks; Sorts Them Via Machine Learning
May 21, 2017
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iStock // Ekaterina Minaeva

Jacques Mattheij made a small, but awesome, mistake. He went on eBay one evening and bid on a bunch of bulk LEGO brick auctions, then went to sleep. Upon waking, he discovered that he was the high bidder on many, and was now the proud owner of two tons of LEGO bricks. (This is about 4400 pounds.) He wrote, "[L]esson 1: if you win almost all bids you are bidding too high."

Mattheij had noticed that bulk, unsorted bricks sell for something like €10/kilogram, whereas sets are roughly €40/kg and rare parts go for up to €100/kg. Much of the value of the bricks is in their sorting. If he could reduce the entropy of these bins of unsorted bricks, he could make a tidy profit. While many people do this work by hand, the problem is enormous—just the kind of challenge for a computer. Mattheij writes:

There are 38000+ shapes and there are 100+ possible shades of color (you can roughly tell how old someone is by asking them what lego colors they remember from their youth).

In the following months, Mattheij built a proof-of-concept sorting system using, of course, LEGO. He broke the problem down into a series of sub-problems (including "feeding LEGO reliably from a hopper is surprisingly hard," one of those facts of nature that will stymie even the best system design). After tinkering with the prototype at length, he expanded the system to a surprisingly complex system of conveyer belts (powered by a home treadmill), various pieces of cabinetry, and "copious quantities of crazy glue."

Here's a video showing the current system running at low speed:

The key part of the system was running the bricks past a camera paired with a computer running a neural net-based image classifier. That allows the computer (when sufficiently trained on brick images) to recognize bricks and thus categorize them by color, shape, or other parameters. Remember that as bricks pass by, they can be in any orientation, can be dirty, can even be stuck to other pieces. So having a flexible software system is key to recognizing—in a fraction of a second—what a given brick is, in order to sort it out. When a match is found, a jet of compressed air pops the piece off the conveyer belt and into a waiting bin.

After much experimentation, Mattheij rewrote the software (several times in fact) to accomplish a variety of basic tasks. At its core, the system takes images from a webcam and feeds them to a neural network to do the classification. Of course, the neural net needs to be "trained" by showing it lots of images, and telling it what those images represent. Mattheij's breakthrough was allowing the machine to effectively train itself, with guidance: Running pieces through allows the system to take its own photos, make a guess, and build on that guess. As long as Mattheij corrects the incorrect guesses, he ends up with a decent (and self-reinforcing) corpus of training data. As the machine continues running, it can rack up more training, allowing it to recognize a broad variety of pieces on the fly.

Here's another video, focusing on how the pieces move on conveyer belts (running at slow speed so puny humans can follow). You can also see the air jets in action:

In an email interview, Mattheij told Mental Floss that the system currently sorts LEGO bricks into more than 50 categories. It can also be run in a color-sorting mode to bin the parts across 12 color groups. (Thus at present you'd likely do a two-pass sort on the bricks: once for shape, then a separate pass for color.) He continues to refine the system, with a focus on making its recognition abilities faster. At some point down the line, he plans to make the software portion open source. You're on your own as far as building conveyer belts, bins, and so forth.

Check out Mattheij's writeup in two parts for more information. It starts with an overview of the story, followed up with a deep dive on the software. He's also tweeting about the project (among other things). And if you look around a bit, you'll find bulk LEGO brick auctions online—it's definitely a thing!

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Scientists Think They Know How Whales Got So Big
May 24, 2017
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It can be difficult to understand how enormous the blue whale—the largest animal to ever exist—really is. The mammal can measure up to 105 feet long, have a tongue that can weigh as much as an elephant, and have a massive, golf cart–sized heart powering a 200-ton frame. But while the blue whale might currently be the Andre the Giant of the sea, it wasn’t always so imposing.

For the majority of the 30 million years that baleen whales (the blue whale is one) have occupied the Earth, the mammals usually topped off at roughly 30 feet in length. It wasn’t until about 3 million years ago that the clade of whales experienced an evolutionary growth spurt, tripling in size. And scientists haven’t had any concrete idea why, Wired reports.

A study published in the journal Proceedings of the Royal Society B might help change that. Researchers examined fossil records and studied phylogenetic models (evolutionary relationships) among baleen whales, and found some evidence that climate change may have been the catalyst for turning the large animals into behemoths.

As the ice ages wore on and oceans were receiving nutrient-rich runoff, the whales encountered an increasing number of krill—the small, shrimp-like creatures that provided a food source—resulting from upwelling waters. The more they ate, the more they grew, and their bodies adapted over time. Their mouths grew larger and their fat stores increased, helping them to fuel longer migrations to additional food-enriched areas. Today blue whales eat up to four tons of krill every day.

If climate change set the ancestors of the blue whale on the path to its enormous size today, the study invites the question of what it might do to them in the future. Changes in ocean currents or temperature could alter the amount of available nutrients to whales, cutting off their food supply. With demand for whale oil in the 1900s having already dented their numbers, scientists are hoping that further shifts in their oceanic ecosystem won’t relegate them to history.

[h/t Wired]