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15 Songs That Brought People Out of Comas

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Do your friends and family know your favorite tunes? It's more than just a quiz to see who knows you best—someday, it could save your life. Doctors often recommend that people visiting coma victims play music that has special meaning to them. This is known as a "salient stimulus," something that is familiar and emotionally important. Stimuli like these are so powerful they can even rouse coma victims from their deep slumbers. Here are 15 songs that have done the trick.

1. The Song: Adele’s “Rolling in the Deep”

The Story: In 2011, 7-year-old Charlotte Neve had a rare brain hemorrhage that resulted in a coma doctors said she might not come out of. Charlotte’s mom was preparing for the worst when the 2012 Grammy “Song of the Year” came on the radio while she was visiting her daughter. Since it was a song that both mother and daughter enjoyed, Charlotte’s mom began singing along. To her amazement, Charlotte smiled. It was the first reaction she had had to anything since falling into the coma. Two days later, she was talking and getting out of bed.

2. The Song: James Blunt’s “You’re Beautiful”

The Story: Five-year-old Claudia Dealwis’ parents were devastated when she fell off of a friend’s balcony, fracturing her skull and falling into a coma. She had been in the coma for 10 days with no signs of improvement when “You’re Beautiful,” one of Claudia’s favorite songs, came on over the hospital radio. "When it came on the hospital radio we could just see her starting to move a bit and we knew she was beginning to wake up,” her father said. "When she opened her eyes and acknowledged us we were so relieved. Every little movement was like a massive step."

3. The Song: The Mack & Mabel soundtrack

The Story: John Flynn, a London-based marketing executive, had three heart bypass operations in less than 24 hours in 2012. Shortly thereafter, he fell into a coma as a result of severe internal bleeding. He had been unresponsive for six days—until one of his sons started playing music for his father from his iPod. When they settled on Mack & Mabel, a musical about old Hollywood, Flynn started “tap dancing on the end of the bed.”

Flynn, who happens to invest in West End productions, later received the opportunity to invest in the off-West End “Mack & Mabel.” While he doesn’t usually put money into off-West End shows, he made an exception this time.

4. The Song: Green Day’s “American Idiot”

The Story: In 2005, Corey George was a huge Green Day. (Join the club, buddy.) He was hit by a car on his ninth birthday and was unconscious for two weeks afterward, clinging to life via a life support machine. Then his mother got the idea to play him his favorite album—American Idiot. Corey had opened his eyes and was wiggling his fingers and toes less than an hour later.

5. The Song: The Charlie Daniels Band’s “The Devil Went Down to Georgia”

The Story: In 2009, Jarrett Carland spent four months in a coma after being in a car accident that claimed the life of his best friend and seriously injured another. Doctors didn’t expect him to live—and said that if he did, he would likely be in a vegetative state for the rest of his life. To try to bring him out of it, his parents played the song that Carland almost obsessively listened to: “The Devil Went Down to Georgia.” It took many repetitions, but eventually, Carland responded. Nearly a year later, he got to thank Charlie Daniels in person.

6. The Song: Robin Gibb’s “Don’t Cry Alone”

The Story: In 2012, the Bee Gees' Robin Gibb caught pneumonia. Because his immune system was weak from battles with liver cancer and colon cancer, as well as chemotherapy, Gibb fell into a coma. He later cried when his wife played him Roy Orbison’s “Crying,” and fully revived when his son, Robin-John, played him “Don’t Cry Alone,” a classical piece commemorating the 100th anniversary of the sinking of the Titanic. Robin and Robin-John had collaborated on the piece together.

7. The Song: The Rolling Stones’ “(I Can’t Get No) Satisfaction”

The Story: Do you remember the first single you ever bought? If it meant a lot to you, it could just bring you back from the brink someday. Sam Carter was just 17 when the song was released in 1965; he was 60 when it brought him out of a coma. Despite having just over a zero percent chance of survival, Carter says that when he heard the song come on over headphones his wife had provided, "I could remember how excited I was to get it down at the record shop. I suddenly had a burst of energy and knew I had a lot more life left in me and that's when I woke up—to the sound of the first song I ever bought."

8. The Song: Robbie Williams’ “Angels”

The Story: You might remember the horrifying story of Austrian Kerstin Fritzl. She was in the news several years ago when it was discovered that she had been living in a basement cellar with her mother/sister. Yeah, not mother and sister. Her father/grandfather, Josef Fritzl, had imprisoned his daughter Elisabeth underground for 24 years, raped her repeatedly and fathered seven children with her, including Kerstin. When Kerstin fell ill in April 2008, Elisabeth convinced her father that Kerstin needed to go to the hospital. She was later successfully revived from a medically-induced coma with Robbie Williams songs, which she is believed to have listened to while in the cellar.

Kerstin’s trip to the hospital exposed her father/grandfather’s horrible dungeon, and he was sentenced to life in prison.

9. The Song: Something Bryan Adams

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The Story: Christiane Kittel had been in a coma for seven years—seven years—after getting a blood clot in her lung at the age of 16. In 2007, her mother heard that Bryan Adams was touring near their town and got permission from Christiane’s doctor to take her, thinking that his music might somehow reach her Adams-obsessed daughter. She was definitely right: During the concert, Christiane started moving in her wheelchair, opened her eyes and called for her mother.

10. The Song: Jessie J’s “Rainbow”

The Story: A 6-year-old girl named Tyla had to be put in a medically-induced coma after getting into a car accident with her mother and grandmother. Eight days later, Tyla’s mother heard that singer Jessie J was visiting the hospital the girl was in—and Jessie J just happened to be her daughter’s favorite singer. She contacted the star’s management team, and minutes later, Jessie stopped by to sing Tyla’s favorite song, “Rainbow.” Just a few hours later, Tyla regained consciousness.

11. The Song: Bon Jovi’s “Livin’ on a Prayer”

The Story: David Hassall was involved in a head-on collision with a tree that landed him in a coma—until his parents decided to crank some Bon Jovi for their then-22-year-old son. Much to her amazement, David’s mother realized that he was mouthing the words to “Livin’ on a Prayer.” He ended up making a full recovery.

12. The Song: "Dynamo" by Si Cranstoun

The Story: Cheryl Horton-Powell's heart stopped for 10 minutes after suffering from cardiac arrest in 2013. She was put into a medically-induced coma when she arrived at the hospitaL via ambulance; doctors warned her children that her chances of survival were just 50/50. In an attempt to get through, her family placed a pair of headphones on her and played one of her favorite songs. Soon afterward, Horton-Powell was tapping her feet to the music. "I was brought up with rockabilly music and that is what I've always loved, so I think it sparked something in my brain from childhood," she later said.

13: The Song: Gangnam Style by Psy

The Story: After her daughter had spent 258 days in a coma caused by a brain hemorrhage, Ying Nan's mother remembered a funny little song her daughter had enjoyed. She started humming 'Horse Riding Dance,' as the Psy hit is apparently known as in China, and heard her daughter laugh. She tried again the next day and got the same reaction. Ying is in rehabilitation today and has learned to speak and walk again.

14. The Song: "Unchained Melody" by the Righteous Brothers

The Story: Another victim of brain hemorrhage, a British woman named Maria Neal had been in a coma for months with very few signs of life when her husband wondered if their wedding song might trigger something. His instinct was correct. "When I actually got a response and I asked her, 'Do you know what this is?' and she nodded yes, it was absolutely fantastic," her husband said.

15. The Song: "Just the Way You Are" by Bruno Mars

The Story: Meeting Bruno Mars before his concert last year was extra special to 11-year-old Zumyah Thorpe. Thorpe survived a car crash that killed her pregnant mother and two sisters, but suffered a severe injury that kept her in a coma. Nurses played her Bruno Mars songs every night, and when Thorpe finally woke up, the first words she could utter were the lyrics to Mars' "Just the Way You Are." 

Mars serenaded Thorpe with the song when he played Cleveland in 2014, as shown in the video above (have some Kleenex ready before you hit play).

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12 Surprising Facts About Bela Lugosi
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On October 20, 1882—135 years ago today—one of the world's most gifted performers was born. In his heyday, Bela Lugosi was hailed as the undisputed king of horror. Eighty-five years after he first donned a vampire’s cape, Lugosi's take on Count Dracula is still widely hailed as the definitive portrayal of the legendary fiend. But who was the man behind the monster?

1. HE WORKED WITH THE NATIONAL THEATER OF HUNGARY.

To the chagrin of his biographers, the details concerning Bela Lugosi’s youth have been clouded in mystery. (In a 1929 interview, he straight-up admitted “for purposes of simplification, I have always thought it better to tell [lies] about the early years of my life.”) That said, we do know that he was born as Béla Ferenc Dezső Blaskó on October 20, 1882 in Lugoj, Hungary (now part of Romania). We also know that his professional stage debut came at some point in either 1901 or 1902. By 1903, Lugosi had begun to find steady work with traveling theater companies, through which he took part in operas, operettas, and stage plays. In 1913, Lugosi caught a major break when the most prestigious performing arts venue in his native country—the Budapest-based National Theater of Hungary—cast him in no less than 34 shows. Most of the characters that he played there were small Shakespearean roles such as Rosencrantz in Hamlet and Sir Walter Herbert in Richard III.

2. HE FOUGHT IN WORLD WAR I.

The so-called war to end all wars put Lugosi’s dramatic aspirations on hold. Although being a member of the National Theater exempted him from military service, he voluntarily enlisted in the Austro-Hungarian Army in 1914. Over the next year and a half, he fought against Russian forces as a lieutenant with the 43rd Royal Hungarian Infantry. While serving in the Carpathian mountains, Lugosi was wounded on three separate occasions. Upon healing from his injuries, he left the armed forces in 1916 and gratefully resumed his work with the National Theater.

3. WHEN HE MADE HIS BROADWAY DEBUT, LUGOSI BARELY KNEW ANY ENGLISH.

In December 1920, Lugosi boarded a cargo boat and emigrated to the United States. Two years later, audiences on the Great White Way got their first look at this charismatic stage veteran. Lugosi was cast as Fernando—a suave, Latin lover—in the 1922 Broadway stage play The Red Poppy. At the time, his grasp of the English language was practically nonexistent. Undaunted, Lugosi went over all of his lines with a tutor. Although he couldn’t comprehend their meaning, the actor managed to memorize and phonetically reproduce every single syllable that he was supposed to deliver on stage.

4. UNIVERSAL DIDN’T WANT TO CAST HIM AS COUNT DRACULA.

The year 1927 saw Bela Lugosi sink his teeth into the role of a lifetime. A play based on the novel Dracula by Bram Stoker had opened in London in 1924. Sensing its potential, Horace Liveright, an American producer, decided to create an U.S. version of the show. Over the summer of 1927, Lugosi was cast as the blood-sucking Count Dracula. For him, the part represented a real challenge. In Lugosi’s own words, “It was a complete change from the usual romantic characters I was playing, but it was a success.” It certainly was. Enhanced by his presence, the American Dracula remained on Broadway for a full year, then spent two years touring the country.

Impressed by its box office prowess, Universal decided to adapt the show into a major motion picture in 1930. Horror fans might be surprised to learn that when the studio began the process of casting this movie’s vampiric villain, Lugosi was not their first choice. At the time, Lugosi was still a relative unknown, which made director Tod Browning more than a little hesitant to offer him the job. A number of established actors were all considered before the man who’d played Dracula on Broadway was tapped to immortalize his biting performance on film.

5. MOST OF HIS DRACULA-RELATED FAN MAIL CAME FROM WOMEN.

The recent Twilight phenomenon is not without historical precedent. Lugosi estimated that, while he was playing the Count on Broadway, more than 97 percent of the fan letters he received were penned by female admirers. A 1932 Universal press book quotes him as saying, “When I was on the stage in Dracula, my audiences were composed mostly of women.” Moreover, Lugosi contended that most of the men who’d attended his show had merely been dragged there by female companions.   

6. HE TURNED DOWN THE ROLE OF FRANKENSTEIN’S MONSTER.

Released in 1931, Dracula quickly became one of the year's biggest hits for Universal (some film historians even argue that the movie single-handedly rescued the ailing studio from bankruptcy). Furthermore, its astronomical success transformed Lugosi into a household name for the first time in his career. Regrettably for him, though, he’d soon miss the chance to star in another smash. Pleased by Dracula’s box office showing, Universal green-lit a new cinematic adaptation of Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein. Lugosi seemed like the natural choice to play the monster, but because the poor brute had few lines and would be caked in layers of thick makeup, the actor rejected the job offer. As far as Lugosi was concerned, the character was better suited for some “half-wit extra” than a serious actor. Once the superstar tossed Frankenstein aside, the part was given to a little-known actor named Boris Karloff.

Moviegoers eventually did get to see Lugosi play the bolt-necked corpse in the 1943 cult classic Frankenstein Meets the Wolf Man. According to some sources, he strongly detested the guttural scream that the script forced him to emit at regular intervals. “That yell is the worst thing about the part. You feel like a big jerk every time you do it!” Lugosi allegedly complained.

7. LUGOSI’S RELATIONSHIP WITH BORIS KARLOFF WAS MORE CORDIAL THAN IT’S USUALLY MADE OUT TO BE.

It’s often reported that the two horror icons were embittered rivals. In reality, however, Karloff and Lugosi seemed to have harbored some mutual respect—and perhaps even affection for one another. The dynamic duo co-starred in five films together, the first of which was 1934’s The Black Cat; Karloff claimed that, on set, Lugosi was “Suspicious of tricks, fearful of what he regarded as scene stealing. Later on, when he realized I didn’t go in for such nonsense, we became friends.” During one of their later collaborations, Lugosi told the press “we laughed over my sad mistake and his good fortune as Frankenstein is concerned.”

That being said, Lugosi probably didn’t appreciate the fact that in every single film which featured both actors, Karloff got top billing. Also, he once privately remarked, “If it hadn’t been for Boris Karloff, I could have had a corner on the horror market.”

8. HE LOVED SOCCER.

In 1935, Lugosi was named Honorary President of the Los Angeles Soccer League. An avid fan, he was regularly seen at Loyola Stadium, where he’d occasionally kick off the first ball during games held there. Also, on top of donating funds to certain Hungarian teams, Lugosi helped finance the Los Angeles Magyar soccer club. When the team won a state championship in 1935, one newspaper wrote that the players were “headed back to Dracula’s castle with the state cup.” [PDF]

9. HE WAS A HARDCORE STAMP COLLECTOR.

Lugosi's fourth wife, Lillian Arch, claimed that Lugosi maintained a collection of more than 150,000 stamps. Once, on a 1944 trip to Boston, he told the press that he intended to visit all 18 of the city's resident philately dealers. “Stamp collecting,” Lugosi declared, “is a hobby which may cost you as much as 10 percent of your investment. You can always sell your stamps with not more than a 10 percent loss. Sometimes, you can even make money.” Fittingly enough, the image of Lugosi’s iconic Dracula appeared on a commemorative stamp issued by the post office in 1997.

10. LUGOSI ALMOST DIDN’T APPEAR IN ABBOTT AND COSTELLO MEET FRANKENSTEIN—BECAUSE THE STUDIO THOUGHT HE WAS DEAD.

The role of Count Dracula in this 1948 blockbuster was nearly given to Ian Keith—who was considered for the same role in the 1931 Dracula movie. Being a good sport, Lugosi helped promote the horror-comedy by making a special guest appearance on The Abbott and Costello Show. While playing himself in one memorable sketch, the famed actor claimed to eat rattlesnake burgers for dinner and “shrouded wheat” for breakfast.

11. A CHIROPRACTOR FILLED IN FOR HIM IN PLAN 9 FROM OUTER SPACE.

Toward the end of his life, Lugosi worked on three ultra-low-budget science fiction pictures with Ed Wood, a man who’s been posthumously embraced as the worst director of all time. In the 1953 transvestite picture Glen or Glenda?, Lugosi plays a cryptic narrator who offers such random and unsolicited bits of advice as “Beware of the big, green dragon who sits on your doorstep.” Then came 1955’s Bride of the Monster, in which Lugosi played a mad scientist who ends up doing battle with a (suspiciously limp) giant octopus.

Before long, Wood had cooked up around half a dozen concepts for new films, all starring Lugosi. At some point in the spring of 1956, the director shot some quick footage of the actor wandering around a suburban neighborhood, clad in a baggy cloak. This proved to be the last time that the star would ever appear on film. Lugosi died of a heart attack on August 16, 1956;  he was 73 years old.

Three years after Lugosi's passing, this footage was spliced into a cult classic that Wood came to regard as his “pride and joy.” Plan 9 From Outer Space tells the twisted tale of extraterrestrial environmentalists who turn newly-deceased human beings into murderous zombies. Since Lugosi could obviously no longer play his character, Wood hired a stand-in for some additional scenes. Unfortunately, the man who was given this job—California chiropractor Tom Mason—was several inches taller than Lugosi. In an attempt to hide the height difference, Wood instructed Mason to constantly hunch over. Also, Mason always kept his face hidden behind a cloak.

12. HE WAS BURIED IN HIS DRACULA CAPE.

Although Lugosi resented the years of typecasting that followed his breakout performance in Dracula, he asked to be laid to rest wearing the Count’s signature garment. Lugosi was buried under a simple tombstone at California's Holy Cross Cemetery.

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The First Known Uses of 6 Common Typographic Symbols
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Many of the most common symbols on our keyboards have fascinating origin stories. Some, such as the zero, we now take for granted—yet the idea of denoting an absence of value was not present in Western mathematics until introduced from the East. Other symbols, such as the hashtag or at-sign, had a variety of uses until the internet ushered in a new way of communicating and fixed them with the meanings we know today. Below are six examples of the first known usage and subsequent history of some of the most common typographic symbols.

1. AT SIGN // @

The @ (or at-sign) is usually dated to 1536 in a letter from a Florentine merchant, Francesco Lapi, who used it to mean a unit of wine called “amphorae.” But a Spanish researcher claims to have found an even earlier usage in a 1448 document, where the symbol also referred to a unit of measurement (even today, Spaniards call the @ symbol arroba, which is also a unit of weight, and some other Romance languages have similar dual meanings). Either way, the researchers think that the symbol then moved to Northern Europe, where it eventually gained the meaning of “at the price.” Other explanations have also been offered, but whatever the exact root of the symbol, its meaning eventually became known as shorthand for at, and it was generally used in written financial transactions—for example, in noting “Bob sells James 4 apples @ $1.”

The sign had largely fallen out of use by the early 1970s, when computer scientist Ray Tomlinson was working at what is now BBN Technologies, in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Tomlinson, who was working for the government on a forerunner of the internet, was trying to figure out how to address messages sent from one computer to another when he noticed the little-used @ on his computer keyboard, and used it to send a prototype email. This precedent was soon adopted as the internet developed, and the at-sign is now, of course, central to our lives.

2. ZERO // 0

The absence of a value is a complex concept, one that many ancient civilizations struggled with. The idea of a zero ultimately came to the West from the mathematicians of India, where, as in a few other cultures, zero was initially used as a placeholder, for example to indicate a lack of units, as in the number 101.

The earliest surviving usage of a zero in India has been traced to an ancient mathematical text known as the Bakhshali manuscript, which is held at Oxford’s Bodleian Library. In September 2017, radiocarbon dating indicated that the manuscript was produced as early as the 3rd or 4th century—providing us with the first known usage of zero some 500 years earlier than previously thought. As Oxford’s Bodleian Library says, “the symbol in the Bakhshali manuscript is particularly significant for two reasons. Firstly, it is this dot that evolved to have a hollow centre and became the symbol that we use as zero today. Secondly, it was only in India that this zero developed into a number in its own right, hence creating the concept and the number zero that we understand today."

The manuscript itself was discovered buried in a field in 1881 in what is today Pakistan. Written on 70 delicate leaves of birch bark, historians think it represents a training manual for Silk Road traders, teaching them concepts of arithmetic.

3. HASHTAG // #

Hashtag on an old typewriter key
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The origin of the hashtag (or pound sign as it's traditionally known in the U.S.) comes from scribes writing shorthand for the Latin libra pondo, which translates as "pound by weight." The abbreviation they used was lb, which was sometimes misread as 16. So, scribes took to drawing a line through the top of the two letters, which over time developed into the now familiar #. In the 1960s, the pound sign was chosen by Bell Laboratories to be a function key on their newly designed telephone keypad. (The Bell Labs team fondly nicknamed the symbol the “octothorpe,” possibly in honor of athlete Jim Thorpe.) Fast-forward to 2007, when early Twitter users wanted to be able to group and filter their feeds, so developer Chris Messina suggested they appropriate the method used in IRC (Internet Relay Chat) whereby users employed the pound sign or "hashtag" to signpost what they were chatting about. (Programmers knew the symbol as the hash, which was now being used to "tag" content.) This simple method soon caught on, and today the hashtag has become indelibly linked to the rise of social media.

4. ELLIPSIS // …

Originally, periods of silence were marked textually with a series of hyphens, but today the symbol of choice is the , a.k.a. the ellipsis. Dr. Anne Toner of Cambridge University spent years researching the ellipsis and finally discovered what she thinks is its first use—an English translation of Roman dramatist Terence’s play Andria printed in 1588. Although the play used hyphens instead of dots, the general idea caught on rapidly. (Toner notes that although there are only four “ellipses” in the 1588 translation, there are 29 in the 1627 version.) By the 18th century, dots started to replace the dashes, which an assistant professor from Southeastern University suggests may be connected to a medieval piece of punctuation called subpuncting or underdotting, which generally indicated something was incorrectly copied.

5. AMPERSAND // &

Ampersand symbol on an old metal block
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The ampersand originated in Latin when the word et (meaning and) was written in cursive script as a ligature (in which one or more letters are written together as a single glyph). One of the earliest examples was found daubed in graffiti on the walls of a house in Pompeii, where it was preserved by the eruption of Vesuvius in 79 CE. By the 8th century the ampersand became a recognizably distinct character, but the word ampersand did not come into use until the late 18th/19th century, when English school children would recite "and per se and" meaning “and by itself means and” to help remember the symbol (per se being Latin for "by itself"). One of the most thorough investigations into the typographic history of the ampersand comes courtesy of German graphic designer Jan Tschichold, who in 1953 published The am­persand: its ori­gin and de­vel­op­ment, in which he collected numerous examples of the ampersand from the 1st century onwards, visually charting its developing form.

6. PLUS SIGN // +

A variety of ceramic plus signs
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The plus sign used for addition in mathematics likely derives from a shorthand ligature for the Latin et meaning “and” and was probably in use for a long time before a surviving example appeared in print. One candidate for the earliest surviving usage is in French philosopher and polymath Nicole Oresme's Algorismus proportionum, a manuscript handwritten between 1356 and 1361, although scholars debate whether it's a true plus symbol. The first use of a plus sign in a printed book is more definitive, and can be found in a 1489 edition of Johannes Widmann’s Mercantile Arithmetic. Widmann also uses the minus sign for the first time in print in this volume—although both plus and minus signs relate not to addition and subtraction but to surpluses and deficits in business accounting. After this usage, the plus sign began to appear more frequently in German mathematical texts, and first appeared in an English text in 1557 in Robert Recorde’s The Whetstone of Witte—which also introduced the equals sign.

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