Here's what the key grip, best boy, and gaffer actually do, plus the origins of those titles.
1. Foley artist
A person who creates sound effects in post-production.
Film sets don’t necessarily have the same acoustic properties as the real-life locations they portray. Foley artists eliminate extraneous noises and add convincing sounds. For example, they stamp their feet to match footsteps on the screen. Also, (spoiler alert!) movie fistfights are faked. The blows never land, but Foley artists, shall we say, “punch up” the sound.
The job takes its name from Jack Donovan Foley, who rounded up employees with experience in radio sound effects to help Universal Studios survive the transition to sound in 1927.
The head of the electrical department for a film production.
Although some sources point to the fact that gaffer (probably an elision of grandfather or godfather) has long been used in British English for an old man, or the foreman of a work crew, Media-Match gives a more likely explanation: "The term was also used to describe men who adjusted lighting in English theater and men who tended street lamps, after the 'gaff' they used, a pole with a hook on its end."
A member of a camera crew responsible for building and maintaining all the equipment that supports cameras, as well as moving and setting up the equipment.
The term was adapted from the American theater where it was used for a stagehand who helps shift scenery.
4. Dolly grip
A grip who moves camera cranes and dollies (the wheeled platforms that carry the camera and the camera operator).
5. Key grip
The supervisor of the team of grips.
6. Best boy (grip/gaffer)
Second in command, assisting the gaffer or key grip.
According to IMDb, "The origin of the term is from 'pre-union' filming days when the line between Grip and Electric departments was less rigid. When the head of either department needed another body temporarily, he'd go to the head of the other department and ask him to 'lend me your BEST boy.' By default the 2nd in charge of either department came to be known as best-boy. This term may also have been borrowed from early sailing and whaling crews, as sailors were often employed to set up and work rigging in theatres. There are no 'best girls' per se; female chief assistants are also called 'Best Boys.'"
7. Child wrangler
“Animal wranglers”—like wranglers who manage horses and other livestock on a ranch—control, instruct and care for animals used in filming. Similarly, “child wranglers” manage child actors on a set, coaching them in acting and keeping them entertained and quiet when they are not in the scene being filmed.
8. Python wrangler
A jocular term for the utility sound technician who performs a variety of tasks in the Sound Department, most typically pulling cables.
Someone who provides logistical support, facilitating whatever's needed relating to permits, customs, location, talent, crews, equipment, accommodation, and transportation for filmmakers who wish to conduct filming abroad. The term is apparently a wink at the colloquial term fixer, meaning a person who makes arrangements for other people, especially of an illicit or devious kind.
10. Craft service
The people who assist the crafts (camera, sound, electricians, grips, props, art director, etc.) during shooting, with tasks including providing snacks and cleaning the set. (“Catering” provides the main meals.)
11. Concept artist
A person who creates a computer-generated 3D model that allows the production designer to determine how a scene will ultimately look. The concept artist renders the desired shots, camera angles, focal lengths, camera movements and choreography. The computer-generated model can also depict surface textures, lighting schemes and costumes.
Though he made his living as a writer, Ernest Hemingway was just as famous for his lust for adventure. Whether he was running with the bulls in Pamplona, fishing for marlin in Bimini, throwing back rum cocktails in Havana, or hanging out with his six-toed cats in Key West, the Nobel and Pulitzer Prize-winning author never did anything halfway. And he used his adventures as fodder for the unparalleled collection of novels, short stories, and nonfiction books he left behind, The Sun Also Rises, A Farewell to Arms, Death in the Afternoon, For Whom the Bell Tolls, and The Old Man and the Sea among them.
On what would be his 118th birthday—he was born in Oak Park, Illinois on July 21, 1899—here are 20 memorable quotes that offer a keen perspective into Hemingway’s way of life.
ON THE IMPORTANCE OF LISTENING
"I like to listen. I have learned a great deal from listening carefully. Most people never listen."
"The best way to find out if you can trust somebody is to trust them."
ON DECIDING WHAT TO WRITE ABOUT
"I never had to choose a subject—my subject rather chose me."
"Never go on trips with anyone you do not love."
Ernest Hemingway Photograph Collection, John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum, Boston. , Public Domain, Wikimedia Commons
ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INTELLIGENCE AND HAPPINESS
"Happiness in intelligent people is the rarest thing I know."
"There's no one thing that is true. They're all true."
ON THE DOWNSIDE OF PEOPLE
"The only thing that could spoil a day was people. People were always the limiters of happiness, except for the very few that were as good as spring itself."
ON SUFFERING FOR YOUR ART
"There is nothing to writing. All you do is sit down at a typewriter and bleed."
ON TAKING ACTION
"Never mistake motion for action."
ON GETTING WORDS OUT
"I wake up in the morning and my mind starts making sentences, and I have to get rid of them fast—talk them or write them down."
Photograph by Mary Hemingway, in the Ernest Hemingway Photograph Collection, John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum, Boston., Public Domain, Wikimedia Commons
ON THE BENEFITS OF SLEEP
"I love sleep. My life has the tendency to fall apart when I'm awake, you know?"
ON FINDING STRENGTH
"The world breaks everyone, and afterward, some are strong at the broken places."
ON THE TRUE NATURE OF WICKEDNESS
"All things truly wicked start from innocence."
ON WRITING WHAT YOU KNOW
"If a writer knows enough about what he is writing about, he may omit things that he knows. The dignity of movement of an iceberg is due to only one ninth of it being above water."
ON THE DEFINITION OF COURAGE
"Courage is grace under pressure."
ON THE PAINFULNESS OF BEING FUNNY
"A man's got to take a lot of punishment to write a really funny book."
By Ernest Hemingway Photograph Collection, John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum, Boston. - JFK Library, Public Domain, Wikimedia Commons
ON KEEPING PROMISES
"Always do sober what you said you'd do drunk. That will teach you to keep your mouth shut."
ON GOOD VS. EVIL
"About morals, I know only that what is moral is what you feel good after and what is immoral is what you feel bad after."
ON REACHING FOR THE UNATTAINABLE
"For a true writer, each book should be a new beginning where he tries again for something that is beyond attainment. He should always try for something that has never been done or that others have tried and failed. Then sometimes, with great luck, he will succeed."
ON HAPPY ENDINGS
"There is no lonelier man in death, except the suicide, than that man who has lived many years with a good wife and then outlived her. If two people love each other there can be no happy end to it."
In this episode of our YouTube series, John Green brings you a whole pile of things you should know about everybody's favorite neighbor. Here's a transcript, courtesy of Nerdfighteria:
Hi, I'm John Green, welcome to my neighborhood. This is mental_floss, and today we're going to talk about Mr. Rogers, with whom I have a lot in common. By the way, thanks to copyright laws, that's the only picture of Mr. Rogers we can afford, so you'll be seeing a lot of it today. But yes, Fred Rogers and I have many similarities:
1. We both considered becoming ministers (he actually did).
2. Both happily married to women named Sara(h).
And we both make stuff for young people... although I don't think that his work has been banned from several dozen high schools in Tennessee.
3. Mr. Rogers was an Ivy League dropout. He completed his freshman year at Dartmouth, and then transferred to Rollins College so he could get a degree in music.
4. And he was an excellent piano player; not only did he graduate from Rollins "Magna cum laude," but he wrote all of the songs on the show, as well as more than 200 other songs, and several kids' operas including one called "All in the Laundry."
5. Mr. Rogers decided to get into television, because when he saw it for the first time he, "hated it so." When he turned on a set, all he saw was angry people throwing pies in each others' faces, and he vowed to use the medium to make the world a better place.
6. Over the years, he talked to kids about their feelings, covering topics as varied as why kids shouldn't be afraid of haircuts, or the bathroom drain (because you won't fit), to bigger issues like divorce and war.
7. In the opening sequence of Mr. Rogers' Neighborhood, the stoplight is always on yellow. That's a reminder to kids and parents to slow down a little.
8. Also, Mr. Rogers wasn't afraid of dead air time, unlike me: Once he invited a marine biologist and explorer onto his program to put a microphone into his fish tank, because he wanted to show the kids at home that fish make sounds when they eat. However, while taping the segment, the fish weren't hungry so the marine biologist started trying to egg the fish on, saying "C'mon," "It's Chowtime," "Dinnerbell." But Mr. Rogers just waited quietly. The crew thought he'd want to re-tape it, but Mr. Rogers just kept it... to show kids the importance of being patient.
9. Fred Rogers was a perfectionist, and so he disliked ad-libbing. He felt that he owed it to children to make sure that every word on his show was thought out. But here at mental_floss, we love ad libbing because it's much less work.
10. In a Yale psychology study, when Sesame Street and Mr. Rogers' Neighborhood went "head to head," kids who watched Mr. Rogers not only remembered more of the story lines, but their, "Tolerance of delay," a fancy term for their ability to wait for promised treats or adult attention, was considerably higher.
11. Mr. Rogers was also beloved by Koko the Gorilla, you know Koko the Stanford educated Gorilla who can speak about 1000 words in American Sign Language; she watched The Neighborhood, and when Mr. Rogers made a trip to meet her, she not only embraced him but she did what she'd always see him do on screen: She proceeded to take his shoes off.
12. Those shoes were store bought, by the way, but every one of the cardigans Mr. Rogers wore on his show was knit by his mother.
13. Today one of them resides in the Smithsonian - a red one. Mr. Rogers chose to donate that sweater, because the cameras at his studio didn't pick up the color very well.
14. Mr. Rogers could start to feel anxious and overwhelmed, and when he did, he liked to play the chords to the show's theme song on the piano on set in order to calm himself.
15. The other way you could tell he was exasperated? If he said the word, "mercy." Mostly, he said it when he got to his desk in the morning, and the mountains of fan mail were a little bit too tall. But, "mercy" was about the strongest word in his vocabulary.
16. And yes, Mr. Rogers responded to every single piece of fan mail. He had the same routine every morning: wake up at 5:00AM. Pray for a few hours for all of his friends and family, study, write, make calls, reach out to every single fan who took the time to write him, go for a morning swim, get on a scale, then start the day. My morning routine is a bit less ambitious than that; Mr. Rogers, I thought you were supposed to make me feel good about myself! You just made me feel terrible!
17. But speaking of that daily weigh-in, Mr. Rogers watched his weight very closely. And he'd like to weigh exactly 143 lbs (65 kg). By the way, he didn't drink, smoke, or eat the flesh of any animal. NATCH.
18. Why did Mr. Rogers like the number 1-4-3 so much? Because it takes 1 letter to say "I", 4 letters to say "love," and 3 letters to say, "you" (Jean --Luc Picard).
19. Now it starts to get a little weird. So, journalists had a tough time covering Mr. Rogers because he'd often, like befriend them, ask them tons of questions, take pictures of them, compile an album for them at the end of their time together, and then call them afterwards to check in on them and hear about their families. He genuinely loved hearing the life stories of other people.
20. And it wasn't just reporters. Like once, on a fancy trip up to a PBS executive's house, he heard the limo driver was gonna have to wait outside for two hours, so Mr. Rogers insisted that the driver come in and join them. And then, on the way back, Rogers sat up front, and when he learned that they were passing the driver's house on the way, he asked if they could stop in to meet the family. And according to the driver, it was one of the best nights of his life. The house lit up when Rogers arrived, and he played jazz piano and bantered with them late into the night.
21. Okay, so thieves, Smithsonian curators, reporters, limo drivers, kids, all these people loved Mr. Rogers, but someone has to hate him, right? Well, LSU professor Don Chance certainly doesn't love his legacy: He believes that Mr. Rogers created a, "culture of excessive doting" which resulted in generations of lazy, entitled college students... and that makes sense, because generally the deterioration of culture can be traced back to a single public television program.
22. Other curious theories about Mr. Rogers that are all over the Internet: That he served in the army and was a sniper in Vietnam;
23. That he served in the army and was a sniper in Korea;
24. That he only wore sweaters to cover up the tattoos on his arms. These are all untrue. He was never in the army; he never shot anyone; he had no tattoos.
25. One other rumor we'd like to quash? That he used to chase kids off his porch on Halloween. That's crazy! In fact, his house was known for being one of those generous homes that give out full-size candy bars... because of course it was!
26. In fact, for all the myths that people want to create about him, Mr. Rogers seems to have been almost exactly the same person "off screen," as he was, "onscreen." As an ordained Presbyterian minister and a man of tremendous faith, Mr. Rogers preached tolerance first. He never engaged in the culture wars; all he would ever say is, "God loves you just the way you are."
27. He was also kind of a superhero, like when the government wanted to cut public television funds in 1969, the then relatively unknown Mr. Rogers went to Washington and almost like straight out of a Capra film, his testimony on how TV had the potential to give kids hope and create more productive citizens was so passionate and convincing, that even the most gruff politicians were charmed... and instead of cutting the budget, funding for public TV jumped from $9M to $22M.
28. Years later, Mr. Rogers also swayed the Supreme Court to allow VCR's to record TV shows from home. It was a cantankerous debate at the time, but his argument was that recording a program like his allowed working parents to sit down with their children and watch shows as a family. Plus, it allowed him to watch Captain Stubing on The Love Boat anytime he wanted, without having to stay up till 8:30PM.
29. He was also heavily parodied, but most of the people who made fun of him, loved him. Like Johnny Carson hoped his send up of The Neighborhood would make Mr. Rogers more famous.
30. And the first time Eddie Murphy met Mr. Rogers, he couldn't stop himself from giving the guy a big hug.
All right, we're running out of time, so let's speed this up.
31. Mr. Rogers was color-blind. I mean that figuratively, like his parents took in African-American foster children, and he loved people of all backgrounds equally, but also literally.
32. Michael Keaton got his start on the show: He was a puppeteer and worked the trolley.
33. Mr. Rogers once made a guest appearance on Dr. Quinn Medicine Woman as a pastor's mentor.
34. And many of the characters on his show took their names from his family. Like, McFeely was his grandfather's name, Queen Sara is named for his wife.
35. And lastly, we return to the Salon so I can tell you probably my favorite story about Mr. Rogers: that he could make a whole New York City subway car full of strangers sing. He was rushing to a meeting and there were no cabs available so Mr. Rogers jumped on the subway. The car was full of people, Rogers assumed that he wouldn't be noticed, but he quickly was, of course, and then people burst into song, chanting, "It's a beautiful day in the neighborhood."
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