How 8 Twin Cities Neighborhoods Got Their Names

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Poetry, frogs, and … murder? Neighborhoods in St. Paul and Minneapolis, Minnesota were named after all three. Read on for the stories behind some of the Twin Cities’ many neighborhood names.

1. LONGFELLOW, MINNEAPOLIS

If the name rings a bookish bell, it should: The neighborhood was named after Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, the 19th century author who penned beloved poems such as The Song of Hiawatha. There is also the Longfellow Community, which includes the Longfellow neighborhood and several other smaller neighborhoods too, all of which have Victorian-era connotations. Howe was named after Julia Ward Howe, whose 1862 “Battle Hymn of the Republic” is one of the United States’ most beloved patriotic songs. Cooper was ultimately named after James Fenimore Cooper, the novelist best known for The Last of the Mohicans. Seward bears the name of William Seward, Abraham Lincoln’s Secretary of State. And Hiawatha shares its name with Longfellow’s famous poem, which in part tells the tragic story of an Ojibwe warrior and his love for a Dakota woman, Minnehaha. That name might ring a bell, too: It’s been bestowed on countless things in the region, including another Minneapolis neighborhood.

2. FROGTOWN, ST. PAUL

Frogtown has a more official-sounding name: Thomas-Dale. But the neighborhood has been known by an amphibian moniker for years. Nobody’s completely sure why. Theories range from a 19th-century bishop nicknaming the marshy area after its chorus of frogs to a German nickname for the croakers. Others suspect the word “frog” was meant as an ethnic slur to describe the area’s French residents [PDF] or that it was derived from a common nickname for the tool that’s used to switch railroad cars from track to track (the area was once home to two rail yards). It may never be clear which is true, but the neighborhood was built near swampy wetland—which could explain the ribbity label.

3. POWDERHORN PARK, MINNEAPOLIS

What sounds like a potentially violent place name is anything but. Instead, Powderhorn Park got its name from something that gives Minnesota its reputation as the “Land of 10,000 Lakes”—a body of water. It’s just 12 acres, but Powderhorn Lake once bore a resemblance to the gunpowder containers toted by people in the days before paper (and later metallic) cartridges. (Modern cartridges hold bullets, gunpowder, and a primer; back then, the gun was primed by hand after pouring the gunpowder in.) The funnel-like device is now obsolete and once the lake became part of a municipal park, it lost its original looks. Still, the name remains, as does the grand Minnesota tradition of lake pride.

4. COMO PARK, ST. PAUL

That pride isn’t always well-founded—despite their majestic-sounding names, many of Minnesota’s lakes are, well, not so majestic. St. Paul’s Como Park neighborhood got its name from Lake Como, which conjures up visions of the dramatic subalpine lake it’s named after. But even though the St. Paul lake is no pond, it’s not exactly as scenic as something you’d find in Italy. If the legend is to be believed, that didn’t concern the lake’s first white settler, a Swiss immigrant named Charles Perry, all that much, and he renamed the lake—known by the uninspiring name Sandy Lake—after the Alps he loved. However, there’s a competing and more likely theory. The lake might have been named not by Perry, but by a land speculator named Henry McKenty who profited from the Alpine association. Well, kind of: As the Park Bugle’s Roger Bergerson notes, McKenty lost everything in the Panic of 1857 and moved on, presumably to give dramatic monikers to other bodies of water.

5. HOLLAND, MINNEAPOLIS

You might assume that a neighborhood called Holland was named after its Dutch residents. In this case, you’d be wrong: Holland was named after a 19th century novelist named Josiah Gilbert Holland. Holland helped found Scribner’s Monthly, one of the most influential publications of its day. He was well known during his heyday, but not under his own name. Rather, he often published under the pseudonym “Timothy Titcomb.” In books like Titcomb’s Letters to Young People, Single and Married, Holland gave advice on everything from etiquette to romance. “Never content yourself with the idea of having a common-place wife,” he urged his male readers. “You want one who will stimulate you, stir you up, keep you moving, show you your weak points, and make something of you.”

6. DAYTON’S BLUFF, ST. PAUL

Lyman Dayton, the land speculator after whom Dayton’s Bluff is named, found a wife. But all too soon, she became a widow. Described as “an energetic, stirring, liberal, kind-hearted man,” Dayton came to Minnesota from New England and decided to buy up land east of St. Paul in the hopes of making his fortune. No matter that a large ravine separated his land from the city. His gamble ended up making sense for homeowners, who built their houses on top of the neighborhood’s rolling hills. Early residents were rich Germans who made the most of their views. But Dayton’s triumph didn’t last long: He was in poor health and died at just 55 years of age. His widow and only son ended up living in a nearby town that, appropriately, bore their last name. Today, Dayton, Minnesota is home to about 4600 residents.

7. BELTRAMI, MINNEAPOLIS

Many of Minneapolis’s neighborhoods bear the names of the developers who created them. Not so Beltrami. It’s named after Giacomo Beltrami, an Italian explorer and jurist who discovered the headwaters of the Mississippi. Or so he claimed. The restless Italian loved the Mississippi River and set out to discover where it came from. When he made it to the lake he named Lake Julia in 1823, he figured that was its source and spread the news far and wide. Of course, he was wrong: The mighty river’s head is actually at Lake Itasca in north central Minnesota. Apparently Beltrami’s claim was taken with a grain of salt, even though the true source wasn’t identified until 1832. Beltrami eventually went back to Europe, but he’s still commemorated in Minnesota for his exploration and his dramatic accounts of the area.

8. PAYNE-PHALEN, ST. PAUL

Beltrami was dramatic, but the story of Edward Phelan (or Phalen), after whom a lake from which the Payne-Phalen neighborhood drew its moniker was partially named, makes the explorer’s life seem tepid. Phelan, an Irishman, was one of St. Paul’s first residents—and possibly its first murderer.

After being discharged from the U.S. Army at nearby Fort Snelling, he arrived in the St. Paul area, which had only recently been opened for settlement. That meant he had first dibs on land that few had even seen yet. However, Phelan’s empty pocketbook meant he had to join forces with a sergeant, John Hays, to buy up the land he wanted—a prime slice of real estate in what is now downtown St. Paul. Phelan, who was known for his temper, started farming with Hays. But then Hays disappeared—and when his mutilated body was found near a local cave, Phelan was the prime suspect [PDF]. Neighbors all contradicted Phelan’s version of the story, which was that Native Americans had attacked his former business partner. Phalen was found not guilty, but in the time the trial took Hay’s claim had been jumped, and since all of his neighbors felt he was guilty, Phalen moved away. Eventually he himself would be murdered on his way to finding fortune in California. Despite the distasteful associations, his name ended up on several St. Paul landmarks, including Lake Phalen, after which the neighborhood is named. As for Hays, his name has faded from memory—and as MPR News’ Tracy Mumford notes, it’s not even certain where his bones were buried.

How 15 Berlin Neighborhoods Got Their Names

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Germany's capital and largest city, Berlin is a sprawling, hectic metropolis and a historic center of the continent. Its eight centuries of history show up in the names of its various neighborhoods; here, we break down a few.

1. CHARLOTTENBURG

Affluent Charlottenburg reflects its namesake: It was christened for Sophia Charlotte of Hanover, queen consort of Friedrich I of Prussia, and it’s where Charlottenburg Palace, their former home, is located. Friedrich became king in 1701, two years after the palace’s construction was finished. Before that, the area was home to a village called Lietzow, and the palace was originally named Lietzenburg. Its name was changed to Charlottenburg in 1705, when the queen died, and Lietzow was officially incorporated into the settlement in 1720.

2. GRAEFEKIEZ

Located in Kreuzberg (“Cross Hill,” for the iron cross on the Prussian National Monument for the Liberation Wars that tops the hill), Graefekiez and its main street, Graefestraße, are named in honor of Albrecht von Graefe, a Prussian eye surgeon and early pioneer in the study of ophthalmology. Von Graefe is buried in the Protestant cemetery in the nearby Jerusalem Church, and in 2015 an area school was named after him.

3. NEUKÖLLN

Neukölln started out in 1200 as a village called Rixdorf. It became Neukölln in 1912, and in 1920 was incorporated into Greater Berlin. The name translates to "New Cölln"—a reference to Cölln, an old medieval town that was once located in what is now the nearby Mitte neighborhood. Even more confusingly, Neuköln is the name of both a borough and the smaller neighborhood contained within it.

4. MITTE

Like Neuköln, Mitte is both the name of a borough and a smaller locality within it, and its name isn’t quite as apt as it once was. Mitte translates to “middle” and was once the center of Berlin, before areas around the city were annexed. It’s still considered by many to be the heart of Berlin, though, especially thanks to its location and history—during much of the Cold War, it was surrounded almost entirely by the Berlin Wall and was the location of Checkpoint Charlie, the famous crossing point between East and West Berlin.

5. MOABIT

A closed-up window and picturesque design in Moabit, Berlin
Nicola Holtkamp, Flickr // CC BY-NC-ND 2.0

Another neighborhood within the borough of Mitte, Moabit’s name is probably derived from French Huguenot refugees who were living in Prussia during the time of prince-elector of Brandenburg Frederick William circa 1685. Supposedly, they named the area either after the Biblical kingdom of Moab—seemingly because Elimelech, Naomi, and their family sought refuge there during a famine—or the Plains of Moab, where the Israelites fleeing Egypt camped before entering Canaan. (A less popular theory is that it comes from the word Moorjebiet, which means “swamp” in the Berlin dialect—Moabit was originally an island before the swamp surrounding it was filled in by sand—or even a corruption of a French term such as mon habitit—roughly meaning "my settlement.") The area was also once known as Pulverwiesen (“powder point”) when it was used as a parade ground by the military, since it was near several gunpowder factories.

6. WEDDING

Despite its pleasant name, the neighborhood of Wedding is one of the poorest in Berlin, and its origin story has nothing to do with marriage. It’s named for Rudolf de Weddinge, a 12th-century nobleman whose forest farmstead stood on the banks of the Panke River, and caught fire at least twice before being abandoned in the 1700s. In the mid-18th century, the area was built up as a spa and health resort, and it later became a seedy pleasure district, rife with gambling and prostitution. Today, it’s a working-class area known for its urban gardens, bohemian cafes and galleries, and strong community of artists.

7. TIERGARTEN

A statue on a lake in the Berlin Tiergarten
blondetpatrice, Flickr // CC BY-ND 2.0

Tiergarten is the name of both a neighborhood and a huge park included in the neighborhood; its name translates literally to “animal garden” in modern German. But tier once referred not to all animals but to game animals, and in this case, to deer specifically. In fact, the Tiergarten was a deer preserve until the 18th century, and a deer is still featured in Tiergarten's coat of arms. The park itself, one of the largest in Germany, doesn’t have a lot of deer in it, but it does contain the Berlin Zoological Garden and Aquarium.

8. PRENZLAUER BERG

Trendy Prenzlauer Berg shares a name with its hill (“Prenzlauer Hill”), a Prenzlauer being a person from the German town of Prenzlau, which is about 60 miles north of Berlin. The town of Prenzlau, in turn, takes its name from the Slavic men’s name Przemysław, itself a medieval version of the Polish name Przemysł, meaning a person who is clever or ingenious. No word on which Przemysław of yore inspired the town’s name; there were several dukes and kings of nearby Poland who bore the name, but the town seems to have existed before any of them did, with the earliest known mention of the village being in 1187.

9. ROTE INSEL

Literally “Red Island,” the roughly triangular slice of land called Rote Insel within Berlin’s Schöneberg locality isn’t anywhere near a lake, river, or ocean. The reason it’s called an island is because it’s entirely isolated by train tracks on all sides, making it accessible only by bridges that pass over the track. The “red” part comes from the area’s strong left-wing/democratic socialist population during the late 19th and early 20th century—their official color was red.

10. POTSDAMER PLATZ

An image from the Sony Center at Potsdamer Platz
Baptiste Pons, Flickr // CC BY-NC-ND 2.0

Potsdamer Platz refers to Berlin’s important public square of the same name as well as the neighborhood surrounding it, with platz meaning “place” in English—or more accurately “plaza.” Chock full of museums and historical memorials, the five-cornered square is a busy public space and major intersection. It started out as a trading post in the late 1600s, established at the convergence of several old country roads. The word Potsdam, meanwhile, is thought to have been derived from the Old West Slavonic term poztupimi, as it was named in 993 by the 13-year-old Emperor Otto III—it translates roughly to “beneath the oaks.”

11. FRIEDRICHSHAIN

Created in 1920, Friedrichshain gets its name from the nearby Volkspark (People’s Park) Friedrichshain, built to celebrate the 100th anniversary of King Friedrich II’s coronation. (The word hain means grove.) In 1933, when Berlin fell under Nazi rule, the district was renamed Horst-Wessel-Stadt, commemorating Horst Wessel, the 22-year-old Berlin Sturmabteilung (stormtrooper) leader who was hailed as a martyr by propagandist Joseph Goebbels after being killed by members of the Communist Party in 1930. (Stadt means city in German.) The name Friedrichshain was restored after the war ended.

12. BERGMANNKIEZ

Many Berlin districts bear the word kiez in their names—it means neighborhood or community. Bergmannkiez is named for its main thoroughfare, Bergmannstraße, which was named after the wealthy Bergmann family, which owned property in the area. Prior to that, the street was called Weinbergsweg (“Weinberg’s Way”), which still exists elsewhere in the city and is named for the nearby Weinbergspark (which is named for a café of the same name that once operated there).

13. ALT-TREPTOW

The Treptowers in the district of Alt-Treptow, Berlin
Ansgar Koreng, Flickr // CC BY-SA 2.0

This area began life as just Treptow, a village inhabited by Slavic people in the 6th century. Treptow itself is a Germanization of the Polish word Trzebiatów, also the name of a town in West Pomerania, which was once part of Germany but is today part of Poland. It’s a place name possibly derived from the Polish word trzebia, which means "clearing." The word Alt was later added to the village’s name—it just means "old."

14. RIXDORF

Although most of the town of Rixdorf was absorbed by the aforementioned Neukölln neighborhood, part of it remains along the Neukölln border. Rixdorf was originally a tiny historic village called Richardsdorf, or “Richard’s valley,” and the area has been inhabited since at least the mid-1300s, but the modern incarnation dates from 1737. (It’s not clear who the eponymous Richard was.) Rixdorf was a just nickname at first, but later became official. Today, it’s part of Berlin proper and is often known as Böhmisch-Rixdorf, or Bohemian Rixdorf, for the Protestants coming from Bohemia who lived here in the 18th century.

15. NIKOLAIVIERTEL

A view in the neighborhood of Nikolaiviertel, Berlin
Pascal Volk, Flickr // CC BY-SA 2.0

In Mitte, the neighborhood of Nikolaiviertel—or Nicholas’ Quarter—gets its name from the St. Nikolai-Kirche, the oldest church in Berlin, parts of which date from between 1220 and 1230. Originally a Roman Catholic church, it became Lutheran in 1539. The church was almost destroyed during World War II, but in the 1980s authorities began reconstruction efforts in the area, meaning many of the area’s quirky historic-looking houses were actually built after the war ended.

The U.S. State With the Most Psychopaths Is …

Anthony Perkins stars in Psycho (1960)
Anthony Perkins stars in Psycho (1960)
Paramount Pictures

Quaint, quiet Connecticut—home of the Frisbee and the first speed-limit law—is also apparently home to the most Norman Bates types. A recent study spotted by Quartz ranked each U.S. state by the number of psychopaths who are estimated to be living there, and the results may surprise you.

Following Connecticut, the top five states by psychopathy are California, New Jersey, New York, and Wyoming (New York and Wyoming tied). The least psychopathic state, on the other hand, is wild and wonderful West Virginia.

Psychopathy on its own is not a clinical diagnosis. Rather, it's a subset of antisocial personality disorder, whose symptoms include egocentrism, manipulativeness, impulsivity, lack of remorse, and an inability to form intimate relationships, just to name a few.

The study, posted on the Social Science Research Network (SSRN), partly drew data from previous research on the “big five” personality traits—Extroversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, and Openness to Experience—and their prevalence in each state [PDF]. Ryan Murphy, the study's author, said there's a correlation between these personality traits and some of the traits associated with psychopathy—namely boldness, meanness, and disinhibition.

“Boldness corresponds to low neuroticism and high extraversion, meanness corresponds to low agreeableness, and disinhibition corresponds to low conscientiousness,” Murphy told Quartz. In the earlier study of personality scores by state, Connecticut showed high levels of extraversion and comparatively low levels of conscientiousness.

The District of Columbia was also taken into consideration and showed higher levels of psychopathy than any state in the country. However, Murphy said this isn’t a fair representation because D.C. is an urban area and cannot be accurately compared to a larger, more geographically diverse region.

Although D.C. was excluded from the final ranking, Murphy said there might be something to the popular belief that politicians are more likely to be psychopaths: “The presence of psychopaths in [the] District of Columbia is consistent with the conjecture found in [my research] that psychopaths are likely to be effective in the political sphere.”

It must be noted, though, that these findings have only recently been pre-published and are not yet peer-reviewed.

Here’s how the 48 contiguous states (excluding Hawaii and Alaska) ranked for psychopathy:

1. Connecticut
2. California
3. New Jersey
4. & 5. New York / Wyoming (tied)
6. Maine
7. Wisconsin
8. Nevada
9. Illinois
10. Virginia
11. Maryland
12. South Dakota
13. Delaware
14. Massachusetts
15. Arizona
16. Florida
17. Iowa
18. Colorado
19. Texas
20. Ohio
21. Utah
22. Arkansas
23. Idaho
24. North Dakota
25. Michigan
26. Alabama
27. Pennsylvania
28. Rhode Island
29. Louisiana
30. Kansas
31. Georgia
32. Minnesota
33. Missouri
34. Washington
35. Kentucky
36. Nebraska
37. South Carolina
38. New Hampshire
39. Oregon
40. Indiana
41. Mississippi
42. Montana
43. Oklahoma
44. New Mexico
45. North Carolina
46. Tennessee
47. Vermont
48. West Virginia

[h/t Quartz]

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